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Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals Section 1: Animal Characteristics Section 2: Animal Body Plans Section 3: Sponges.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals Section 1: Animal Characteristics Section 2: Animal Body Plans Section 3: Sponges."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 24 Introduction to Animals Section 1: Animal Characteristics Section 2: Animal Body Plans Section 3: Sponges and Cnidarians

4 24.1 Animal Characteristics General Animal Features Introduction to Animals Chapter 24  The ancestral animals at the beginning of the evolutionary tree are eukaryotic and multicellular.  They developed adaptations in structure that enabled them to function in numerous habitats.

5 Feeding and Digestion Introduction to Animals  Animals are heterotrophic.  The structure or form of an animal’s mouth parts determines how its mouth functions Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

6 Support Introduction to Animals  Invertebrates  Exoskeletons  Hard or tough outer coverings that provide a framework of support  Protect soft body tissues  Provide protection from predators 24.1 Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

7 Support Introduction to Animals  Vertebrates  Endoskeletons  Protect internal organs  Provide support for the body  Provide an internal brace for muscles to pull against 24.1 Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

8 Movement Introduction to Animals  The evolution of nerve and muscle tissues enables animals to move in ways that are more complex and faster than organisms in other kingdoms Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

9 Reproduction Introduction to Animals  Fertilization occurs when the sperm penetrates the egg to form a fertilized egg cell called the zygote.  Internal fertilization  External fertilization 24.1 Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

10 Introduction to Animals  Asexual reproduction means that a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself.  Budding  Fragmentation  Regeneration  Parthenogenesis 24.1 Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

11 Early Development Introduction to Animals  The zygote undergoes mitosis and a series of cell divisions to form new cells.  The cells continue to divide, forming a fluid- filled ball of cells called the blastula.  The blastula continues to undergo cell division as some cells move inward to form a gastrula Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

12 Introduction to Animals 24.1 Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

13 Introduction to Animals Chapter 24

14 Introduction to Animals Tissue Development  Endoderm  inner layer of cells in the gastrula  Ectoderm  outer layer of cells in the gastrula  Mesoderm  layer of cells between the endoderm and ectoderm 24.1 Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

15 Introduction to Animals 24.1 Animal Characteristics Chapter 24

16 24.2 Animal Body Plans Introduction to Animals Evolution of Animal Body Plans  Anatomical features in animals’ body plans mark the branching points on the evolutionary tree.  Relationships on this tree are inferred by studying similarities in embryological development and shared anatomical features. Chapter 24

17 Introduction to Animals 24.2 Animal Body Plans Chapter 24

18 Introduction to Animals Symmetry  Similarity or balance among body structures of organisms  Asymmetry  Radial symmetry  Bilateral symmetry 24.2 Animal Body Plans Chapter 24

19 Introduction to Animals Cephalization  The tendency to concentrate nervous tissue and sensory organs at the anterior end of the animal 24.2 Animal Body Plans Chapter 24

20 Introduction to Animals Body Cavities  Coelomates  Have a fluid- filled cavity with tissue formed from mesoderm that lines and encloses the organs in the coelom 24.2 Animal Body Plans Chapter 24

21 Introduction to Animals Body Cavities  Pseudocoelomates  Have a fluid-filled body cavity that develops between the mesoderm and the endoderm rather than developing entirely within the mesoderm 24.2 Animal Body Plans Chapter 24

22 Introduction to Animals Body Cavities  Acoelomates  Have solid bodies without a fluid-filled body cavity between the gut and the body wall 24.2 Animal Body Plans Chapter 24

23  The mouth develops from the first opening in the gastrula. Introduction to Animals Development in Coelomate Animals  Protostomes  Deuterostomes  The anus develops from the first opening in the gastrula Animal Body Plans Chapter 24 Visualizing Protostome and Deuterostome Development

24 Introduction to Animals Segmentation  Segmented animals can be “put together” from a succession of similar parts.  Can survive damage to one segment  Movement is more effective 24.2 Animal Body Plans Chapter 24

25 24.3 Sponges and Cnidarians Introduction to Animals Sponges  Sponges do not develop tissues.  Collar cells with flagella line the inside of the sponge and whip back and forth drawing water into the body of the sponge.  Water and waste materials are expelled from the sponge through the osculum. Chapter 24

26 Introduction to Animals 24.3 Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

27 Introduction to Animals Chapter 24

28 Introduction to Animals Filter Feeder  Food particles cling to the cells.  Digestion of nutrients takes place within each cell Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

29 Introduction to Animals Archaeocytes  Specialized cells that secrete spicules, which are the support structures of sponges  Spicules are small, needlelike structures made of calcium carbonate, silica, or a tough fibrous protein called spongin 24.3 Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

30 Introduction to Animals Sponge Diversity  Demospongiae  Calcarea  Hexactinellida 24.3 Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

31 Introduction to Animals Reproduction  Reproduce asexually  Fragmentation  Budding  Gemmules  Reproduce sexually  Eggs remain within a sponge.  Sperm are released into the water Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

32 Introduction to Animals Cnidarians  Have one body opening and two layers of cells  Outer layer functions in protecting the internal body  Inner layer functions mainly in digestion 24.3 Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

33 Introduction to Animals Feeding and Digestion  Tentacles are armed with stinging cells called cnidocytes.  A nematocyst is a capsule that holds a coiled tube containing poison and barbs.  Water inside an undischarged nematocyst is under an osmotic pressure of more than 150 atmospheres Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

34 Introduction to Animals  As the osmotic pressure increases, the nematocyst discharges forcefully.  A barb is capable of penetrating a crab shell Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

35 Introduction to Animals  Cells lining the gastrovascular cavity release digestive enzymes over captured prey.  Undigested materials are ejected though the mouth Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

36 Introduction to Animals Response to Stimuli  A nerve net conducts impulses to and from all parts of the body.  The impulses cause contractions of musclelike cells in the two cell layers Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

37 Introduction to Animals Reproduction  Two body forms  Polyp  Medusa 24.3 Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

38 Introduction to Animals  The two body forms of cnidarians can be observed in the life cycle of jellyfishes Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

39 Introduction to Animals Chapter 24

40 Introduction to Animals Cnidarian Diversity  Hydroids  Jellyfishes  Sea anemones and corals 24.3 Sponges and Cnidarians Chapter 24

41 Introduction to Animals Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. Chapter 24

42 Which animal is not an invertebrate? A. lobster B. shark C. cicada D. earthworm Introduction to Animals Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 24

43 What is the tough outer covering of most invertebrates called? A. exoskeleton B. endoskeleton C. endoderm D. mesoderm Introduction to Animals Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 24

44 Which statement is not true of animals? Introduction to Animals A. Animal cells have cell walls. B. Animals are heterotrophic. D. Animal cells become tissues. C. Animals probably evolved from early protists. Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 24

45 From which organisms might animals have evolved? Introduction to Animals A. animal-like bacteria B. autotrophic invertebrates C. colonial protists D. multicellular fungi 24.1 Formative Questions Chapter 24

46 What is a group of cells that performs a specific function? Introduction to Animals A. organ B. tissue C. gastrula D. mesoderm 24.1 Formative Questions Chapter 24

47 What is one of the most unique characteristics of the animal kingdom? Introduction to Animals A. advanced cell structure B. complex movement C. sexual reproduction D. organ development 24.1 Formative Questions Chapter 24

48 What is the term for an individual animal that produces both eggs and sperm? Introduction to Animals A. acoelomate B. hermaphrodite C. heterosexual D. invertebrate 24.1 Formative Questions Chapter 24

49 What form of reproduction produces a new organism from the lost body part of another organism? Introduction to Animals A. budding B. fertilization C. parthenogenesis D. regeneration 24.1 Formative Questions Chapter 24

50 Which provides the strongest evidence for the relationship between arthropods and roundworms? Introduction to Animals A. shared anatomical features B. shared functional characteristics C. similar protein structure D. similar embryological development 24.2 Formative Questions Chapter 24

51 Which is the dorsal surface of a hummingbird? Introduction to Animals 24.2 Formative Questions Chapter 24

52 Which organism exhibits cephalization? Introduction to Animals A. jellyfish B. snail C. sponge D. starfish 24.2 Formative Questions Chapter 24

53 How is deuterostome development different from protostome development shown here? Introduction to Animals 24.2 Formative Questions Chapter 24

54 Introduction to Animals A. A blastula does not form. B. The coelom is less advanced. C. The gut is lined with mesoderm. D. The blastopore becomes the anus Formative Questions Chapter 24

55 Why are sponges most distantly related to the rest of the animals? Introduction to Animals A. They are not multicellular. B. They do not have true tissues. C. Their embryos have a mesoderm Formative Questions D. They arose from a different protist ancestor. Chapter 24

56 What is the term for organisms that remain attached to one place? Introduction to Animals A. sessile B. tactile C. axiallary D. sedentary 24.3 Formative Questions Chapter 24

57 What provides the energy for the discharge of a cnidarian’s nematocysts? Introduction to Animals A. muscle fibers B. hydraulic forces C. osmotic pressure D. protein springs 24.3 Formative Questions Chapter 24

58 Which is the dominant stage in the life cycle of a sea anemone? Introduction to Animals A. bud B. hydroid C. medusa D. polyp 24.3 Formative Questions Chapter 24

59 Identify the term that is used to describe the evolutionary history of a particular species. Introduction to Animals A. genealogy B. biology C. phylogeny D. paleontology Chapter Assessment Questions Chapter 24

60 Distinguish between asymmetry, radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry and give an example of each. Introduction to Animals Chapter Assessment Questions Chapter 24

61 Introduction to Animals Answer: Asymmetry – There is no symmetry or balance in body structure and no shape. Example: sponge Radial symmetry – The animal’s body can be divided along any plane through a central axis into equal halves. Example: jellyfish Bilateral symmetry – The animal can be divided into mirror image halves along one plane. Example: dog Chapter Assessment Questions Chapter 24

62 Explain why it would be beneficial for a fish to lay many eggs when fertilization is external. Introduction to Animals Answer: Some of the eggs will float away, be eaten or destroyed, so laying a large number of eggs makes it more likely that some will be fertilized and hatch. Chapter Assessment Questions Chapter 24

63 Which is not a characteristic that defines all animals? Introduction to Animals A. carnivorous B. eukaryotic C. heterotrophic D. multicellular Standardized Test Practice Chapter 24

64 At which stage is the developing animal an embryo? Introduction to Animals Standardized Test Practice Chapter 24

65 Which reproduces by internal fertilization? Introduction to Animals A. bear B. clam C. fish D. frog Standardized Test Practice Chapter 24

66 What is the most recent evolutionary development exhibited by both arthropods and echinoderms? Introduction to Animals A. a body cavity B. a coelom C. segmentation D. protostome development Standardized Test Practice Chapter 24

67 Which organisms are most closely related to roundworms? Introduction to Animals A. sponges B. cnidarians C. flatworms D. arthropods Standardized Test Practice Chapter 24

68 What characteristic do sponges and cnidarians have in common? Introduction to Animals A. body symmetry B. single body opening C. cell layers organized into tissues D. sessile attachment to surfaces Standardized Test Practice Chapter 24

69 Introduction to Animals Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 24

70 Introduction to Animals Image Bank Chapter 24

71 invertebrate exoskeleton endoskeleton vertebrate hermaphrodite zygote internal fertilization external fertilization blastula gastrula endoderm ectoderm mesoderm Introduction to Animals Vocabulary Section 1 Chapter 24

72 symmetry radial symmetry bilateral symmetry anterior posterior cephalization dorsal ventral coelom pseudocoelom acoelomate protostome deuterostome Introduction to Animals Vocabulary Section 2 Chapter 24

73 filter feeder sessile cnidocyte nematocyst gastrovascular cavity nerve net polyp medusa Introduction to Animals Vocabulary Section 3 Chapter 24

74 Introduction to Animals Animation Chapter 24  Cell Differentiation in Animal Development Cell Differentiation in Animal Development  A Sponge A Sponge  A Cnidarian A Cnidarian  Visualizing Protostome and Deuterostome Development Visualizing Protostome and Deuterostome Development


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