Presentation on theme: "a quick introduction to Word Formation"— Presentation transcript:
1 a quick introduction to Word Formation Unit 2: fashion victimsa quick introduction to Word Formation
2 Types of Word Formation: different ways of creating new words CompoundingPrefixationSuffixationConversionClippingBlendsBackformationAcronymsOnomatopoeiaEponymsToponymsWe will center on these 2 ways!
3 1. CompoundingDefinition: Two or more words joined together to form a new word.Examples:Home + work homeworkPick + pocket pickpocketThe meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts.Types of compounds:Compound nounsCompound verbsCompound adjectives
7 2. Prefixation Class-changing prefixes: Class-maintaining prefixes: a- asleep Verb to Adjectivebe- bewitch Noun to Verben- enslave Noun to VerbClass-maintaining prefixes:in- indefinite Adj to Adjfore- foreground Noun to NEtc.
8 3. Suffixation Suffixes forming Nouns N from N: -dom kingdom N from V: -ee employeeN from Adj: -ce dependenceSuffixes forming VerbsV from N: -ify beautifyV from Adj: -en shortenSuffixes forming adjectivesAdj from N: -al educationalAdj from V: -able understandableAdj from Adj: -ish greenishSuffixes forming Adverbs: -ly, -ward, and –wise.
9 4. ConversionDefinition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category.Types of ConversionVerb to Noun: to hit a hitAdj to N: a final game a finalN to V: a sign to signAdj to V: an empty box to empty
10 5. ClippingDefinition: Shortening a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllablesExamples:Gasoline GasHamburger Burgerdelicatessen microphone delimike
11 6. BlendsDefinition: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted.Examples:Motor + hotel MotelBreakfast + lunch BrunchWireless + Fidelity Sheep + goat Wi-fiShoat
12 7. Back-formationsDefinition: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis.Examples:editor (1649) edit (1791)television (1907) televise (1927)Paramedical (1921) paramedic (1967)
13 8. AcronymsDefinition: Words derived from the initial letters of several words and use them as a new wordExamples:Very Important People/Person VIPSelf-contained underwater breathing apparatus SCUBA
14 9. OnomatopoeiaDefinition: Words created to sound like the thing that they name.EnglishJapaneseTagalogCatalanCock-a-dooKokekokkoKuk-kakaukQuiQuiriiQui !MeowNyaNiyawMiaauu !
15 10. EponymsDefinition: a person after whom a discovery, invention, place, etc., is named.Examples:degrees Celsius (Anders Celcius)Cook Islands (James Cook)
16 11. ToponymsDefinition: a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature.Examples: States in the USA:Montana (‘mountains’ in Spanish)Mississippi (‘big river’ in Chippewa)