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Kingdom Animalia The Big Picture Earland.

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1 Kingdom Animalia The Big Picture Earland


3 Part A – Animal Characteristics
DEFINING CHARACTERISTCS OF ANIMALS 1. Heterotrophs: ingest their food 2. Multicellular: 3. Eukaryotic: animal cells with a nucleus and organelles – large diversity of cell specialization 4. No cell walls TWO MAIN DIVISIONS: Invertebrate: all other phyla without internal skeletons Vertebrate: Phylum Chordate – internal skeleton

4 Level of Organization Cellular – Porifera Tissues – Cnidaria
Organs- all others Earland

5 Cephalization Cephalization is considered an evolutionary trend, whereby nervous tissue, over many generations, becomes concentrated toward one end of an organism. This process eventually produces a head region with sensory organs. Cephalization is intrinsically connected with a change in symmetry. It accompanied the move to bilateral symmetry made in flatworms, with ocelli and pinnae placed in the head region. In addition to a concentration of sense organs, all animals from annelids on also place the mouth in the head region. This process is also tied to the development of an anterior brain in the chordates from the notochord. A notable exception to the trend of cephalization throughout evolutionary advancement is phylum Echinodermata, which have Pentamerous Radial Symmetry – Echinoderm Adults only

6 Symmetry None – Porifera Radial – Cnidaria Bilateral – All others
Pentamerous Radial Symmetry – Echinoderm Adults only Earland

7 Tissue Layers Endoderm - digestion and respiration structures
Mesoderm - muscles, bones, blood, and reproductive organs Ectoderm - skin, brain, and nervous system

8 Tissue Layers None – Porifera Diploblastic – Cnidaria
endoderm & Ectoderm with mesoglea between Triploblastic – All others Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm Earland

9 Development of a Coelom
Diploblastic Acoelomate – Cnidaria Triploblastic Acoelomates – Platyhelminthes Pseudocelomate – Nematoda Coelomates – Annedlida and everything above Earland


11 Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk)
The Acoelomates No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining (a) Cnidarians and flatworms have no cavity between the body wall and digestive tract. Solid Tissue Body Wall Earland Chapter 22

12 Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk)
The Pseudocoelomates Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Nematoda Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract (b) Roundworms are pseudo-coelomates. Pseudocoelom Partial Lining Body Wall Earland Chapter 22

13 Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk)
The True Coelomates Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Annelida Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract (c) Annelids have a true coelom. Coelom Complete Lining Body Wall Earland Chapter 22

14 Earland

15 Embryological Development
Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development Protostomes Body cavity forms within a space between the body wall and the digestive cavity Blastopore becomes mouth e.g. nematodes, arthropods, flatworms, annelids, mollusks Deuterostomes Body cavity forms as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity Blastopore becomes anus e.g. echinoderms, chordates Earland

16 Protostome vs Deuterostome
Coelom forms from a portion of the digestive tube blastopore becomes the anus radial / indeterminate cleavage regulative development (Echinodermata, Chordata) Coelom forms from the solid masses in the embryo blastopore becomes the mouth spiral / determinate cleavage mosaic development (Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca,) Earland

17 Earland

18 Symmetry


20 Reproduction 5. Reproduction: Asexual and sexual
A. Direct development: “Babies” (offspring) look like adults (they get bigger as they get older, but don’t change) B. Indirect development: Metamorphosis Ex) Tadpole to frog

21 Feeding Herbivores: Eats plants Carnivores : Eats animals
Omnivores : Eats plants and animals Parasites : Lives off of a host Filter Feeders : Strains floating plants and animals from surrounding water Detrivores : Feeds on decaying plants and animals (detrius)

22 The 7 Essentials Feeding – see above Respiration – skin or full system
Internal Transport – closed or open circulation Excretion – waste removal Response – nerve cells – brain- specialized organs Movement – exo or endoskeleton, muscles Reproduction – sexual or asexual

23 Sponges_Phylum Porifera

24 Sponges_Phylum Porifera Key Ideas
Simplest Animal - Commonly referred to as Sponges Adults are sessile- can’t move on their own Lack true tissues and organs, most are unspecialized – Cell Level of Organization Incomplete digestive system No Symmetry Ancient & mostly marine Close to 5,000 species divided into 3 classes: Earland

25 Porifera Outer layer protects the interior and has many holes through which water can enter the sponge Inner layer are lined with collar cells, which have flagella Amoebocytes wander through the jelly-like material and pick up food from the collar cells for digestions, transport oxygen, dispose of waste and can change into other cells for support Have special chemical defenses to protect from predators, disease organisms, humans use these chemicals Related closely to protists and are the earliest animals. Earland

26 Earland

27 Porifera Cell Types Note: water flow = nutrients in and waste out
Porocytes: water goes thru them into central cavity Collar Cells: move water current thru the pores via flagella Osculum: opening that water exits cavity thru Spicules: form skeleton Some sponges have skeletons made by both CaCO3 and SiO2. Amebocytes: build the spicules Note: water flow = nutrients in and waste out

28 Feeding Filter Feeders!
Sponges are characterized by the possession of a feeding system unique among animals. Poriferans don't have mouths; instead, they have tiny pores in their outer walls through which water is drawn. Cells in the sponge walls filter goodies from the water as the water is pumped through the body and out other larger openings. The flow of water through the sponge is unidirectional, driven by the beating of flagella which line the surface of chambers connected by a series of canals. Sponge cells perform a variety of bodily functions and appear to be more independent of each other than are the cells of other animals.

29 Reproduction Sexual: - sperm are release into the water thru pores amebocytes carry to eggs  zygote  larvae swim & settle  new sponge Asexual: Gemmules: sphere of amebocytes & spicules that can survive freezing or drying Budding: part falls off  new sponge

30 Phylum Cnidaria Earland

31 Phylum Cnidaria: the hydra, anemones, & jellyfish – Radial symmetry
Tissue Level of Organization - Cells organized into distinct tissues Rudimentary nerve network and contractile tissue No true organs Incomplete Digestive System - One digestive opening Reproduce sexually and asexually Chapter 22

32 Cnidarians- Con’t Radial symmetry, most do not have a head and are sessile Tentacles with stinging cells called cnidocytes Has poisonous barbs called nematocysts, that fire when touched, once prey has been captured, the tentacles move it to the gastovascular cavity Earland

33 Two forms Polyp-cylindrical body with tentacles radiating from one end, sessile Medusa- umbrella shaped form with fringed tentacles on the lower edge, move freely Some cnidarians exist in both forms and some one or the other Earland

34 Types of Cnidarians Hydrozoa- sessile polyps & medusa stages – often found in colonies – hydra, man-of-war Scyphozoa- mostly medusa, v short polyp – some very toxic - jellyfish Anthozoa- only polyp - sea anemones & most corals Earland

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