2OBJECTIVES Identify common gaskets and seals Properly install common engine gaskets including cylinder head & valve cover gaskets.Properly install typical lip seals.
3PURPOSE OF A GASKET Purpose of a Gasket To confine; gas, oil, water, vacuum or exhaustSeal out foreign objects such as; Dirt, WaterMust withstand heat, cold, pressure, erosion, corrosion, moisture and oil
7WHAT CAUSES LEAKS Causes of leakage, Worn or damaged seals Worn or damaged gasketsWorn or bent parts or shaftsFasteners over tighten or to loosewrong parts or gasketsnicks or burrsImproper installation
8Gasket ReplacementWhen Replacing gaskets ask yourself , "Why did this gasket fail"List different things to look for.Did the gasket fail suddenly or over a period of time?Check the Torqueis it to Tightis it to Loose
9Do both surfaces match up Check for warp is the valve cover bent or the bolt holes pulled throughDo both surfaces match upExamine the gasket very close, are the holes in the same spotGasket Replacement
10Gasket Replacement If you just replace the gasket it may go out again. Also some Bolts need to be checked for torque for example some head gaskets need to be retorqued.When installing gaskets check the manufactures instructions for the proper procedures.
11GASKET INSTALLATION Follow instructions. Thoroughly clean & dry the mating surface.Match to the old gasket.Check for proper fit. Is it the right shape, do the bolt holes all line up.Never reuse gaskets.Ask yourself, Do you need Sealer. Use high tack or 3M Weather stripping to hold in place. Only use Silicone on mating lines and where two gasket are joined together, like on valve covers.
12GASKET INSTALLATION Note where sealer is to be applied. Thanks to Alldata for picture
13GASKET INSTALLATIONUse alcohol or brake clean on a clean rag to wipe the oil off of the gasket surfaceIs the surface dryTighten in stepsUse the torque pattern when tighteningTorque to proper specsUse a quality gasket, saving a buck or two on a cheap gasket or trying to reuse a gasket is not worth it.
14CYLINDER HEAD GASKETWhen tightening a cylinder head gasket that is not torque to Yield it is best to tighten in steps. How much should you go, my rule of thumb has been if under 60 lbs. Tighten in 2 steps. If over 60 lbs. tighten in three steps. For example if it is to be tighten to 100 foot lbs. Tighten in this sequence 35 – 70 – 100.Many other bolts are to be tighten in steps check the specifications for the car.
15CYLINDER HEAD GASKETMust be capable of withstanding tremendous heat and pressure.
16CYLINDER HEAD GASKETFollow gasket makers instructions on whether or not to use a sealant. Most want you to just clean and dry the surface.What type of sealant and how much? Most head gaskets do not want any sealant. If you have an aluminum head and a cast iron block (sometimes referred to as a bi-metal engine) it will expand at different rates, if you use a sealant you are going to have a leak. Most manufactures will use a graphite gasket to allow for motion during the expansion.
17CYLINDER HEAD GASKET Run a tap or thread chaser in bolt holes. Multi-layer steel gasket
18CYLINDER HEAD GASKETAlways tighten the bolts in the correct sequence look at the pattern.
19CYLINDER HEAD GASKETLook at the pattern, starts in the center and rotates out.
20USING STRAIGHTEDGECheck in several directions what is the specifications?How much can be taken off?
21Torque to Yield BoltsTorque to yield (TTY) bolts are used in many engines today, the bolts need to be replaced. When installing them you need to have them clean and oiled then tighten to manufacture’s preload setting. Then tightened them in a series of stages usually about 90 degree’s at a time.
22Torque to Yield BoltsBolts stretch, they are elastic most of the time they will return to their original shape. But on Cylinder heads to keep the right tension on the head they stretch almost to the breaking point. If you try to reuse them they will break.There is a lot more information on the internet. Research it out.
23Torque to Yield BoltsNever reuse a torque to yield bolt. They are beyond their elastic range, past their yield point and will break.A example would be for a Torque to yield (TTY) bolt when installing them you would torque them down to 35 foot pounds then tighten an additional 70 degrees.Every car is different check the manual.
24If your not familiar with a degree wheel, Learn it. 90 is ¼ Turn180 is ½ TurnEtc.
31Exhaust Rings called Exhaust Doughnuts EXHAUST GASKETSRingDoughnutExhaust Rings called Exhaust Doughnutsfiber facing material on one side and perforated steel on the other. Fiber surface against the head, Steel on the manifold.
32Molded gaskets, oil pan and intake manifold OIL PAN GASKETSRear main sealMolded gaskets, oil pan and intake manifold
35VALVE STEM SEALSDeflector seals usually called umbrella seals that move with the valve and Positive Seals attach to the valve boss and GM O-rings
36VALVE STEM SEALSumbrella sealsDeflect the oilvalve
37VALVE STEM SEALSPositive Seals attach to the valve guide.
38SEALSWe have come along way from the old felt & leather seal. Most seals today are made of Nitrile. Some Seals are made of Viton, Silicone, or Polyacrylics. For more information on what seals are made of go to the CR website to find out.The first job of the seal is to keep the oil in and the dirt out but it can also be used to separate fluids and to with stand different pressures. Proper installation and inspection is very important
39SEALSSeals can beSpring-loadedSpringlessSingle-lipMulti-lip
41SEALSA. The flexible material component of the seal which produces the lip. In this design there is only one lip, the primary sealing lip. B. The outer shell of the seal holds the seal in place. C. The garter spring (found in most seal designs) is a coiled wire spring that provides a controlled radial load over time.
42SEAL INSTALLATIONInspect the shaft that the seal rides on it might be bent or damaged. You may have to install a sleeve or clean up with crocus cloth or replace with a new part
43SEAL INSTALLATION Install with lip (and garter spring) toward liquid. Lubricate lip before installation.Use sealant on the outside of steel seals.Use a seal installer.
44Check out the power point on seals and seal failures
45Speedi-Sleeve shaft repair Clean and measure the diameter of the worn shaft
46Speedi-Sleeve shaft repair Place the sleeve on the shaft then put on the installation tool
47Speedi-Sleeve shaft repair Hammer or press the sleeve onto the shaft far enough to cover the worn area
48USING SEALANTS Use proper sealant for application. Do not use a sealant unless specified in service manual or by gasket manufacturer.Types of sealantsHard drying like 3M Weather stripping or a glue to keep a gasket in placeAerobic (RTV)cures when exposed to airAnaerobic cure after the components are put together (Thread lockers)
49Aerobic (RTV) - Silicone Sealant RTV - Room Temperature VulcanizingReplaces most gasketsforms a rubber seal by absorbing moisture in the airSets in about ten minutes Dries in about 2 hours fully cures in 24 hours.Cure times will vary with Temperature, Humidity, and size of the gap
50Aerobic (RTV) - Silicone Sealant Blue is the most common color but also comes in Black, gray, bronze,clear, red and white(white is for the bathroom)
51Aerobic (RTV) - Silicone Sealant Make sure that it is O2 Sensor safe if used around the engineDo not use around GasolineClean and dry surface before usingWhen using around bolt holes go all the way around the hole.
52Thread lockers Anaerobic cures after the components are put together Locks Bolts & Studs against Vibration looseningClean and dry all parts removing dirt, oil, grease and/or any foreign material
53# could be different due to size of bottle Thread lockersFour colorsUse on screws up to ¼ - Purple# 242 Able to Remove up to 3/4" Bolts - Blue# 271 High Strength Hard to Remove up to 1" Dia. - Red# 290 Wicking Grade for Preassembled Parts - Green# could be different due to size of bottle
54Purple Thread lockers Low strength Use on screws up to ¼ Applied BEFORE AssemblyCarburetors, relay locks, headlamps, throttle body assembly, choke assembly and fuel injection set screws, body panel mounting fasteners
55Blue Thread lockers Applied BEFORE Assembly Medium Strength for all bolts ¼ or largerAble to Remove with hand toolsPrevents parts from loosening from vibrationProtects threads from corrosionRecommend for valve cover bolts,rocker arm nuts, carburetor studs, motorcycle, jet skis snowmobiles etc.Applied BEFORE Assembly
56Red Thread lockers Applied BEFORE Assembly High Strength Hard to RemoveWorks well for studs and press fitLocks against heavy vibrationRequires extra effort to remove or special tools like heatOEM specified as 271Applied BEFORE Assembly
57Green Thread lockers Wicking Grade for Pre-assembled Parts Use on Calibration and adjustment screwsApplied AFTER AssemblyOEM specified as 290There is also a Green High Strength for sleeves
58Thread / Pipe Sealant Liquid Teflon Thread Sealant for metal tapered pipe threads and fittings, replaces teflon tapeSuggested applicationsStainless steel fittings, head bolts into through holes (water Jacket), oil PSI sending units/sensors, oil and coolant lines, intake manifold switches, rear axle fill plug, fuel fittings
59Teflon TapePrevents leaks Just wrap tape around threads on pipes that carry air or liquidUse on stainless, aluminum, plastic, iron, copper, or brass.
60O-RingsO-rings come in several sizes the most common standard sizes are /16, 3/32, 1/8, 3/16, 1/4
61O-RingsO-Rings come in several shapes an O being the most common but you can find others in D shape, Square-ring and a modified X.O-Rings also come in different types of materials make sure what you are using is compatible with the fluid it is next to.
62Thanks to Federal Mogul for some of the pictures and The EndFor this little leakThanks to Federal Mogul for some of the pictures and