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© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-1 Chapter 6 The Elbow and Radioulnar Joints.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-1 Chapter 6 The Elbow and Radioulnar Joints."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-1 Chapter 6 The Elbow and Radioulnar Joints

2 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-2 Schedule Today – finish shoulderToday – finish shoulder Wed. Finish ElbowWed. Finish Elbow SBSB 3/25 – 3/31 Lab Quiz (Questions will be posted by Wed.3/25 – 3/31 Lab Quiz (Questions will be posted by Wed. Monday 3/24 – wristMonday 3/24 – wrist Wed. – Finish & ReviewWed. – Finish & Review Monday 3/31 Exam 2Monday 3/31 Exam 2

3 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-3 The Elbow & Radioulnar Joints Most upper extremity movements involve the elbow & radioulnar jointsMost upper extremity movements involve the elbow & radioulnar joints Usually grouped together due to close anatomical relationshipUsually grouped together due to close anatomical relationship Elbow joint movements may be clearly distinguished from those of the radioulnar jointsElbow joint movements may be clearly distinguished from those of the radioulnar joints Radioulnar joint movements may be distinguished from those of the wristRadioulnar joint movements may be distinguished from those of the wrist

4 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-4 Bones Ulna is much larger proximally than radiusUlna is much larger proximally than radius Radius is much larger distally than ulnaRadius is much larger distally than ulna Scapula & humerus serve as proximal attachments for muscles that flex & extend the elbowScapula & humerus serve as proximal attachments for muscles that flex & extend the elbow Ulna & radius serve as distal attachments for these same musclesUlna & radius serve as distal attachments for these same muscles

5 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-5 Bones Scapula, humerus, & ulna serve as proximal attachments for muscles that pronate & supinate the radioulnar jointsScapula, humerus, & ulna serve as proximal attachments for muscles that pronate & supinate the radioulnar joints Distal attachments of radioulnar joint muscles are located on radiusDistal attachments of radioulnar joint muscles are located on radius Bony landmarksBony landmarks –medial condyloid ridge –olecranon process –coranoid process –radial tuberosity

6 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-6 Bones Key bony landmarks for wrist & hand musclesKey bony landmarks for wrist & hand muscles –medial epicondyle –lateral epicondyle –lateral supracondylar ridge

7 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-7 Joints Ginglymus or hinge-type jointGinglymus or hinge-type joint Allows only flexion & extensionAllows only flexion & extension 2 interrelated joints2 interrelated joints –humeroulnar joint –radiohumeral joints

8 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-8 Joints Elbow motionsElbow motions –primarily involve movement between articular surfaces of humerus & ulna –specifically humeral trochlear fitting into ulna trochlear notch –radial head has a relatively small amount of contact with capitulum of humerus –As elbow reaches full extension, olecranon process is received by olecranon fossa increased joint stability when fully extendedincreased joint stability when fully extended

9 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-9 Joints As elbow flexes 20 degrees or more, its bony stability is unlocked, allowing for more side-to-side laxityAs elbow flexes 20 degrees or more, its bony stability is unlocked, allowing for more side-to-side laxity Stability in flexion is more dependent on the lateral (radial collateral ligament) & the medial or (ulnar collateral ligament)Stability in flexion is more dependent on the lateral (radial collateral ligament) & the medial or (ulnar collateral ligament)

10 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Ulnar collateral ligament is critical in providing medial support to prevent elbow from abducting when stressed in physical activityUlnar collateral ligament is critical in providing medial support to prevent elbow from abducting when stressed in physical activity –Many contact sports & throwing activities place stress on medial aspect of joint, resulting in injury

11 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Radial collateral ligament provides lateral stability & is rarely injuredRadial collateral ligament provides lateral stability & is rarely injured Annular ligament provides a sling effect around radial head for stabilityAnnular ligament provides a sling effect around radial head for stability

12 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Elbow moves from 0 degrees of extension to 145 to 150 degrees of flexionElbow moves from 0 degrees of extension to 145 to 150 degrees of flexion

13 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Radioulnar jointRadioulnar joint –Trochoid or pivot-type joint –Radial head rotates around at proximal ulna –Distal radius rotates around distal ulna –Annular ligament maintains radial head in its joint From Seeley RR, Stephens TD, Tate P: Anatomy & physiology, ed 7, New York, 2006, McGraw-Hill; Shier D, Butler J, Lewis R: hole’s human anatomy & physiology, ed 9, New York, 2002, McGraw-Hill.

14 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Radioulnar jointRadioulnar joint –Supinate 80 to 90 degrees from neutral –Pronate 70 to 90 degrees from neutral

15 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Radioulnar jointRadioulnar joint –Joint between shafts of radius & ulna held tightly together between proximal & distal articulations by an interosseus membrane (syndesmosis) substantial rotary motion between the bonessubstantial rotary motion between the bones

16 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Synergy between glenohumeral, elbow, & radioulnar joint musclesSynergy between glenohumeral, elbow, & radioulnar joint muscles –As the radioulnar joint goes through its ROM, glenohumeral & elbow muscles contract to stabilize or assist in the effectiveness of movement at the radioulnar joints –Ex. when tightening a screw with a screwdriver which involves radioulnar supination, we tend to externally rotate & flex the glenohumeral & elbow joints, respectfully

17 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Joints Synergy between glenohumeral, elbow, & radioulnar joint musclesSynergy between glenohumeral, elbow, & radioulnar joint muscles –Conversely, when loosening a tight screw with pronation, we tend to internally rotate & extend the elbow & glenohumeral joints, respectfully –we depend on both the agonists and antagonists in the surrounding joints to assist in an appropriate amount of stabilization & assistance with the required task

18 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Movements FlexionFlexion –movement of forearm to shoulder by bending the elbow to decrease its angle ExtensionExtension –movement of forearm away from shoulder by straightening the elbow to increase its angle

19 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Movements PronationPronation –internal rotary movement of radius on ulna that results in hand moving from palm-up to palm- down position SupinationSupination –external rotary movement of radius on ulna that results in hand moving from palm-down to palm- up position

20 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscles Elbow flexorsElbow flexors –Biceps brachii –Brachialis –Brachioradialis –Weak assistance from Pronator teres Elbow extensorElbow extensor –Triceps brachii –Anconeus provides assistance

21 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscles Radioulnar pronatorsRadioulnar pronators –Pronator teres –Pronator quadratus –Brachioradialis Radioulnar supinatorsRadioulnar supinators –Biceps brachii –Supinator muscle –Brachioradialis

22 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscles “Tennis elbow" - common problem usually involving extensor digitorum muscle near its origin on lateral epicondyle“Tennis elbow" - common problem usually involving extensor digitorum muscle near its origin on lateral epicondyle –known lateral epicondylitis –associated with gripping & lifting activities Medial epicondylitisMedial epicondylitis –somewhat less common –known as golfer's elbow –associated with medial wrist flexor & pronator group near their origin on medial epicondyle –Both conditions involve muscles which cross elbow but act primarily on wrist & hand

23 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscles AnteriorAnterior –Primarily flexion & pronation Biceps brachiiBiceps brachii BrachialisBrachialis BrachioradialisBrachioradialis Pronator teresPronator teres Pronator quadratusPronator quadratus

24 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Muscles PosteriorPosterior –Primarily extension & supination Triceps brachiiTriceps brachii AnconeusAnconeus SupinatorSupinator

25 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Nerves All elbow & radioulnar joints muscles are innervated from median, musculotaneous, & radial nerves of brachial plexusAll elbow & radioulnar joints muscles are innervated from median, musculotaneous, & radial nerves of brachial plexus

26 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Nerves Radial nerve - originates from C5, C6, C7, & C8Radial nerve - originates from C5, C6, C7, & C8 –Triceps brachii –Brachioradialis –Supinator (posterior interosseous nerve) –Anconeus –Sensation to posterolateral arm, forearm, & hand

27 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Nerves Median nerve - derived from C6 & C7Median nerve - derived from C6 & C7 –Pronator teres –Pronator quadratus (anterior interosseus nerve) –Sensation to palmar aspect of hand & first three phalanges, palmar aspect of radial side of fourth finger, dorsal aspect of index & long fingers

28 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Nerves Musculotaneous nerve - branches from C5 & C6Musculotaneous nerve - branches from C5 & C6 –Biceps brachii –Brachialis

29 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Medial Elbow Injuries – The Ulnar Collateral Ligament. From the cocked position shown in the picture below, the ulnar collateral ligament –or "UCL" - pulls the forearm forward with the rotating upper arm. The tremendous tension produced in the relatively small UCL is close to its limit. When improper mechanics are used or arm muscles become fatigued, the load placed on the UCL may be increased to more than it can withstand, causing small "micro"-tears in the UCL. Microtears in muscles or ligaments can heal when given enough recovery time. In fact, microtears during exercise followed by healing is how muscles become bigger and stronger. However, when a pitcher continues to tear his UCL without allowing enough time for it to heal, the microtears add up to be one large tear in the ligament. Pitchers with UCL injuries often describe feeling or hearing a "pop" in the elbow on one particular pitch. These types of stories lead many people to believe that a pitcher blows out his UCL on one bad pitch – such as the first pitch on a cold day or a poorly thrown breaking pitch. Really, this is usually not the case. Quite frequently the one bad pitch was really just "the straw that broke the camel’s back" and was the final microtear that led a series of microtears to become a large tear1. Medial Elbow Injuries – The Ulnar Collateral Ligament. From the cocked position shown in the picture below, the ulnar collateral ligament –or "UCL" - pulls the forearm forward with the rotating upper arm. The tremendous tension produced in the relatively small UCL is close to its limit. When improper mechanics are used or arm muscles become fatigued, the load placed on the UCL may be increased to more than it can withstand, causing small "micro"-tears in the UCL. Microtears in muscles or ligaments can heal when given enough recovery time. In fact, microtears during exercise followed by healing is how muscles become bigger and stronger. However, when a pitcher continues to tear his UCL without allowing enough time for it to heal, the microtears add up to be one large tear in the ligament. Pitchers with UCL injuries often describe feeling or hearing a "pop" in the elbow on one particular pitch. These types of stories lead many people to believe that a pitcher blows out his UCL on one bad pitch – such as the first pitch on a cold day or a poorly thrown breaking pitch. Really, this is usually not the case. Quite frequently the one bad pitch was really just "the straw that broke the camel’s back" and was the final microtear that led a series of microtears to become a large tear From asmi.org

30 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Lateral Elbow Injuries- A pitcher rotates his arm back to the cocked position shown in the picture, and then rotates it forward to throw the ball. Compression between the forearm’s bone (the radius) and the upper arm’s bone (the humerus) helps the forearm stop cocking back and start rotating forward. This large crushing force on tiny bone surfaces sometimes results in small bone chips breaking off. These bone chips float in the elbow joint and may result in pain, loss of elbow motion, and diminished pitching performance.Lateral Elbow Injuries- A pitcher rotates his arm back to the cocked position shown in the picture, and then rotates it forward to throw the ball. Compression between the forearm’s bone (the radius) and the upper arm’s bone (the humerus) helps the forearm stop cocking back and start rotating forward. This large crushing force on tiny bone surfaces sometimes results in small bone chips breaking off. These bone chips float in the elbow joint and may result in pain, loss of elbow motion, and diminished pitching performance. From asmi.org

31 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Posterior Elbow Injuries – "Valgus Extension Overload"Posterior Elbow Injuries – "Valgus Extension Overload" From the arm-cocked position shown in the picture, the arm rapidly rotates forward at the shoulder and straightens out at the elbow. The elbow straightens out in less than a tenth of a second (0.1 sec). The combination of this rapid elbow extension and the forceful forward rotation of the upper arm and humerus can cause a grinding injury in the posterior- medial elbow (the "funny bone" area of the elbow). Small bone chips can break off and float in the elbow joint, which may result in pain, loss of motion, and diminished pitching performance. From asmi.org

32 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-32

33 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6-33

34 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Biceps Brachii Muscle Flexion of elbow Supination of forearm Weak flexion of shoulder joint Weak abduction of shoulder joint when externally rotated

35 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Brachialis Muscle True flexion of elbow

36 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Brachioradialis Muscle Flexion of elbow Pronation from supinated position to neutral Supination from pronated position to neutral

37 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Triceps Brachii Muscle Long head: extension of shoulder joint; adduction of shoulder joint; horizontal abduction All heads: extension of elbow

38 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Anconeus Muscle Extension of elbow

39 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Pronator Teres Muscle Pronation of forearm Weak flexion of elbow

40 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Pronator Quadratus Muscle Pronation of forearm

41 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Supinator Muscle Supination of forearm

42 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Elbow Flexion Ex. Biceps curlEx. Biceps curl AgonistsAgonists –Biceps brachii –Brachialis –Brachioradialis

43 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Elbow Extension EX. Push-upEX. Push-up AgonistsAgonists –Triceps brachii AnconeusAnconeus

44 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Radioulnar Pronation AgonistsAgonists –Pronator teres –Pronator quadratus –Brachioradialis

45 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Radioulnar Supination Ex. Tightening a screwEx. Tightening a screw AgonistsAgonists –Biceps brachii –Supinator muscle –Brachioradialis

46 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Web Sites American Family Physician – –Evaluation of Overuse Elbow Injuries Medical Multimedia Group – –A Patient's Guide to Cumulative Trauma Disorder(CTD) Lecture Topics in Kinesiology – –Describes motions caused by the muscles. Huei Ming Chai – –Functions, stability and joint structure of elbow complex; kinematics, muscle action and common injuries of the elbow. Southern California Orthopedic Institute – –Tennis elbow information

47 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Web Sites National Aeronautics and Space Administration bow.php – –Basic Wrist and Elbow Rehabilitation UpToDate – –Physical Therapy for Elbow Tendinitis American Sports Medicine Institute – –Biomechanics of the Elbow during Throwing American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons – –Patient Education Library on the Elbow

48 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Web Sites American Physical Therapy Association NTID=20403&TEMPLATE=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm – –Taking Care of Your Hand, Wrist, and Elbow The Physician and Sportsmedicine – –Assessment and Treatment Guidelines for Elbow Injuries The Physician and Sportsmedicine m – –Elbow Injuries in Young Baseball Players Radiologic Anatomy Browser – –This site has numerous radiological views of the musculoskeletal system.

49 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Web Sites University of Arkansas Medical School Gross Anatomy for Medical Students – –Dissections, anatomy tables, atlas images, links, etc. Loyola University Medical Center: Structure of the Human Body – –An excellent site with many slides, dissections, tutorials, etc., for the study of human anatomy Wheeless’ Textbook of Orthopaedics – –This site has an extensive index of links to the fractures, joints, muscles, nerves, trauma, medications, medical topics, lab tests, and links to orthopedic journals and other orthopedic and medical news. Arthroscopy.Com – –Patient information on various musculoskeletal problems of the upper and lower extremity

50 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved Web Sites Premiere Medical Search Engine – –This site allows the reader to enter any medical condition and it will search the net to find relevant articles. Virtual Hospital – –Numerous slides, patient information, etc.


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