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Active Knowledge Delivery in Semi-Structured Administrative Processes Gregory Mentzas Information Management Unit National Technical University of Athens.

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Presentation on theme: "Active Knowledge Delivery in Semi-Structured Administrative Processes Gregory Mentzas Information Management Unit National Technical University of Athens."— Presentation transcript:

1 Active Knowledge Delivery in Semi-Structured Administrative Processes Gregory Mentzas Information Management Unit National Technical University of Athens Andreas Abecker Knowledge Management Dept German Research Center for Artif. Intelligence Workshop on Electronic Government & Knowledge Management Siena, Italy, May 22-24, 2001

2  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 2 Overview Some facts and figures about the DECOR project Basic assumptions and the „overall picture“ Core technical goals and their relevance for E-Government:  Active knowledge delivery  Weakly-structured processes  Process-oriented structured archives The IKA example Summary

3  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 3 DECOR is a two-years European R&D project developing and testing new knowledge management methods and tools DECOR - delivery of context-sensitive organizational knowledge 6 partners from 3 European countries runs in the Information Society Technology Programme (IST), within the European Union's Fifth RT Framework Programme ( ) overall funding by the European Commission 1.8 MECU - under contract No. IST Project duration: July 2000 – June 2002 Main idea: Business-Process Oriented Knowledge Management for Administrative Processes DECOR facts and figures

4  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 4 The DECOR consortium consists of technology and method providers, consultants, and end users DECOR partner organizations IKA - the most important social security institution in Greece PLANET ERNST & YOUNG - Greek management consultancy company DHC - an innovative IT consulting and software development firm in the SAP area SEMA Group Benelux - one of Europe‘s leading IT consulting and systems integration companies DFKI - the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence ICCS / IMU – Information Management Unit of the National Technical University of Athens

5  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 5 DECOR demonstrates knowledge-based document orga- nization and process-embedded, active document delivery intelligent document archives can effectively support knowledge-intensive work documents can be indexed and organized according to multiple criteria and different viewpoints models for document organization may themselves be complex structures document organization models („ontologies“) provide flexible use for information access ontologies contain background knowledge for better search and retrieval Basic assumptions (1/2)

6  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 6 DECOR demonstrates knowledge-based document orga- nization and process-embedded, active document delivery formal representations of a company‘s work routines and business processes are useful knowledge organization model in a given work procedure, employees often spend much time for (sometimes unsuccessful) information search the specific information requirements of a given task can be analysed in advance and automatically fulfilled during process enactment dynamic process context and formal models of the business process domain improve search Basic assumptions (2/2) How do the DECOR modules play together?

7 Start purchase Specify good to buy Good = „Hardware“ Good = „Software“ Price >= 300 € Price < 300 € Par Specify detailed HW parameters Weakly-structured workflows represent knowledge-intensive business processes Augmented workflow models describe information flow between work activities and information needs for specific tasks For augmented work- flow and associated indexing ontologies, modelling tools and a methodology for organisational take-up are developed. The pilot systems are built on top of concep- tually indexed archives with domain ontologies and business process models as indexing structures. The information assistant observes the running work- flow and offers active, context- sensitive organisational knowledge, thus promoting a better exploitation of existing know- ledge sources.

8  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 8 The technical realization for active knowledge delivery extends conventional workflow concepts Active knowledge delivery (1/2) Retrieval Agent Sources Information Sources WF Control Data Workflow Engine Worklist Handler Applications WF Application Data invokes + Extensions for knowledge- intensive Tasks Business Process Model interpreted by WF Rele- vant Data + Extensions support

9  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 9 Active knowledge delivery enhances the quality of service for E-Government processes Active knowledge delivery (2/2) Active knowledge supply prevents that important knowledge or obligatory information are overseen; compliance with binding (legal) regulations is ensured Active hints to other employees ’ decisions enable equal decisions under equal conditions and foster communication between employees Active knowledge push ensures the dissemination of new knowledge (changed laws etc.) The “ normal citizen ” involved, e.g. via a Web interface, into an administrative process can be part of complex processes without having in advance all required background knowledge  Enhanced transparency even in “ one-stop government ” (Lenk and Traunm ü ller, 2000, “ innovative ways of service delivery ” )

10  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 10 The DECOR workflow concept is motivated by the characteristics of knowledge-intensive work Weakly-structured processes (1/3) Knowledge-intensive work is often ad-hoc to a some extent; but not without any regularities, commonalities, and structure Knowledge-intensive work varies along the project-process spectrum : n often no strong sequential order, but lists of required activities n often cyclic, chaotic order of steps, but logical dependencies n however, sequential parts or reusable templates for parts n at least some MS project like, or Timex like support possible n sort of top-down refinement useful while actually executing the process Cp. (Wimmer & Traunmüller, 2000), „type 2 administrative processes“: semi-formal procedures, several people with conflicting interests involved in negotiation and decision making

11  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 11 DECOR’s weak-workflow support shall combine a project manager’s flexibility with traditional workflow’s complexity handling Design goals: 1.Workflow management system as an assistant 2.Hierarchical decomposition 3.Modeling and enactment interleaved 4.Expressive process logic 5.Context-sensitive knowledge delivery lowhigh reuseability modifiability complexity knowledge usage uniqueness predictability spontaneous modeling decisions structure project management system traditional workflow Weakly-structured processes (2/3)

12  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 12 Several reasons ask for weakly-structured process support in Electronic Government Some workflow support is useful anyway:  many people, many documents and maybe many locations are involved;  enforcing a given process structure through a workflow system may improve quality of services and definitely increases throughput Reasons for weak process structures:  Long-living processes may change because of changing environment (regulations, information situation, political decisions) during their enactment (see the work by Maurer et al. [MILOS System] about urban planning)  Many administrative processes are very well structured in general, but contain few central decision steps which are not further regulated, but could be planned  In some highly-complex and safety-critical administration processes, no a-priori-planning is possible, but process instances must be recorded and documented for legal reasons (DFKI currently examines such a process in the area of nuclear transports) Weakly-structured processes (3/3) Cp. (Lenk & Traunmüller, 2000) about E-Government processes: “They are partly … structured by legal rules which however, often demand interpretation …”

13  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 13 The technical basis for the DECOR intelligent archive is DHC‘s CognoVision® product Process-based structured archives (1/4) Knowledge objects (documents) are enriched with  Metadata (author, content, quality, actuality,...)  Links to other documents  Links to content-describing ontology concepts and business process elements An ontology is an „... explicit representation of the shared conceptualization of a given domain....“, i.e., it specifies the common vocabulary and basic assumptions (concepts, relationships, axioms) used by a number of actors to talk about a given domain Ontologies provide the index terms for describing document content and can be used for manual navigation, information retrieval, query expansion, etc. In DECOR, the CognoVision® tool is used as document management system:  In CognoVision®, arbitrary networks (representing ontologies) can be built from structure elements and attributed links  Documents (maybe different versions) and metadata are grouped in information units and linked to structure elements

14 The CognoVision® tool (DHC) allows to establish multiple views and manifold links between documents Process-based structured archives (2/4)

15  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 15 content of info unit 2 other info units linked to info unit 1 links to / from information unit 1 content of information unit 1 structure elements linked to info unit 1 structure elements liked to info unit 2 information units linked to info unit 2 Information units group documents, metadata, and links to structure elements / other information units in CognoVision® Process-based structured archives (3/4)

16  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 16 Ontologies and metadata are well-suited concepts for knowledge organization in E-Government Process-based structured archives (4/4) Importance of intelligent document repositories with a coherent view on heterogeneous input material:  Many different sources of knowledge: laws, comments to laws, specific regulations, old similar cases, available case-specific documents and information  Often, no explicit links between related knowledge items possible  Often, knowledge items prevalent at different places and in different forms and representations, at several degrees of formality The E-Government domain is well suited for modeling background ontologies:  Many topics (especially legal regulations) are formal by nature  People with formal education exist which can assist in knowledge acquisition  Once built, formal ontologies can be resued for different purposes: navigation and retrieval support, explanation, reasoning, education purposes, etc.

17  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 17 IKA is the largest and most important organization for social security in Greece Some facts and figures: 330 insurance branches and 360 health branches all over the country A total personnel of 23,000 permanent employees (administrative- medical personnel and doctors) Medical treatment to 5,6 million directly and indirectly insured people Pensions to pensioners IKA offers a wide range of services, which fall under four categories:  Insurance  Benefits in kind and in cash  Pensions  Interstate social security IKA case study (1/4)

18  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 18 In DECOR we consider the process for granting full old age pension A business process of high importance for the institution:  Current beneficiaries amount to persons  Annual increase rate: 10%  Time-consuming process, resulting in long delays in the completion of the process A knowledge-intensive business process:  A deep knowledge of the relevant legislation is required  Currently, only experienced employees are involved in the process Departments and roles involved in the business process:  The pension secretariat  The department of pensions or the department of payments  The director of the branch Source material involved in the business process:  The source material is mainly in the form of documents  It includes standard administrative forms, legal documents, official documents, etc. IKA case study (2/4)

19  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 19 The business process has been analysed from the knowledge perspective Basic business process tasks:  Submission of application form and supplementary documentation (pension folder)  Check of the pension folder  Processing of the pension folder  Establishment of entitlement right to receive a pension  Calculation of the pension amount  Notification of the insured person on the final decision The DECOR Business Knowledge Method combines elements from CommonKADS (knowledge-oriented process analysis) and IDEF5 (ontology modeling) IKA case study (3/4) Ontology refinement Ontology creation Task analysis Business Process Analysis Business Process Identification

20  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 20 Expected benefits in the IKA pilot Short term benefits:  Workflow introduction and electronic documents smoothen process enactment, ease communication, and decrease processing time  Active knowledge delivery facilitates access to legal documents and comments  Weak workflow structures don‘t play a significant role in this case study Long term benefits:  Access to older, similar cases facilitates comparable decisions  Assessment of „similarity“ not trivial  Presentation of similar cases fosters communication with colleagues  Exploitation of tacit knowledge as most important knowledge source  Attachment of personal notes to legal resources and backup material improves personal views on knowledge base IKA case study (4/4)

21  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 21 Some words on related work Process-oriented structured archives  Multiple-viewpoint organization possible in many state-of-the-art document management tools (Autonomy,...)  CognoVision® tool provides extremely expressive structures  Method-embedding and maintenance support not available on market Weak workflow structures  Several research projects and very few commercial tools with similar goals => market study under work  Coupling with knowledge delivery unique for DECOR Active, context-sensitive knowledge delivery  Active push services are state-of-the-art in many commercial KM tools, but do not take into account the actual work context  Research approaches:  „Attentive systems“ (WATSON): try to deduce local work context from open applications and document content => ignore global task context  „EULE 2“ (Reimer et al): knowledge-rich, formal model of administrative workflow, rights, obligations, regulations, etc. => excellent services, but expensive knowledge engineering Conclusions (1/2) Use of such approaches for Electronic Government: not known to us

22  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 22 Summary Project status:  Three case studies have been analysed  Archives are being installed  Ontologies have been built in the first instance  Workflow is in the design phase Next steps:  Fill archives with operational data  Document classification support  Develop workflow formalism and engine Transfer of the concept to a real-world E-Government scenario not yet done Conclusions (2/2)

23  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 23 Back-Up Slides

24  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 24 DECOR Business Knowledge Method Business Process and Knowledge Modelling Toolkit DECOR shall produce methods, tools, and three application case studies for the idea of business-process oriented knowledge management DECOR objectives Weakly-structured workflow models Process-oriented structured archive Workflow- Triggered Knowledge- Delivery Toolkit

25  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 25 Process-oriented Structured Archive DECOR develops an architecture for a structured archive of (multimedia) knowledge and documents, organized around the notion of business processes performed in the company. DECOR demonstrates the practical feasibility of the approach by realizing all modules required in real-world scenarios, using existing and upcoming standards. DECOR realizes the concept as demonstration of best practice in three pilot user scenarios, and fills the archives with operational data. DECOR validates and tests its approach in the three user sites DECOR results (1/3)

26  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 26 Business Process & Knowledge Modelling Toolkit DECOR identifies representations for structuring ontologies, knowledge source descriptions, and workflow-triggered knowledge needs. DECOR realizes modelling support by editors and tools, as far as possible on the basis of existing approaches. In order to guide and accompany all modeling activities, the DECOR Business Knowledge Method will facilitate the organisational take-up. The method shall enable identification of required knowledge embedded in work processes, examination of the structuring of corporate knowledge into reusable knowledge objects, as well as the associated managerial implications in the organisational environment. DECOR results (3/3)

27  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 27 Ontology-based information systems „... Explicit representation of the conceptualization of a given domain....“ Describes the meta model specifying the vocabulary (concepts, relationships) used to express a given model / software (cp. Database instance vs. Database schema) Typical content: specification of...  Concepts (or: categories, classes, kinds)  Relationships (or: links)  Attributes  Axioms  Synonyms  Informal definitions / explanations Used to facilitate communication / interoperability of different software modules or human agents

28  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 28 Simple example on ontologies Kinds: company, supplier, customer, product, person, employee,... Links: is_a, has_part, produces, supplies, is_customer_of, is_production_manager_for, is_responsible_for, works_for,... Axioms: about value restrictions for certain attributes, specific characteristics of links (transitivity, symmetry,...), integrity constraints,... Used for:  Communication between different agents in a heterogeneous environment (e.g. e-commerce)  Concept-based instead of keyword-based information retrieval  Background knowledge for intelligent retrieval services ...

29 DECOR: Delivery of Context-Sensitive Organizational Knowledge 1st Project Review Brussels, February 2nd, 2001 Initial Work for WP 4: Weakly-structured workflows

30  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 30 Objectives for knowledge work improvement Davenport et al., MIT Sloan Mgt Review 37(4), 1996 Make an implicit knowledge process explicit and consistent Add knowledge to a process to add value to the process customer Involve the customer in the process to increase satisfaction with results Share knowledge more effectively through the process Improve the execution of programs and initiatives Motivation for knowledge work support is not exactly the same as for routine task support...

31  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 31 What are the usual benefits from workflow? Analysis:  Discussion & documentation (certification)  Bottleneck analysis & reengineering Enactment:  Automatic routing of documents & data, automatic start of applications  Enforce compliance with company business rules  Automatic scheduling & resource optimization  Process monitoring  Store process instance histories for analyses and process improvement

32  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 32 Characteristics of knowledge-intensive tasks Unique and of low volume Variability in performance across individuals and time No strong sequential order Frequent exceptions and changes Uncertainty in inputs and outputs Unstructured work rules and routines Involves personal judgement & experience

33  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 33 Usual benefits also for knowledge work processes? Analysis:  Discussion & documentation (certification)?!  Bottleneck analysis & reengineering?!  Add knowledge support service processes!!  Knowledge-oriented enterprise analysis!! Enactment:  Automatic routing of documents & data, automatic start of applications???  Enforce compliance with company business rules??!  Automatic scheduling & resource optimization???  Process monitoring?!!  Store process instance histories for analyses and process improvement!  „Project management“ services!!

34  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 34 Work content description of knowledge work Two examples: knowledge workTwo examples: blue collar work

35  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 35 WP 4. Modelling weakly-structured workflows Hypothesis  Conventional workflow approaches not suited to deal with the ad-hoc effects, frequent exceptions and common changes in knowledge- intensive work activities Objectives  Design a workflow approach flexible enough to support knowledge- intensive business processes  Build a modelling tool for the specification of such workflow models  Extend the DECOR OM method by modules dealing with the methodological aspects of such a workflow modelling component Work for WP4  Started in the middle of the first project semester and will end after the first year of the project  Based on the business process analysis of WP1

36  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 36 Potential features of the workflow approach A process archive contains process templates which later are converted to process models Task specifications and process logic should be defined separately Task specifications are hierarchically decomposed into sub- tasks Sub-tasks may contain “black boxes” Black boxes may be defined at runtime (late modelling) Use MS Visio integrated with CognoVision as a basis for process modelling Extend Visio formalism to include weakly structured business processes

37  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA Survey of literature for knowledge work (1 of 2) Survey of the scientific literature about knowledge work with respect to requirements for workflow tool support Issues examined in this survey  Characteristics of knowledge work  Diversity and ad-hoc behaviour patterns  No clear stopping rules  No objective measure of success  No given alternative solutions  Challenges to knowledge work orientation  Uncertainty  Unstructured and individualised work  Lack of measures  Worker autonomy

38  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA Survey of literature for knowledge work (2 of 2)  Objectives for knowledge work improvement  Make an implicit knowledge process explicit and consistent  Add knowledge to a process to add value to the customer  Share knowledge more effectively through the process  Improve the execution of programs

39  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA Review of Current WfMs (1 of 3) Detailed review of current workflow approaches, commercial workflow systems and research prototypes with respect to flexibility and support for knowledge work Issues examined in this survey  Different types of workflow systems  Production, ad-hoc, etc.  Problems for conventional workflow systems  Workflow evolution  Dynamic (on-the-fly) changes  Mechanisms for flexible adaptations at runtime  Meta-model approaches  Open-point approaches

40  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA Review of Current WfMs (2 of 3) Types of WfMS and what we need for DECOR repeat factor ability to modify automatic distribution inclusion of variants process complexity repeat factor ability to modify automatic distribution inclusion of variants process complexity repeat factor ability to modify automatic distribution inclusion of variants process complexity Ad-hoc Workflow Production WorkflowFlexible Workflow repeat factor ability to modify automatic distribution inclusion of variants process complexity Workflow in DECOR

41  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA Review of Current WfMs (3 of 3) Criteria used to review typical representatives of workflow management systems  Task specification  Process logic  Exception handling  Support for dynamic changes  General architecture/infrastructure Comparative analysis of reviewed systems, e.g.  Domino Workflow (Lotus), TeamWare’s Dolphin, WIDE / Foro (Sema Spain), InConcert, AIS Workware Demonstrator (Norway), CPEF – Continuous Planning & Execution Framework (SRI Int.), OpenWater (IBM), Plan Management Agent (U Pittsburgh, U Maryland), ADEPT (U Ulm) Results  Great diversity of approaches in the same direction  Not yet an accepted view of the topic  The results will be presented in a survey paper and will lead to an extended market watch

42 DECOR: Delivery of Context-Sensitive Organizational Knowledge OM Method (1 st Draft)

43  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 43 Full scope of the DECOR method The overall objective of the DECOR Business Knowledge Method is to: Provide a methodological approach for running projects for business-process oriented knowledge management The method’s main elements include:  Identification of knowledge-intensive processes  Process analysis  Domain ontology construction  Analysis of task-specific knowledge needs  Handling with weak workflow structures

44  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 44 Overview of CommonKADS Methodology OM-1 worksheet: Problems, solutions, context OM-2 worksheet: Description of organization focus area OM-3 worksheet: Process breakdown OM-4 worksheet: Knowledge assets OM-5 worksheet: Judge feasibility TM-1 worksheet: Task analysis TM-2 worksheet: Knowledge Item analysis AM-1 worksheet: Agent model

45  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 45 Business Process Identification Business Process Analysis TasksRolesPeople Task analysis Source material Term pool Ontology creation Ontology refinement Ontology development method (1 of 5)

46  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 46 Business Process Identification Business Process Analysis TasksRolesPeople Task analysis Source material Term pool Ontology creation Ontology refinement Description of: The structure of the business process The staff involved The key people and source material Ontology development method (2 of 5)

47  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 47 Business Process Identification Business Process Analysis TasksRolesPeople Task analysis Source material Term pool Ontology creation Ontology refinement Description of: input, output, source material and knowledge-intensity per task Ontology development method (3 of 5)

48  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 48 Business Process Identification Business Process Analysis TasksRolesPeople Task analysis Source material Term pool Ontology creation Ontology refinement identification of kinds, characteristics and relations Ontology development method (4 of 5)

49  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 49 Business Process Identification Business Process Analysis TasksRolesPeople Task analysis Source material Term pool Ontology creation Ontology refinement Ontology development method (5 of 5) Kind refinement and relation refinement (instances, inconsistency resolution, etc)

50

51  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 51 Requirements for the Archive System Structured administration of organisational knowledge Business process oriented structures Representation of connections between knowledge assets Context sensitive retrieval of information

52  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 52 Information object  Information objects contain information stored electronically.  CognoVision creates a logical encapsulation for information objects which contains the information in different languages and different versions.  The encapsulation serves to manage meta data. Information objects Meta data specific to physicl object  Generic attributes  System attributes  Description  Keywords for information retrieval  Access Control  Version

53  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 53 U1 U2U3...is supplier of is customer of is supplier of......is customer of... U1 U2U3  Name  Year of foundation  Is customer of U3  Is supplier of U2  Name  Year of foundation  Is supplier of U1  Name  Year of foundation  Is customer of U1  Name  Year of foundation  Name  Year of foundation  Name  Year of foundation  The properties resp. role of an object results from  Descriptions which are specific for the object  Descriptions which are specific for the links connected to the object Attributes of links and objects

54  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 54 Links  Links are directed  Links can carry attributes  Links are versioned  Links depend on authorization Object 1Object 2 Directed semantic relation  attributes  keywords  versioning  authorization Directed semantic relation

55  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 55 Structural unit  Logical structuring of objects  Objects can be assigned to one or more hierarical structures  Assignment is virtual and specific for the user U1 U2 U3 SupplierCustomer

56  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 56 Knowledge networks  Integration of arbitrary contents corresponding to the knowledge to be represented  Individually structured networks of knowledge U3U1 Product B Product A SLHPDB has is Producer of is producer of Is part of Is supplier of Is customer of QZSpecKV QZ: Quality certificate Spec: Specification KV: Sale contract SL: Parts list HP: Production record DB: Marginal return AV: Employment contract SOP: Standard Operating Procedure has Müller AV SOP Is production manager in is responsible for

57  DFKI, ICCS, PLANET-EY, SEMA, DHC, IKA 57 Links between processes, documents and transactions  Links between objects, documents, models or transactions with CognoVision are possible to meet the requirements of the users. Management processes SAP-processes Central purchasing Ordering Accounting control Production Stock receipt Delivery note Accompanying document Transaction R/3 SOP


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