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Conditional Argument If the oil pipeline leaks, then my water will be polluted. The pipeline is leaking. Therefore, my water will be polluted.

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Presentation on theme: "Conditional Argument If the oil pipeline leaks, then my water will be polluted. The pipeline is leaking. Therefore, my water will be polluted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conditional Argument If the oil pipeline leaks, then my water will be polluted. The pipeline is leaking. Therefore, my water will be polluted.

2 Conditional Argument If the oil pipeline leaks, then my water will be polluted. AntecedentConsequent

3 Conditional Validity Affirming the antecedent The pipeline is leaking Denying the consequent My water is not polluted.

4 Conditional Argument If the oil pipeline leaks, then my water will be polluted. AntecedentConsequent

5 “Unless” or “Only if” My water will not be polluted, unless the oil pipeline leaks If the oil pipeline does not leak, then my water will not be polluted. My water is polluted. Therefore, the pipeline is leaking.

6 Exercise A1 If our administrators were well- trained, then our schools would be among the best. Our schools are not among the best. So our administrators must not be well-trained. Denying the consequent Valid

7 Exercise A3 If problems do not arise, then the government will not intervene. Problems arose. So the government intervened. Denying the antecedent Invalid

8 Exercise A5 If you raise your children properly, then they will obey you. You are raising them properly. So they will obey you. Affirming the antecedent Valid

9 Exercise A7 If food supplies are short in the south, residents will flee north. Food is short in the south. Residents will flee north. Affirming the antecedent Valid in the form stated above

10 Argument from Direction If A then B, if B then C. C is undesirable. Therefore, we should not allow A. Slippery slope argument Remember truth is different from validity.

11 Exercise B1 If we kill the terminally ill, then we will kill the chronically ill. If will kill the chronically ill, then we will kill those tired of life. The melancholy should be protected. Therefore, we should not kill the terminally ill.

12 Exercise B3 If we fail to recognize a mother’s rights, then a contract takes precedence over human rights If a contract takes precedence, then motherhood will depend on payment. (This is undesirable). Therefore, we should protect a mother’s rights in surrogacy.

13 Exercise B5 Neutrality leads to ambivalence. Ambivalence gives way to confusion. (This is undesirable). Therefore, we can not afford to be politically neutral.

14 Exercise B7 If bilingualism in schools, then ghettoization. If ghettoization, then racial antagonism. (Racial antagonism is undesirable). Therefore, bilingualism in schools should be abandoned.

15 Categorical Argument All TV news anchors are articulate speakers. All articulate speakers can adapt to unexpected events. All TV news anchors can adapt to unexpected events. End term (D) Middle term (U) End term (U) Middle term (D)End term (U)

16 Categorical Validity The middle term must be distributed exactly once. Neither end term can be distributed only once. The number of negative premises must equal the number of negative conclusions.

17 Universal Affirmative Argument All TV news anchors are articulate speakers. All articulate speakers can adapt to unexpected events. All TV news anchors can adapt to unexpected events. End term (D) Middle term (U) End term (U) Middle term (D)End term (U)

18 Valid Universal Argument All TV news anchors (A) are articulate speakers (B). All articulate speakers (B) can adapt to unexpected events (C). All TV news anchors (A) can adapt to unexpected events (C). ABC

19 Invalid Universal Argument ABC All TV news anchors (A) are articulate speakers (B). All TV news anchors (A) can adapt to unexpected events (C). All articulate speakers (B) can adapt to unexpected events (C).

20 Particular Affirmative Argument All TV news anchors are articulate speakers. Some TV news anchors are egotistical airheads. Some articulate speakers are egotistical airheads. Middle term (D) Middle term (U) End term (U)

21 Valid Particular Argument All TV news anchors (A) are articulate speakers (B). Some TV news anchors (A) are egotistical airheads (C). Some articulate speakers (B) are egotistical airheads (C). ABC

22 Invalid Particular Argument A?BC All TV news anchors (A) are articulate speakers (B). Some articulate speakers (B) are egotistical airheads (C). Some TV news anchors (A) are egotistical airheads (C).

23 Universal Negative Argument All TV news anchors are egotistical airheads. No egotistical airheads can adapt to unexpected events. No TV news anchors can adapt to unexpected events. End term (D) Middle term (U) End term (D) Middle term (D)End term (D)

24 Particular Negative Argument All TV news anchors are articulate speakers. Some TV news anchors are not egotistical airheads. Some articulate speakers are not egotistical airheads. Middle term (D) Middle term (U) End term (U) End term (D)End term (U) End term (D)

25 Exercise C1 All tour guides are polite. All tour-bus drivers are polite. All tour-bus drivers are tour guides. End term (D) Middle term (U) End term (U) End term (D)Middle term (U) Invalid universal affirmative

26 Exercise C3 All company employees are well-trained. Some well-trained people are not competent. Some company employees are not competent. End term (D) End term (U) Middle term (U) End term (D) Middle term (U)End term (D) Invalid particular negative

27 Exercise C5 All poems by Poe are poems that use iambic pentameter. No poems in this collection use iambic pentameter. No poems in this collection are poems by Poe. End term (D) Middle term (U) End term (D) Middle term (D) Valid universal negative

28 Enumeration Arguments Form: Either A or B or C. Not A, and not B. Therefore, C. Validity: All plausible alternatives Options eliminated convincingly

29 Exercise D1 The rapid drop in production of goods may be caused by: Lazy blue-collar workers (A). Government regulations (B). New white-collar workers (C). Not A or B, then C.

30 Disjunctive Arguments Form: Either A or B. Not A. Therefore, B. Disjunctives are usually invalid. Plausible alternatives exist. A dilemma is when two options are undesirable.

31 Exercise E1 The future of this nation will be decided by: Enacting strict immigration laws. Letting illegal immigration decide the future. Conclusion is implied.

32 Inductive Arguments Inductive arguments may attain a level of probability, not validity. Analogies are inductive. A is similar to B in some important ways. Thus, A is similar to B in another important way. Assumption: The presence of some similarities suggests the likelihood of other similarities.


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