Research Question Do we see more white collar based government jobs or manufacturing jobs in small town America today?
What I expect to find What I expect to find is a higher percentile of jobs in more professional fields. Such as White collar Government Jobs for 2 reasons. 1- Because over the past centaury we have begun seeing more and more jobs being outsourced and sent over seas to increase company profits. 2- And sense we have seen more and more jobs leaving, this directly results in a higher percentile of people attending colleges to get degrees in an attempt to attain these higher end jobs. This intern has resulted in a bigger separation of High and low class people and professions, because with America outsourcing major manufacturing companies we are loosing our blue collar working middle class and are left seeing more lawyers and fast food workers
Literature Review In the United States, data was derived from 12 million business establishments studied since 1969. Results show that the business population as a whole is extremely turbulent, meaning millions of companies form every year, and a significant portion experience growth - - especially small firms. An era of innovation is on the rise, stemming from a small number of high tech and high-innovation firms that are leading the service industries of the United States (David G.W. Birch ) Rural America's economy in 1980-89 had a hard time keeping up with the urban economy and continued to undergo industrial restructuring. Non-metro employment growth lagged growth in urban areas during the period. Job losses early in the 1980s, and slow growth afterwards, limited economic opportunities and led to declining relative incomes, higher poverty rates, and slow population growth in parts of rural America. These economic conditions reflect both the cyclical downturn in the early 1980s and continued restructuring that has affected traditional rural industries. (Reid, J. N.Frederick, M.)
Literature Review In 2013, manufacturers contributed $2.08 trillion to the economy, up from $2.03 trillion in 2012. This was 12.5 percent of GDP. For every $1.00 spent in manufacturing, another $1.32 is added to the economy, the highest multiplier effect of any economic sector. Data from the U.S. Department of Commerce showed that “U.S. multinational corporations, the big brand-name companies that employ a fifth of all American workers, cut their work forces in the U.S. by 2.9 million during the 2000s while increasing employment overseas by 2.4 million.” According to a report on outsourcing by Working America, “Manufacturing employment collapsed from a high of 19.5 million workers in June 1979 to 11.5 workers in December 2009, a drop of 8 million workers over 30 years. Between August 2000 and February 2004, manufacturing jobs were lost for a stunning 43 consecutive months—the longest such stretch since the Great Depression.”
Citations Masaaki Kotabe and Michael R. Czinkota Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 23, No. 4 (4th Qtr., 2013), pp. Frank L. DuBois, Brian Toyne and Michael D. Oliff. Journal of International Business Studies “International Manufacturing Strategies of U.S. Multinationals: A Conceptual Framework Based on a Four-Industry Study”, Vol. 24, No. 2 (2nd Qtr., 1993), pp. 307- 333http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/155224http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/155224 Birch, David G.W., Job Creation in America: How Our Smallest Companies Put the Most People to Work (1987). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1496185http://ssrn.com/abstract=1496185 Reid, J. N.; Frederick, M. “Rural America: economic performance’, 1989. Agriculture Information Bulletin - United States Department of Agriculture 1990 pp. 20pp.Record Number19901884679
Data source Bureau Labor Statistics Employees on nonfarm payrolls by state and selected industry sector Http://www.bls.gov/news.release/laus.t05.htm The data was collect from non farm payroll employees in September of 2013. I then used this data to analyze how Government jobs compared to Manufacturing jobs by percent per state in the U.S in September of 2013
Step by Step 1 st I took the raw data from the website and cleaned it up in the spread sheet. After cleaning it up I gathered the total amount of each job type per state, with each letter being a job field (= X+Y+Z) Then took each job type for the month and divide it by the total for that job in each state. ( This is where your are able to type the equation in ( X/Y*100) and drag the equation across and down. This created the percent's per jobs and the hard data I would use in my Pivot tables and Analysis.
I then took this data and copied and pasted it into a new spread sheet in just a plane text view so I could Construct the Pivot Table. I did create a graph for each job and how it fluctuated comparing each state depending the seven distinguished sectors that all the jobs fell into.
Here you can see how Construction and Manufacturing Vary across states, Left side being amount Of employees in that field in thousandths and bottom being the states.
We can see the Differentiating Percentile Rates, concerning employment in Government jobs vs. Manufacturing jobs Per state -
Step by Step Continued… I then took the information form all these states and job types and combined them into a pie chart. This Chart will show us the Total amount of people employed in each of these job types for all of America. I then formatted the Data Labels and Series to construct the presentation of the Graph. In analysis of the final results constructed by the tables we are able to see the correlation of employments rates per job field held by American in September of 2013.
What was Found Here we can see the Percent of jobs held in America by each sector. I found that Manufacturing jobs across America only occupied around 11 % Government Jobs on the other hand showed to be around 22 %. This data does not directly prove the reasoning for the swing shift in each type of job but does validate my hypothesis of a higher amount of governmental jobs held over that of Manufacturing jobs.