2Definition- Fire hose is identified as a type of flexible tube used by firefighters to carry water under pressure from the source of supply to a point where it is discharged.
3Hose Construction-Depending on its intended use, fire hose is manufactured in different configurations such as single-jacket, double-jacket, rubber single-jacket, hard- rubber non-collapsing types.Sizes- Each size of hose is designed for a specific purpose. Sizes range from 1 ½ - 6 inches and is most commonly cut and coupled into lengths of 50 and 100 feet for convenience of handling and replacement, but other sizes may be obtained.Note: Reference made to diameter of fire hose refers to the dimensions of the inside diameter of the hose.
4Flexible Noncollapsible VS 12A-1HOSE CONSTRUCTIONTypeDescriptionBooster Hose¾- or 1-Inch(19 mm to 25 mm)Rubber CoveredRubber LinedFabric ReinforcedWoven Jacket Hose1- to 6-Inch(25 mm to 150 mm)One or Two WovenFabric JacketsRubber LinedImpregnated Single-Jacket Hose1½ to 5-Inch(38 mm to 125 mm)Polymer CoveredPolymer LinedRubber CoveredFabric and Wire (Helix) ReinforcedRubber LinedNoncollapsibleIntake Hose2½- to 6-Inch(65 mm to 150 mm)Rubber CoveredFabric and Plastic (Helix) ReinforcedRubber LinedFlexible NoncollapsibleIntake Hose2½- to 6-Inch(65 mm to 150 mm)
5Fire hose couplingsCouplings are used to connect fire hose with appliances, other fire hose and fire department apparatus.There are several different types of fire hose couplings used in the fire service.The most commonly used fire hose couplings are the threaded and storz type.
6TYPES OF HOSE COUPLINGS VS 12A-2ThreadedThree-PieceThreaded Five-PieceReducingSnapCouplingStorz QuickConnect(Sexless Coupling)Quarter-TurnCoupling
7ThreadedEach threaded coupling is manufactured with lugs to aid in tightening and loosening connections.There are three types of lugs: pin, rocker and recessed.Pin lugs are not commonly ordered with new hose because of their tendency to snag when hose is dragged over objects.Recessed lugs are commonly found on Booster hose, are shallow holes drilled into the coupling, and are designed to accept a special spanner wrench.Note: Spanner wrenches are wrenches used to tighten and un-tighten fire hose couplings.
8Most hose purchased today comes equipped with rocker lugs to help the coupling slide over obstructions when the hose is moved on the ground or around objects.An added feature that may be obtained with the threaded couplings is the Higbee cut and indicator.The Higbee cut is a special type of thread design in which the beginning of the thread is “cut” to provide a positive connection between the first threads of the opposing couplings, which tends to eliminate cross threading.
9TYPES OF COUPLING LUGS VS 12A-3 Recessed Lug Extended Handle Rocker LugsPin Lug
10One of the rocker lugs on the swivel (female end) is scalloped with a shallow indention, the Higbee indicator, to mark where the Higbee cuts begins.This indicator aids in the matching of the male coupling thread to the female coupling thread, which is not readily visible.
11Storz couplingsStorz couplings are sometimes referred to as sexless couplings because there are no distinct male or female components.When mated, the lugs of each coupling fit into the recesses in the opposing ring and then slide into locking position with a 1/3 turn.
13NFPA 1901 PUMPER HOSE REQUIREMENTS TS 12A–2Attack hose — 400 ft. (122 m) of 1½-, 1¾-, or 2-in. (38 mm, 45 mm, or 50 mm)Supply hose — 1,200 ft. (366 m) of 2½- in. (65 mm) or largerSoft-sleeve intake hose — 15 ft. (5 m), large diameter, or hard-suction intake hose — 20 ft. (6 m)NFPA 1901 PUMPER HOSE REQUIREMENTS
14IntakeThere are two groups within this category: soft sleeve and hard suction.Soft sleeve is used to transfer water from a pressurized water source, such as a fire hydrant, to the pump intake and is available in sizes ranging from 2 ½ to 6 inches.
15Hard suction hose (also called hard sleeve) is used primarily to draft water from an open water source and is also available in sizes ranging from 2 ½ to 6 inches.
16Supply LineSupply line is identified as the hose between the water source and the attack pumper to provide large volumes of water.Supply line sizes range from 2 ½ to 5 inch hose.Other sizes are available, but these are the most commonly found sizes.
17Supply Line LaysThere are three basic hose lays for supply hose: forward lay, reverse lay and split lay.With the forward lay, hose is laid from the water source to the fire.With the reverse lay, hose is laid from the fire to the water source.The term split lay can refer to any one of a number of ways to lay multiple supply hoses.
21Friendship- Both the Wagon and Rescue Engine carry 1200 feet of 4” and 500 feet of 3”. Shawnee- Both the Wagon and Engine carry 1000 feet of 4” and 500 feet of 3”.South End- Both the Wagon and Engine carry 1000 feet of 4” and 300 feet of 3”.
22Special considerations referring to supply line in Winchester City Fire-Rescue. A nominal expectation of a gutterlined 4” supply line is 400 GPM and 500 feet. Which means if you’re going to supply yourself without another pumper between you and the hydrant, you should not flow more than 400 GPM and be any farther than 500 feet from the hydrant, per SOGSupply Operations: A minimum of 25 feet of hose is to accompany the coupling when the line is pulled. Which means whenever supply line is laid regardless of which type of lay, a minimum of 25 feet is to accompany the coupling/hydrant adapter, per SOG
23Preconnected Hose Loads/Attack Line Attack line is defined as hose between the attack pumper and the nozzle used to control and extinguish fire.Medium attack line sizes range from 1½ to 2 inch hose.There are several different ways of packing/loading pre-connected attack lines on fire apparatus.
24CrosslaysFriendship uses a version of the Minuteman Hose Load on both the Rescue Engine and the Wagon
25CrosslaysShawnee uses the same version of the Minuteman Hose Load on the Engine which utilizes “speed trays” and uses the Pre-connected Flat Load on the Wagon.
26South End uses adifferent versionof the MinutemanHose Load on boththe Engine and theWagon.Crosslays
27Note: All city engine company’s medium sized attack line “crosslays” are 1-¾” hose and 200 feet long.Note: “Speed Trays” are trays placed on the ground that a preconnected hose line is packed/loaded in so hose can be loaded and unloaded quickly on/off fire apparatus.Note: Each of the above mentioned hose loads will be demonstrated and you will have the opportunity to practice loading and pulling each after the lecture.
28Pre-connected attack lines other than crosslays in the City of Winchester Friendship- Both the Wagon and the Rescue Engine have a 300 ft. “Apartment line” made up of 150 feet of 1-¾”, and 150 feet of 2-½” hose. A 200 ft. “Blitz line” which is made up of 2-½” hose.The Rescue Engine has a 300ft. 1-¾” attack line loaded on the rear.The Wagon has a 200ft. ¾” booster reel mounted on the top and a 100 ft. 1-¾” “Bumper line” on the bumper.
29Shawnee- Both the Wagon and the Engine have a 300 ft Shawnee- Both the Wagon and the Engine have a 300 ft. “Apartment line” made up of 150 feet of 1-¾”, and 150 feet of 3” hose.Both also have a 100ft. 1-¾” “Bumper line” on the bumper.The Engine has a 200ft. ¾” booster reel mounted on top and a 200ft. 2-½” line attached to the “Blitz Fire”.
30South End- Both the Wagon and the Engine have a 400 ft South End- Both the Wagon and the Engine have a 400 ft. “Apartment line” made up of 200 feet of 1-¾”, and 200 feet of 2½” hose.Both also have a 100ft. 1-¾” “Bumper line” on the bumper and a 150ft. ¾ ” booster reel mounted on top.The Engine has a 200ft. 2-½” line attached to the “Blitz Fire”.The Wagon has 200ft. 1-¾” pre-connect loaded on the rear.
31ADVANCING AN UNCHARGED LINE UP AN EXTERIOR STAIRWAY VS 12B-18ADVANCING AN UNCHARGED LINE UP AN EXTERIOR STAIRWAYPike PoleMethod
32ADVANCING A LINE FROM AN UPPER-FLOOR STANDPIPE VS 12B-19Connection OneFloor Below Fire FloorADVANCING A LINE FROM AN UPPER-FLOOR STANDPIPE
33HOISTING HOSEVS 12B-22Uncharged LineCharged Line
34OPERATING AN ATTACK LINE FROM A LADDER VS 12B-24OPERATING AN ATTACK LINE FROM A LADDER
35HANDLING A LARGE-SIZED CHARGED HOSELINE (ONE FIREFIGHTER) VS 12B-28HANDLING A LARGE-SIZED CHARGED HOSELINE (ONE FIREFIGHTER)Nozzle UnderLoopSitting on Hose at PointWhere it Crosses
36HANDLING A LARGE-SIZED CHARGED HOSELINE (TWO FIREFIGHTERS) VS 12B-29HANDLING A LARGE-SIZED CHARGED HOSELINE (TWO FIREFIGHTERS)Firefighters on Same Side of HoseUsing Rope Hose Tool or Strap to Support HoseNozzle at Waist LevelFeet Spread Apart for BalanceHand on Nozzle BaleFeet Braced Against Each Other
37Service Testing Fire Hose Fire Hose is required to be tested annually.Fire Hose should also be tested after being repaired and after being run over by a vehicle.All new hose has the service test pressure stamped on the hose.Per AP-06-11, hose should be laid in lengths of no more than 300ft.Connect lines to be tested to gated outlets of the pumper. Attach shut-off nozzles to the far end of lines.Secure both ends of the hose line.
38Support the hose line being tested with a belt tie and or a rope hose tool at a point 10 or 15 inches from the butt coupled to the pumper discharge.Connect lines to be tested to gated outlets of the pumper.Attach shut-off nozzles to the far end of lines.Secure both ends of the hose line.
39With the gate valves open and the nozzle open, fill the hose with the water at a pressure not exceeding 100 PSI to allow air to be exhausted from the hose.Once all the air is exhausted close gates.The hose is to be pressurized at 250 psi for 5 minutes for all rubber jacketed hose.4” hose is to be tested at 200 psi for 5 minutes.Personnel should keep a distance of 15 feet unless inspecting the hose/coupling.Hose that leaks may need a rubber gasket.
40REPLACING A HOSE COUPLING GASKET VS 12A-4REPLACING A HOSE COUPLING GASKETFold outer rimupward with indexfinger; then slipgasket into swivel,large loop first.2.Hold new gasketbetween middlefinger and thumb,with index fingeron inside rim.3.1.Remove old ordamaged gasket.
41If hose continues to leak it should taken out of service and repaired. If a coupling has moved during the test, tag the hose section for re-coupling.Tag all hose that has leaked or failed in any other way.Note: Expect a 1/16” to 1/8” uniform movement of the coupling on newly coupled hose. This slippage is normal during initial testing but should not occur during subsequent tests. If movement is indicated during subsequent testing, note for record
42General care and Maintenance of Fire Hose If fire hose is properly cared for, it’s life span can be extended appreciably.Dirt and dust can be brushed away, any dirt that can not be removed from brushing should be washed and scrubbed with water.Hose that has been exposed to oil, should be washed with mild soap or detergent, making sure that all the oil is completely removed and then rinsed thoroughly with water.
43TYPES OF HOSE DAMAGE VS 12B-32 Mechanical Damage Thermal Damage Mildew and Mold DamageChemical Damage
44WASHING HOSE COUPLINGS VS 12B-33WASHING HOSE COUPLINGSMechanicalManual(Woven Jacket)Female CouplingMale Coupling
45Hose should be dried before repacking or placed in storage. Hose should be dried in accordance with local procedures and manufacturer’s recommendations.Locally, hose is washed and hung in a hose tower until dry.
47ReferencesWinchester Fire–Rescue Department ManualApparatus & Equipment, AP-06-11(Hose Testing)Operations, Standard Operating Guidelines, SOG (Standard Hydraulic Practices)
48ReferencesIFSTA, Essentials of Firefighting, 4th EditionChapter 12(Fire Hose)
49ReferencesNFPA StandardsNFPA 1961(Standard on Fire Hose)NFPA 1963(Standard for Fire Hose Connections)NFPA 1901(Standard for Automatic Fire Apparatus)NFPA 1962(Care, Use and Service testing of Fire Hose including Coupling and Nozzles)