Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: The Worlds of Christendom"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 10: The Worlds of Christendom Contraction, Expansion, and Division
2Learning ObjectivesTo teach students why Christianity became a major religion during the third wave era of civilizations.To teach students how and why Christianity contracted and expanded in different parts of the world during this time period.
4Introduction Growth of modern Christianity China, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, The Philippines, Vietnam, and parts of India.Non-Muslim regions of AfricaProtestant Christianity in Latin AmericaThe chapter opens with a quick story about a young Chinese woman who is distraught over finding out that her husband was having an affair. She converted to christianity and found a sense of family and support from her church. This may be why christianity appeals to people, and why the faith is still rapidly growing today in many regions of the world. North America and Europe are now host only 40 percent of christians in the world.
5Christianity in third wave civilizations Widespread in Africa and EurasiaContraction of ChristianityDivision(In the sixth and seventh century world)(over the next thousand years)(Orthodox v. Roman Catholic)
6Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa Asian ChristianityContraction due to the emergence of IslamPowerful Arab EmpireSeveral sacred locations taken by Islam“Arrival of new faith”Warfare against nearby Byzantine and PersiaConversion to IslamThe Grand Mosque of Sana’s was built by using pillars of a demolished Christian cathedral. The Dome of the Rock built on the location jews believed Abraham prepared to offer his son as a sacrifice to God. Also the place were Christians believed Jesus had visited a to converse with learned teachers and later to drive out the money changers. Conversion to Islam: several conquered people converted to Islam, most likely because they were attracted by how successful the new religion had become. Christians could still practice there religion but had to pay a special tax. In some cases, Christian churches were destroyed, and christians were forced to wear distinctive clothing. In other cases christians were accepted and churches were built in syria and christians were recruited into administration schools and translation services and armed forces. Allowed to exist, but shrank considerably.
7Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa Asian ChristianityContraction of Christianity in ChinaChinese state turned against all foreign religionsAcceptance from the Mongol ruleAlmost completely vanished during the Confucian Ming dynastyMongols appreciated that christians could eat meat and drink. Many became christians.
8Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa African ChristianityMajority of Egypt practiced Christianity under Islamic rule – “dhimmis”Violent change when Egypt threatened by Mongols and Christian crusadersRise and decline in NubiaStrong Christian community in EthiopiaDhimmis: legally inferior people but protected by special tax. Tolerant rulers.
9Discussion Question #1What variations in the experience of African and Asian Christian communities can you identify?
10Byzantine Christendom Emperor was the divine ruler. Both pope and emperor. “god anointed ruler”Ties between church and state.Provided a cultural identityEastern Orthodox ChristianityRoman CatholicismCrusadesSeizure and looting of Constantinople in 1204
11Byzantium and the World Struggle against Persian Empire“Greek Fire”Long-distance trade in EurasiaCultural influenceConquest of Balkans and parts of RussiaConflict with persians weakened both empires. Persia became islamic. But byzantine held out but lost considerable territory.
12The Conversion of Russia Culturally diverse Kievan RusPrince Vladimir or KievSought to unify the diverse areaLinked Rus with larger networks of communication and exchange“Third Rome”
13Discussion Question #2How did links to Byzantium transform the new civilization of Kievan Rus?
15The West in comparative perspective Ch. 10Ways of the World
16Learning ObjectivesStudents will demonstrate knowledge of how different cultures influenced the west.Students will recognize technological advancements made by the west as a result of borrowing.Students will learn the basics of pluralism in politics in the west.Students will learn about the idea of reason and theology and its effect on faith.
18How Was The West Seen?Far behind other civilizations Smaller cities Weak political figures Weak economy Technologically behind
19Catching Up How did the West catch up to other civilizations? Answer: Borrowing
20What Was Borrowed? Intellectual Innovations: Cultural Innovations: Examples: Mathematics, ChessCultural Innovations:Examples: Christian Mysticism, Music, PoetryTechnological Innovations:Examples: Horse Collar, Gunpowder, Paper
21Agricultural Advancements Heavy wheeled plows to handle dense soil of north Europe.HorsesThree- field crop rotation
22Other Advancements Windmill, water driven Gunpowder Cannons Question: In what ways did borrowing from abroad shape European civilization after 1000?
23Pluralism In Politics No Empire Competing coexisting state governments Weaker competing officials / rulersLocal commoner representation in governmentEmbryonic parliaments represented the three estates, 1-Clergey, 2-Landowning nobility, and 3-urban merchants
24Effects of Pluralism and Competition WarStrengthened local militariesDrove Scholars and BureaucratsExtended trading and borrowingFurther advanced agricultureLead way for capitalism
25(Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY) Reason and Faith(Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)
26Reason Theology European intellectuals were called to ask questions. Who? What? When? Where? Why?The idea was to provide a rational foundation of faith.Reason was applied to religion, law, medicine, nature, astronomy, etc.
27Results Of ReasonAristotle was the prominent figure in the area of theology.Many scholars were force out of European countries and took their teachings to the Islamic World.Theology was accepted and eventually taught in the University.Lead the way for scientific study.
28Effects On FaithReligious establishments saw reason as a threat. A threat that questioned the fundamentals of their ideology.To this day there is tension between religious groups and scientific thinkers.
29Picture Questions Does this picture portray Christ's Divinity? Look closelyat the picture before answering.How does the image portrayJesus as an All-Powerful ruler?Does this image of Jesus differfrom others you have seen?
30Visual Source 10.3 Ladder of Divine Ascent Instructional book for Byzantine monksTaught monks to overcome temptation and ascend toward union with GodThe demons represent various sinsHow does the icon portray the spiritual journey?What sources of help are available for the monks on the ladder?What message might beginning monks have taken from this image?