2Aura’s Occupational Profile 10 year old fifth grade studentLives in south Los Angeles in a Latino communityHer family, including her grandparents, immigrated from Mexico
3Aura’s Occupational Profile She is bilingual, but her parents and grandparents speak only SpanishShe is CatholicShe has spina bifida, resulting in paraplegia
4Aura’s Occupational Profile Younger sister to three teenage brothersDaughter of full-time blue collar workersStudent in a public elementary school
5Why is She Seeking Services? Aura is seeking school-based OT services due to functional limitations,problems with bladder incontinence, and social isolation from her peers.
6Aura’s Person Factors Strengths Strong upper body Motivated to socialize with peersVibrant imaginationNo cognitive deficitsLimitationsVery limited use of lower bodyRequires wheelchair for mobilityUlcers and bladder infectionsRequires assistance with several ADL’s
7Aura’s Environment Factors StrengthsStrong family support: parents, grandparents, brothersSurrounded by caring Latino communityPositive spiritual influence among family and friendsLimitationsSocial isolation from peers at schoolPoor accessibility in the school and communityLow SES
8Aura’s Occupation Factors StrengthsTalented writer and painterEnjoys readingBenefits from roles as daughter, granddaughter, and sisterLimitationsCompleting ADL’s, such as toileting and dressing at home and at schoolLack of play activities due to peer isolation
9Aura’s Hopes and Dreams Attend summer campMake friends at schoolLearn to dance
10Our Clinical GoalsAura will join the after school art club in which she will work with one peer to complete a project in two weeks.At each therapy session, Aura will report one positive aspect about herself or one positive experience she has had at school within the week.Aura will take on a small part in the school musical in which she will learn adaptive dancing techniques.
11Frame of Reference Cognitive-Behavioral FOR Cognitive function is believed to influence behaviorUseful for clients who need to increase their self-knowledge of how to act and interact in their environment. This self-knowledge helps clients gain control of their environment and to cope with life’s challenges.
12Individualized Evaluation Plan P factors: Tennessee Self-Concept Scale 2Assess Aura’s self-concept and self-esteem to understand how it relates to her maladaptive social behaviorUnderstand her self-perception so that we can find a baseline to begin therapy interventionE factors: School Function AssessmentAssess her environment to identify barriers that limit her occupational performanceO factors: Children’s Self Assessment of Occupational FunctioningAssess her level of function, identify her strengths, and prioritize areas for improvement
13Tennessee Self-Concept Scale Second Edition W.H. Fitts, Ph. D. W.L. Warren, Ph. D.
14Purpose of the TSCS:2“The TSCS was originally developed to fill the need for a scale that would be simple for the respondent, broadly applicable, and multidimensional in its description of self-concept.”To help understand the relationship between self-concept and human behaviorTo assess an individual’s perception of self-concept and self-esteem
15General DescriptionThere are two forms of the TSCS:2 – the adult form and the child form.The first 20 items of either test can be administered as a short form.Can be administered individually or in groups
16“The mental image or perception that one has of oneself.” ConstructSelf-Concept“The mental image or perception that one has of oneself.”(Dictionary.com, 2004)
17Sub-Constructs / Variables Physical (PHY) – 12 itemsMoral (MOR) – 10 itemsPersonal (PER) – 11 itemsFamily (FAM) – 11 itemsSocial (SOC) – 14 itemsAcademic/Work (ACA) – 10 itemsThe sub-constructs of the TSCS:2 can also be considered variables because each is a measurable aspect of the individual’s self-concept. The values given to each of the six areas are not static; rather, they change depending on the responses of the individual being assessed.
18Sub-Constructs / Variables Physical (PHY)Individual’s view of his or her body, state of health, physical appearance, skills, and sexualityMoral (MOR)Examines moral worth and feelings of being a good or bad personPersonal (PER)Individual’s sense of personal worth and self-evaluation of personalityFamily (FAM)Individual’s feeling of value as a family memberSocial (SOC)How the self is perceived in relation to othersAcademic/Work (ACA)How people perceive themselves in school and work settings and of how they believe they are seen by others in those settings
19Operational Definition Three subdivisions of each variable:Identity: “Who I am”Satisfaction: “How accepting of self”Behavior: “The way I act”SocialI: “It’s hard for someone to be my friend.”S: “It is hard for me to be around other people.”B: “I find it hard to talk with people I don’t know.”Always FalseMostly FalsePartly False and Partly TrueMostly TrueAlways True
20TSCS:2 Target population Adult Form82 itemsAges 13-90Third grade reading level or higherChild Form76 itemsAges 7-14Second grade reading level or higher
21Safety For The Client: Paper and pencil test No time limit No “right” or “wrong” answersSome questions could cause emotional disturbanceFor The Therapist:Scoring likely to cause headaches
22Reliability Test – Retest Internal Consistency Adult Form Child Form (median = 0.76)Child Form0.55 – 0.83 (median = 0.74)Internal Consistency(median = 0.80)0.66 – 0.92 (median = 0.73)
23Validity There are two types of validity with TSCS:2 Individual ValidityLooks for distorted response patterns within the responses given by each clientOverall ValidityLooks at the validity of the test as the whole
24Individual ValidityFour validity scores are calculated based on the responses given during the test.These scores help identify defensive guarding or the need for social desirability.When these scores are high or low, it is very useful to visually inspect any patterns in the responses.
25Individual Validity Scores Inconsistent RespondingIndicates if there is a discrepancy in the responses to questions with similar contentSelf-CriticismLow score may indicate defensiveness or an effort to display a favorable imageFaking GoodHigh score indicates a falsely positive self-conceptResponse DistributionHigh score indicates the respondent is very definite in describing himself or herself. Low score indicates avoiding commitment – “Partly False and Partly True”
26Validity of the TSCS:2 Content Validity Concurrent Validity Two dimensions: Internal and ExternalInternalMeasures the validity of the Identity, Behavior, and Satisfaction sub-divisionsExternalMeasures the validity of the sub-constructsConcurrent ValidityCorrelation of 0.68 with Wehmer and Izard Self-Rating Positive Affect Scale.Correlation of 0.75 with Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory
27Practicality A quick and easy test Administration is usually minutesGroup or individualHas a short form optionCost $115 for the manual plus 24 scoring sheets, 2-PC answer sheetsSpanish version available
28UtilityIdentifies strengths and weaknesses in specific areas as well as overall self-conceptMeets other four criteria of hierarchy
29Aura’s Scores and Interpretation Individual Validity: goodSelf-Concept ScoresLowPhysical: less than 1st percentileSocial: 5th percentilePersonal: 16th percentileAcademic: 31st percentileHighFamily: 81st percentileMoral: 90th percentileTotal Self-Concept ScoreTOT: 41st percentile
30ReferencesFitts, W.H. Ph. D; Warren, W.L. Ph. D. Tennessee Self-ConceptScale Manual, second edition.Asher, Ina Elfant, MS, OTR/L. Occupational Therapy Assessment Tools: An Annotated Index, second edition.