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Douglass F. Jacobs Anthony S. Davis Performance of northern red oak on former surface coal mines: influence of stocktype, controlled-release fertilizer,

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Presentation on theme: "Douglass F. Jacobs Anthony S. Davis Performance of northern red oak on former surface coal mines: influence of stocktype, controlled-release fertilizer,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Douglass F. Jacobs Anthony S. Davis Performance of northern red oak on former surface coal mines: influence of stocktype, controlled-release fertilizer, and mycorrhizal inoculation Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

2 Overview Introduction Introduction Forest plantations & forestry in Indiana Forest plantations & forestry in Indiana Mined land reclamation Mined land reclamation Improving seedling establishment Improving seedling establishment Materials and methods Materials and methods Results Results Conclusions and future directions Conclusions and future directions Acknowledgements Acknowledgements

3 Plantations ~ 5 % of the world’s forest cover ~ 5 % of the world’s forest cover Increasing % of forest products Increasing % of forest products Used to restore degraded lands Used to restore degraded lands Erosion control Erosion control Provide benefits associated with forests Provide benefits associated with forests

4 Forestry in Indiana Central Hardwood Forest Region (CHFR) Central Hardwood Forest Region (CHFR) Change in forest cover Change in forest cover 200 years ago: ~ 85 % 200 years ago: ~ 85 % 100 years ago: ~ 8 % 100 years ago: ~ 8 % presently: ~ 19 % presently: ~ 19 % Increasing since 1950s Increasing since 1950s Conversion of marginal ag land Conversion of marginal ag land ~ 5 million bareroot seedlings planted/year ~ 5 million bareroot seedlings planted/year 20 % for mined land reclamation 20 % for mined land reclamation

5 Forestry in Indiana Landowners plant hardwood seedlings Landowners plant hardwood seedlings provide forestland for future generations provide forestland for future generations maintain wildlife habitat maintain wildlife habitat conserve the environment conserve the environment timber production timber production

6 Mined land reclamation Coal producing region ~ Coal producing region ~ 17,000 km 2 ~ 40 % exploited ~ 40 % exploited Predicted future increase in coal consumption = increased exploitation Predicted future increase in coal consumption = increased exploitation 1977 Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act 1977 Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act Graded to the original contour Graded to the original contour Replacement of topsoil Replacement of topsoil Altered soil properties Altered soil properties Erosion Erosion Low seedling survival Low seedling survival Poor performance Poor performance Low land value → conversion Low land value → conversion

7 Mined land reclamation Reclamation of these sites Reclamation of these sites Returns to heavily disturbed lands some components of natural ecosystems Returns to heavily disturbed lands some components of natural ecosystems Hydrological processes Hydrological processes Forest cover Forest cover Erosion control Erosion control Wildlife habitat Wildlife habitat Carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration Aesthetically appealing Aesthetically appealing Increases land value Increases land value

8 Mined land reclamation Reclaimed surface coal mines Reclaimed surface coal mines Hardwood seedlings Hardwood seedlings First-year survival ~ 80 % First-year survival ~ 80 % Subsequent years ~ 25 % Subsequent years ~ 25 % Erosion Erosion Low land value Low land value Forest conversion Forest conversion

9 Northern red oak Able to survive a wide range of conditions Able to survive a wide range of conditions Success in mine reclamation Success in mine reclamation High commercial value High commercial value Historical and cultural significance Historical and cultural significance Commonly planted throughout Indiana Commonly planted throughout Indiana

10 Common Common ~ 98% of plantations established ~ 98% of plantations established Low cost Low cost ~ $0.25/seedling ~ $0.25/seedling Readily available Readily available Perform moderately well on former agricultural land Perform moderately well on former agricultural land Root system modification weakens drought stress resistance Root system modification weakens drought stress resistance Stocktype – bareroot seedlings

11 Uniform crop Uniform crop More efficient planting More efficient planting Extended planting window Extended planting window Fall planting Fall planting Entire root system Entire root system Minimal use in CHFR Minimal use in CHFR Large (> 4L), expensive (> $5) seedlings produced Large (> 4L), expensive (> $5) seedlings produced Drought resistance Drought resistance Variable site conditions Variable site conditions Stocktype – containerized seedlings

12 Controlled-release fertilizer Polymer coating releases fertilizer over an extended period Polymer coating releases fertilizer over an extended period Increase plant growth rate after outplanting Increase plant growth rate after outplanting Improve seedling nutrition on poor sites Improve seedling nutrition on poor sites

13 Mycorrhizal inoculation Naturally occur in undisturbed conditions Naturally occur in undisturbed conditions Mycorrhizae are known to Mycorrhizae are known to Increase water and nutrient uptake Increase water and nutrient uptake Buffer against pH Buffer against pH Buffer against nutrient toxicity Buffer against nutrient toxicity Can improve survival and growth Can improve survival and growth Operational use with conifers Operational use with conifers

14 Objectives Compare the effect of 4 stocktypes… Compare the effect of 4 stocktypes… Assess the influence of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) and mycorrhizal inoculation (MI)… Assess the influence of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) and mycorrhizal inoculation (MI)…...on survival and performance of northern red oak on reclaimed mined lands

15 Materials and methods - sites Two sites, Clay County, Indiana Two sites, Clay County, Indiana Privately owned Privately owned Mined 1930s Mined 1930s Graded to original Graded to original contour in 1980s Mined late 1980s Mined late 1980s Planted 2000 Planted 2000 Poor survival Poor survival Map from: Soil pH = 4.09 Soil pH = 6.55 Topsoil depth ~ 30 cm

16 Stocktypes Bareroot Bareroot Standard-density Standard-density (75 seedlings/m 2 ) Low-density Low-density (21 seedlings/m 2 ) Containerized (650 cm 3 ) Containerized (650 cm 3 ) June-sown (2002) January-sown (2003)

17 Controlled-release fertilizer Osmocote ® Exact TM Lo-Start micros Osmocote ® Exact TM Lo-Start micros month release (at media temperature of 21°C) month release (at media temperature of 21°C) ~ 9 g/seedling ~ 9 g/seedling Containerized seedlings - in the media Containerized seedlings - in the media Bareroot seedlings at the base of the planting hole Bareroot seedlings at the base of the planting hole

18 Inoculum consisted of: Inoculum consisted of: Pisolithus tinctorius Pisolithus tinctorius 1 Rhizopogon sp. 1 Rhizopogon sp. 4 Scleroderma spp. 4 Scleroderma spp. Field inoculated (2500 spores/seedling) Field inoculated (2500 spores/seedling) Immediately after planting Immediately after planting August August Syringe application Syringe application 5 mL solution 5 mL solution Mycorrhizal inoculation

19 17 April April 2003 Tractor-hauled coulter with trencher and packing wheels Tractor-hauled coulter with trencher and packing wheels 10 seedlings/row 10 seedlings/row 1.5 m × 2.4 m spacing 1.5 m × 2.4 m spacing Oust TM and GlyproPlus TM Oust TM and GlyproPlus TM 2.29 m fence 2.29 m fence 1120 seedlings planted 1120 seedlings planted Plantation establishment

20 Measurements and analyses Survival Survival Height Height Root-collar diameter Root-collar diameter Leaf water potential Leaf water potential Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify differences between treatments Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify differences between treatments Significant differences (α = 0.05) were separated using Tukey’s mean separation test Significant differences (α = 0.05) were separated using Tukey’s mean separation test

21 Methods – leaf water potential Remove leaf at base of petiole Remove leaf at base of petiole Place leaf inside chamber Place leaf inside chamber Petiole remains visible Petiole remains visible Increase chamber pressure Increase chamber pressure Record pressure Record pressure Exudation from xylem Exudation from xylem

22 Standard-densityLow-densityJune-sownJanuary-sown Results – survival

23 Results – height growth Largest initial height

24 Results – height growth

25 Results – diameter growth

26 Standard-densityLow-densityJune-sownJanuary-sown Results – leaf water potential

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28 Summary Bareroot seedlings had higher survival Bareroot seedlings had higher survival Containerized seedlings without CRF survival equaled bareroot Containerized seedlings without CRF survival equaled bareroot June-sown containers had greater % root-collar diameter growth than bareroot seedlings June-sown containers had greater % root-collar diameter growth than bareroot seedlings January-sown containerized seedlings had less negative leaf water potential January-sown containerized seedlings had less negative leaf water potential Better able to mitigate moisture stress Better able to mitigate moisture stress MI and CRF did not benefit establishment MI and CRF did not benefit establishment

29 Conclusions Seedling establishment under adverse conditions may be improved Seedling establishment under adverse conditions may be improved First year results indicate that standard-density bareroot seedlings may be most effective First year results indicate that standard-density bareroot seedlings may be most effective % growth of containerized seedlings better % growth of containerized seedlings better Seedling stocktypes should be developed to target specific issues Seedling stocktypes should be developed to target specific issues Site conditions Site conditions Cost Cost Ownership objectives Ownership objectives Silvicultural practices Silvicultural practices

30 Future directions 2 nd year assessment 2 nd year assessment Determine how initial size/shape of containerized seedlings influences field performance relative to bareroot seedlings Determine how initial size/shape of containerized seedlings influences field performance relative to bareroot seedlings Continue to examine application of controlled- release fertilizer at planting Continue to examine application of controlled- release fertilizer at planting Tailor fertilization during nursery culture to specific site conditions Tailor fertilization during nursery culture to specific site conditions Nutrient loading Nutrient loading

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32 Acknowledgements Hansford Mann & family Hansford Mann & family Robert Pickett & family Robert Pickett & family Stu Haney Stu Haney I-DNR Vallonia Nursery I-DNR Vallonia Nursery Staff of the HTIRC Staff of the HTIRC Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation Ray Brumfiel and Steve Herbert Ray Brumfiel and Steve Herbert Purdue University, Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center and Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue University, Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center and Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Dr. Bill Chaney Dr. Bill Chaney Dr. Phil Pope Dr. Phil Pope Rob Eddy Rob Eddy Amy Ross-Davis Amy Ross-Davis Don Carlson Don Carlson Zach Lowe Zach Lowe


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