Presentation on theme: "21 st Century Pluralism and Business Demographics Business Perspectives Rowan University College of Business."— Presentation transcript:
21 st Century Pluralism and Business Demographics Business Perspectives Rowan University College of Business
Objectives What is “Demography”? Which characteristics are included in “Organizational Demography”? Why are social characteristics important in business? How is the U.S. Workforce Changing? How is New Jersey’s Workforce Changing?
Demography is the study of Population inflow (birth and immigration) Population outflow (death and emigration)... In relation to broad categories of people Based on age, race, ethnicity, sex, national origin.
Organizational Demography Focuses on the distribution of worker characteristics in the organization: Traditional demographic characteristics such as age, race, ethnicity, sex, national origin. as well as functional specialty, job tenure, organizational tenure
Sociologists distinguish between characteristics Ones we are born with or acquire and generally cannot change through our own efforts. Examples: Age, gender, national origin, handicap. Ones usually under a person’s control and subject to improvement or modification. Examples: Level of education, occupation, job experience. ASCRIBED ACHIEVED
Demographic characteristics such as age, race, ethnicity, sex, handicapped status & national origin are important because 1.They are among the most visible features distinguishing individuals. 2.People think they matter & influence the way people are treated. 3.The American workforce is increasingly diverse. 4.These are ascribed, not achieved characteristics. 5.Some of these characteristics constitute legally “protected classes” that require special attention in firms.
Focusing More Broadly on Social & Organizational Demography is important because Social categories are potent sources of self-identity. Diversity creates social categories which affect... Social psychological processes in “diverse” workers that can create feelings of.... isolation, discomfort, & confusion creative tension & diverse solutions to problems as well as
Five conditions identify social categories May behave in systematically different ways (physical handicap vs. non handicapped; young vs. elderly) Conflict often exists between social categories (Catholics vs. Protestants in Northern Ireland) Status differences often exist between categories (managers vs. subordinates) Institutional practices often distinguish social categories (wear different clothing; different work hours; formal vs. familiar speech) Social categories are often easy to distinguish visually (age, race, gender) Konrad & Gutek, Theory & Research on Group Composition People in distinct categories...
The “strength” of social categories varies depending on how many of the aforementioned criteria apply. Engineers tend to be men; have higher status in firm; and are allowed to come and go as they please. Secretaries tend to be female; have lower status in firm; are expected to stay at their desks from 9am to 5 pm. Application: gender may overlap with occupation, status and with institutional practices. Example
The labor force is growing, but the rate of increase in women & minorities in the workforce is growing faster. By 2000, white men account for 15% of that growth; everyone else accounts for 85% of growth. Age diversity will change w/ a majority of older teens will be employed at least part-time; 65+ will increase Foreign-born workforce will increase beyond 13% (2000). The labor force is increasingly a white-collar workforce. The majority 71.8% of employed Americans are in professional, managerial, technical & administrative support positions or service occupations (1995). The U.S. Labor Force is Increasingly Diverse
Why is the Workforce Increasingly Diverse? Immigration Differential Birth Rates Changing Family Dynamics Changing Sex-role expectations Labor Demand Federal & State Laws
69.8% of NJ’s 4,177,900 workers are classified as White/Non-Hispanic*. 53.7% are male. By comparison, in the year 2010, 62% will be White/Non-Hispanic* and 52% will be male. Let’s Look at New Jersey’s Workforce 1998 * Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Source: WNJPIN: POPULATION & LABOR FORCE PROJECTIONS WNJPIN: POPULATION & LABOR FORCE PROJECTIONS
You entered college in Fall age 18. In 2010, you will be 27 & part of the cohort of year olds. Let’s Look at Age Composition of New Jersey’s Workforce What can you conclude from this data?
White/Non-Hispanic – 62% Hispanic - 13% Black – 15% Other – 9% New Jersey’s Workforce 2010 By 2010 New Jersey Workforce will number 4,701,500. Of that figure, 52% will be male and 48% female. Racial/Ethnic composition will be 62% White/Non-Hispanics, 15% Black, 13% Hispanic and 9% Other* "Other Races" include Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian and Alaska Native. Hispanic origin is not a race. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
New Jersey’s Workforce 2010 By Year 2010, the workforce in 9 of NJ’s 22 Counties will be more diverse than the state average. In 4 of these counties, no single race/ethnicity group will have a majority. By Year 2010, the workforce in 9 of NJ’s 22 Counties will be more diverse than the state average. In 4 of these counties, no single race/ethnicity group will have a majority. 49% or Less White/NH 51% - 62% White /NH 63% or More White/NH