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The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale – 2 Stephanie Hayes Jackie Webel.

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1 The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale – 2 Stephanie Hayes Jackie Webel

2 Aura’s Occupational Profile 10 year old fifth grade student 10 year old fifth grade student Lives in south Los Angeles in a Latino community Lives in south Los Angeles in a Latino community Her family, including her grandparents, immigrated from Mexico Her family, including her grandparents, immigrated from Mexico

3 Aura’s Occupational Profile She is bilingual, but her parents and grandparents speak only Spanish She is bilingual, but her parents and grandparents speak only Spanish She is Catholic She is Catholic She has spina bifida, resulting in paraplegia She has spina bifida, resulting in paraplegia

4 Aura’s Occupational Profile Younger sister to three teenage brothers Younger sister to three teenage brothers Daughter of full-time blue collar workers Daughter of full-time blue collar workers Student in a public elementary school Student in a public elementary school

5 Why is She Seeking Services? Aura is seeking school-based OT services due to functional limitations, Aura is seeking school-based OT services due to functional limitations, problems with bladder incontinence, and social isolation from her peers.

6 Aura’s Person Factors Strengths Strong upper body Strong upper body Motivated to socialize with peers Motivated to socialize with peers Vibrant imagination Vibrant imagination No cognitive deficits No cognitive deficitsLimitations Very limited use of lower body Very limited use of lower body Requires wheelchair for mobility Requires wheelchair for mobility Ulcers and bladder infections Ulcers and bladder infections Requires assistance with several ADL’s Requires assistance with several ADL’s

7 Aura’s Environment Factors Strengths Strong family support: parents, grandparents, brothers Strong family support: parents, grandparents, brothers Surrounded by caring Latino community Surrounded by caring Latino community Positive spiritual influence among family and friends Positive spiritual influence among family and friendsLimitations Social isolation from peers at school Social isolation from peers at school Poor accessibility in the school and community Poor accessibility in the school and community Low SES Low SES

8 Aura’s Occupation Factors Strengths Talented writer and painter Talented writer and painter Enjoys reading Enjoys reading Benefits from roles as daughter, granddaughter, and sister Benefits from roles as daughter, granddaughter, and sisterLimitations Completing ADL’s, such as toileting and dressing at home and at school Completing ADL’s, such as toileting and dressing at home and at school Lack of play activities due to peer isolation Lack of play activities due to peer isolation

9 Aura’s Hopes and Dreams Attend summer camp Attend summer camp Make friends at school Make friends at school Learn to dance Learn to dance

10 Our Clinical Goals Aura will join the after school art club in which she will work with one peer to complete a project in two weeks. Aura will join the after school art club in which she will work with one peer to complete a project in two weeks. At each therapy session, Aura will report one positive aspect about herself or one positive experience she has had at school within the week. At each therapy session, Aura will report one positive aspect about herself or one positive experience she has had at school within the week. Aura will take on a small part in the school musical in which she will learn adaptive dancing techniques. Aura will take on a small part in the school musical in which she will learn adaptive dancing techniques.

11 Frame of Reference Cognitive-Behavioral FOR Cognitive-Behavioral FOR –Cognitive function is believed to influence behavior –Useful for clients who need to increase their self-knowledge of how to act and interact in their environment. This self-knowledge helps clients gain control of their environment and to cope with life’s challenges.

12 Individualized Evaluation Plan P factors: Tennessee Self-Concept Scale 2 P factors: Tennessee Self-Concept Scale 2 –Assess Aura’s self-concept and self-esteem to understand how it relates to her maladaptive social behavior –Understand her self-perception so that we can find a baseline to begin therapy intervention E factors: School Function Assessment E factors: School Function Assessment –Assess her environment to identify barriers that limit her occupational performance O factors: Children’s Self Assessment of Occupational Functioning O factors: Children’s Self Assessment of Occupational Functioning –Assess her level of function, identify her strengths, and prioritize areas for improvement

13 Tennessee Self-Concept Scale Second Edition W.H. Fitts, Ph. D. W.L. Warren, Ph. D.

14 Purpose of the TSCS:2 “The TSCS was originally developed to fill the need for a scale that would be simple for the respondent, broadly applicable, and multidimensional in its description of self-concept.” “The TSCS was originally developed to fill the need for a scale that would be simple for the respondent, broadly applicable, and multidimensional in its description of self-concept.” To help understand the relationship between self-concept and human behavior To help understand the relationship between self-concept and human behavior To assess an individual’s perception of self-concept and self-esteem To assess an individual’s perception of self-concept and self-esteem

15 General Description There are two forms of the TSCS:2 – the adult form and the child form. There are two forms of the TSCS:2 – the adult form and the child form. The first 20 items of either test can be administered as a short form. The first 20 items of either test can be administered as a short form. Can be administered individually or in groups Can be administered individually or in groups

16 Construct Self-ConceptSelf-ConceptSelf-ConceptSelf-Concept “The mental image or perception that one has of oneself.” (Dictionary.com, 2004)

17 Sub-Constructs / Variables Physical (PHY) – 12 items Physical (PHY) – 12 items Moral (MOR) – 10 items Moral (MOR) – 10 items Personal (PER) – 11 items Personal (PER) – 11 items Family (FAM) – 11 items Family (FAM) – 11 items Social (SOC) – 14 items Social (SOC) – 14 items Academic/Work (ACA) – 10 items Academic/Work (ACA) – 10 items The sub-constructs of the TSCS:2 can also be considered variables because each is a measurable aspect of the individual’s self-concept. The values given to each of the six areas are not static; rather, they change depending on the responses of the individual being assessed.

18 Sub-Constructs / Variables Physical (PHY) Physical (PHY) –Individual’s view of his or her body, state of health, physical appearance, skills, and sexuality Moral (MOR) Moral (MOR) –Examines moral worth and feelings of being a good or bad person Personal (PER) Personal (PER) –Individual’s sense of personal worth and self-evaluation of personality Family (FAM) Family (FAM) –Individual’s feeling of value as a family member Social (SOC) Social (SOC) –How the self is perceived in relation to others Academic/Work (ACA) Academic/Work (ACA) –How people perceive themselves in school and work settings and of how they believe they are seen by others in those settings

19 Operational Definition Three subdivisions of each variable: Three subdivisions of each variable: –Identity: “Who I am” –Satisfaction: “How accepting of self” –Behavior: “The way I act” Social Social I: 13. “It’s hard for someone to be my friend.” I: 13. “It’s hard for someone to be my friend.” S: 8. “It is hard for me to be around other people.” S: 8. “It is hard for me to be around other people.” B: 70. “I find it hard to talk with people I don’t know.” B: 70. “I find it hard to talk with people I don’t know.” 1.Always False 2.Mostly False 3.Partly False and Partly True 4.Mostly True 5.Always True

20 TSCS:2 Target population Adult Form Adult Form –82 items –Ages –Third grade reading level or higher Child Form Child Form –76 items –Ages 7-14 –Second grade reading level or higher

21 Safety For The Client: Paper and pencil test Paper and pencil test No time limit No time limit No “right” or “wrong” answers No “right” or “wrong” answers Some questions could cause emotional disturbance Some questions could cause emotional disturbance For The Therapist: Scoring likely to cause headaches Scoring likely to cause headaches

22 Reliability Test – Retest Test – Retest –Adult Form  (median = 0.76) –Child Form  0.55 – 0.83 (median = 0.74) Internal Consistency Internal Consistency –Adult Form  (median = 0.80) –Child Form  0.66 – 0.92 (median = 0.73)

23 Validity There are two types of validity with TSCS:2 There are two types of validity with TSCS:2 –Individual Validity  Looks for distorted response patterns within the responses given by each client –Overall Validity  Looks at the validity of the test as the whole

24 Individual Validity Four validity scores are calculated based on the responses given during the test. Four validity scores are calculated based on the responses given during the test. These scores help identify defensive guarding or the need for social desirability. These scores help identify defensive guarding or the need for social desirability. When these scores are high or low, it is very useful to visually inspect any patterns in the responses. When these scores are high or low, it is very useful to visually inspect any patterns in the responses.

25 Individual Validity Scores Individual Validity Scores Inconsistent Responding Inconsistent Responding –Indicates if there is a discrepancy in the responses to questions with similar content Self-Criticism Self-Criticism –Low score may indicate defensiveness or an effort to display a favorable image Faking Good Faking Good –High score indicates a falsely positive self-concept Response Distribution Response Distribution –High score indicates the respondent is very definite in describing himself or herself. Low score indicates avoiding commitment – “Partly False and Partly True”

26 Validity of the TSCS:2 Content Validity – –Two dimensions: Internal and External   Internal – –Measures the validity of the Identity, Behavior, and Satisfaction sub-divisions   External – –Measures the validity of the sub-constructs Concurrent Validity Concurrent Validity –Correlation of 0.68 with Wehmer and Izard Self- Rating Positive Affect Scale. –Correlation of 0.75 with Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory

27 Practicality A quick and easy test A quick and easy test Administration is usually minutes Administration is usually minutes Group or individual Group or individual Has a short form option Has a short form option Cost $115 for the manual plus 24 scoring sheets, 2-PC answer sheets Cost $115 for the manual plus 24 scoring sheets, 2-PC answer sheets Spanish version available Spanish version available

28 Utility Identifies strengths and weaknesses in specific areas as well as overall self- concept Identifies strengths and weaknesses in specific areas as well as overall self- concept Meets other four criteria of hierarchy Meets other four criteria of hierarchy

29 Aura’s Scores and Interpretation Individual Validity: good Individual Validity: good Self-Concept Scores Self-Concept Scores –Low  Physical: less than 1 st percentile  Social: 5 th percentile  Personal: 16 th percentile  Academic: 31 st percentile –High  Family: 81 st percentile  Moral: 90 th percentile Total Self-Concept Score Total Self-Concept Score  TOT: 41 st percentile

30 References Fitts, W.H. Ph. D; Warren, W.L. Ph. D. Tennessee Self-Concept Fitts, W.H. Ph. D; Warren, W.L. Ph. D. Tennessee Self-Concept Scale Manual, second edition. Asher, Ina Elfant, MS, OTR/L. Occupational Therapy Assessment Tools: An Annotated Index, second edition. Asher, Ina Elfant, MS, OTR/L. Occupational Therapy Assessment Tools: An Annotated Index, second edition.


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