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Earland1 The Big Picture. Earland2 DRAW THIS ON A BLANK SHEET.

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Presentation on theme: "Earland1 The Big Picture. Earland2 DRAW THIS ON A BLANK SHEET."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earland1 The Big Picture

2 Earland2 DRAW THIS ON A BLANK SHEET

3 DEFINING CHARACTERISTCS OF ANIMALS 1. Heterotrophs: ingest their food 2. Multicellular: 3. Eukaryotic: animal cells with a nucleus and organelles – large diversity of cell specialization 4. No cell walls TWO MAIN DIVISIONS: Invertebrate: all other phyla without internal skeletons Vertebrate: Phylum Chordate – internal skel eton

4  Cellular – Porifera  Tissues – Cnidaria  Organs- all others Earland4

5  Cephalization is considered an evolutionary trend, whereby nervous tissue, over many generations, becomes concentrated toward one end of an organism. This process eventually produces a head region with sensory organs.evolutionarynervous tissueheadsensory organs  Cephalization is intrinsically connected with a change in symmetry. It accompanied the move to bilateral symmetry made in flatworms, with ocelli and pinnae placed in the head region. symmetryflatwormsocellipinnae  In addition to a concentration of sense organs, all animals from annelids on also place the mouth in the head region.annelids  This process is also tied to the development of an anterior brain in the chordates from the notochord. brainchordatesnotochord  A notable exception to the trend of cephalization throughout evolutionary advancement is phylum Echinodermata, which have Pentamerous Radial Symmetry – Echinoderm Adults onlyphylumEchinodermata

6  None – Porifera  Radial – Cnidaria  Bilateral – All others › Pentamerous Radial Symmetry – Echinoderm Adults only Earland6

7 Endoderm - digestion and respiration structures Mesoderm - muscles, bones, blood, and reproductive organs Ectoderm - skin, brain, and nervous system

8  None – Porifera  Diploblastic – Cnidaria  endoderm & Ectoderm with mesoglea between  Triploblastic – All others  Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm Earland8

9  Diploblastic Acoelomate – Cnidaria  Triploblastic Acoelomates – Platyhelminthes  Pseudocelomate – Nematoda  Coelomates – Annedlida and everything above Earland9

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11 11 Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria

12 Earland12 Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Partial Lining Nematoda

13 Earland13 Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete Lining Annelida

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15  Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development  Protostomes › Body cavity forms within a space between the body wall and the digestive cavity › Blastopore becomes mouth › e.g. nematodes, arthropods, flatworms, annelids, mollusks  Deuterostomes › Body cavity forms as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity › Blastopore becomes anus › e.g. echinoderms, chordates Earland15

16 Earland16 Protostome Coelom forms from the solid masses in the embryo blastopore becomes the mouth spiral / determinate cleavage mosaic development (Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca,) Deuterostome Coelom forms from a portion of the digestive tube blastopore becomes the anus radial / indeterminate cleavage regulative development (Echinodermata, Chordata)

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20 5. Reproduction: Asexual and sexual  A. Direct development: “Babies” (offspring) look like adults (they get bigger as they get older, but don’t change)  B. Indirect development: Metamorphosis  Ex) Tadpole to frog

21  Herbivores: Eats plants  Carnivores : Eats animals  Omnivores : Eats plants and animals  Parasites : Lives off of a host  Filter Feeders : Strains floating plants and animals from surrounding water  Detrivores : Feeds on decaying plants and animals (detrius)

22  Feeding – see above  Respiration – skin or full system  Internal Transport – closed or open circulation  Excretion – waste removal  Response – nerve cells – brain- specialized organs  Movement – exo or endoskeleton, muscles  Reproduction – sexual or asexual

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24  Simplest Animal - Commonly referred to as Sponges  Adults are sessile- can’t move on their own  Lack true tissues and organs, most are unspecialized – Cell Level of Organization  Incomplete digestive system  No Symmetry  Ancient & mostly marine  Close to 5,000 species divided into 3 classes: Earland24

25  Outer layer protects the interior and has many holes through which water can enter the sponge  Inner layer are lined with collar cells, which have flagella  Amoebocytes wander through the jelly-like material and pick up food from the collar cells for digestions, transport oxygen, dispose of waste and can change into other cells for support  Have special chemical defenses to protect from predators, disease organisms, humans use these chemicals  Related closely to protists and are the earliest animals. Earland25

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27  Porocytes: water goes thru them into central cavity  Collar Cells: move water current thru the pores via flagella  Osculum: opening that water exits cavity thru  Spicules: form skeleton  Some sponges have skeletons made by both CaCO3 and SiO2.  Amebocytes: build the spicules Note: water flow = nutrients in and waste out

28  Filter Feeders!  Sponges are characterized by the possession of a feeding system unique among animals. Poriferans don't have mouths; instead, they have tiny pores in their outer walls through which water is drawn. Cells in the sponge walls filter goodies from the water as the water is pumped through the body and out other larger openings. The flow of water through the sponge is unidirectional, driven by the beating of flagella which line the surface of chambers connected by a series of canals. Sponge cells perform a variety of bodily functions and appear to be more independent of each other than are the cells of other animals.

29  Sexual: - sperm are release into the water thru pores  amebocytes carry to eggs  zygote  larvae swim & settle  new sponge  Asexual:  Gemmules: sphere of amebocytes & spicules that can survive freezing or drying  Budding: part falls off  new sponge

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31 › Tissue Level of Organization - Cells organized into distinct tissues › Rudimentary nerve network and contractile tissue › No true organs › Incomplete Digestive System - One digestive opening › Reproduce sexually and asexually Chapter 2231

32  Radial symmetry, most do not have a head and are sessile  Tentacles with stinging cells called cnidocytes  Has poisonous barbs called nematocysts, that fire when touched, once prey has been captured, the tentacles move it to the gastovascular cavity Earland32

33  Polyp-cylindrical body with tentacles radiating from one end, sessile  Medusa- umbrella shaped form with fringed tentacles on the lower edge, move freely  Some cnidarians exist in both forms and some one or the other Earland33

34  Hydrozoa- sessile polyps & medusa stages – often found in colonies – hydra, man-of-war  Scyphozoa- mostly medusa, v short polyp – some very toxic - jellyfish  Anthozoa- only polyp - sea anemones & most corals Earland34


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