Presentation on theme: "Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6e"— Presentation transcript:
1Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6e Chapter 18 – Superposition and Standing Waves
2the energy associated with the pulses has disappeared Two pulses move in opposite directions on a string and are identical in shape except that one has positive displacements of the elements of the string and the other has negative displacements. At the moment that the two pulses completely overlap on the string,the energy associated with the pulses has disappearedthe string is not movingthe string forms a straight linethe pulses have vanished and will not reappear12345
3The pulses completely cancel each other in terms of displacement of elements of the string from equilibrium, but the string is still moving. A short time later, the string will be displaced again and the pulses will have passed each other.
4is zero for all elements is positive for all elements Consider a standing wave on a string as shown in the figure below. Define the velocity of elements of the string as positive if they are moving upward in the figure. At the moment the string has the shape shown at the bottom of part (a), the instantaneous velocity of elements along the stringis zero for all elementsis positive for all elementsis negative for all elementsvaries with the position of the element12345
5The pattern shown at the bottom of Figure 18 The pattern shown at the bottom of Figure 18.9a corresponds to the extreme position of the string. All elements of the string have momentarily come to rest.
6is zero for all elements is positive for all elements Continuing with the scenario in question 3, at the moment the string has the shape shown at the bottom of part b of the figure above, the instantaneous velocity of elements along the stringis zero for all elementsis positive for all elementsis negative for all elementsvaries with the position of the element12345
7Near a nodal point, elements on one side of the point are moving upward at this instant and elements on the other side are moving downward.
8When a standing wave is set up on a string fixed at both ends, the number of nodes is equal to the number of antinodesthe wavelength is equal to the length of the string divided by an integerthe frequency is equal to the number of nodes times the fundamental frequencythe shape of the string at any time is symmetric about the midpoint of the string.12345
9Choice (1) is incorrect because the number of nodes is one greater than the number of antinodes. Choice (2) is only true for half of the modes; it is not true for any odd-numbered mode. Choice (3) would be correct if we replace the word nodes with antinodes.
10fclosed = fopen fclosed = 1/2 fopen fclosed = 2 fopen A pipe open at both ends resonates at a fundamental frequency fopen. When one end is covered and the pipe is again made to resonate, the fundamental frequency is fclosed. Which of the following expressions describes how these two resonant frequencies compare?fclosed = fopenfclosed = 1/2 fopenfclosed = 2 fopenfclosed = 3/2 fopen12345
11With both ends open, the pipe has a fundamental frequency given by Equation 18.11: fopen = v / 2L. With one end closed, the pipe has a fundamental frequency given by Equation 18.12:
12is impossible to determine Balboa Park in San Diego has an outdoor organ. When the air temperature increases, the fundamental frequency of one of the organ pipesstays the samegoes downgoes upis impossible to determine12345
13The increase in temperature causes the speed of sound to go up The increase in temperature causes the speed of sound to go up. According to Equation 18.11, this will result in an increase in the fundamental frequency of a given organ pipe.
14continue to tighten the string loosen the string You are tuning a guitar by comparing the sound of the string with that of a standard tuning fork. You notice a beat frequency of 5 Hz when both sounds are present. You tighten the guitar string and the beat frequency rises to 8 Hz. In order to tune the string exactly to the tuning fork, you shouldcontinue to tighten the stringloosen the stringimpossible to determine12345
15Tightening the string has caused the frequencies to be farther apart, based on the increase in the beat frequency.