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Chapter 10: The Worlds of Christendom

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1 Chapter 10: The Worlds of Christendom
Contraction, Expansion, and Division

2 Learning Objectives To teach students why Christianity became a major religion during the third wave era of civilizations. To teach students how and why Christianity contracted and expanded in different parts of the world during this time period.

3 Academic Standards in Social Studies

4 Introduction Growth of modern Christianity
China, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, The Philippines, Vietnam, and parts of India. Non-Muslim regions of Africa Protestant Christianity in Latin America The chapter opens with a quick story about a young Chinese woman who is distraught over finding out that her husband was having an affair. She converted to christianity and found a sense of family and support from her church. This may be why christianity appeals to people, and why the faith is still rapidly growing today in many regions of the world. North America and Europe are now host only 40 percent of christians in the world.

5 Christianity in third wave civilizations
Widespread in Africa and Eurasia Contraction of Christianity Division (In the sixth and seventh century world) (over the next thousand years) (Orthodox v. Roman Catholic)

6 Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa
Asian Christianity Contraction due to the emergence of Islam Powerful Arab Empire Several sacred locations taken by Islam “Arrival of new faith” Warfare against nearby Byzantine and Persia Conversion to Islam The Grand Mosque of Sana’s was built by using pillars of a demolished Christian cathedral. The Dome of the Rock built on the location jews believed Abraham prepared to offer his son as a sacrifice to God. Also the place were Christians believed Jesus had visited a to converse with learned teachers and later to drive out the money changers. Conversion to Islam: several conquered people converted to Islam, most likely because they were attracted by how successful the new religion had become. Christians could still practice there religion but had to pay a special tax. In some cases, Christian churches were destroyed, and christians were forced to wear distinctive clothing. In other cases christians were accepted and churches were built in syria and christians were recruited into administration schools and translation services and armed forces. Allowed to exist, but shrank considerably.

7 Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa
Asian Christianity Contraction of Christianity in China Chinese state turned against all foreign religions Acceptance from the Mongol rule Almost completely vanished during the Confucian Ming dynasty Mongols appreciated that christians could eat meat and drink. Many became christians.

8 Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa
African Christianity Majority of Egypt practiced Christianity under Islamic rule – “dhimmis” Violent change when Egypt threatened by Mongols and Christian crusaders Rise and decline in Nubia Strong Christian community in Ethiopia Dhimmis: legally inferior people but protected by special tax. Tolerant rulers.

9 Discussion Question #1 What variations in the experience of African and Asian Christian communities can you identify?

10 Byzantine Christendom
Emperor was the divine ruler. Both pope and emperor. “god anointed ruler” Ties between church and state. Provided a cultural identity Eastern Orthodox Christianity Roman Catholicism Crusades Seizure and looting of Constantinople in 1204

11 Byzantium and the World
Struggle against Persian Empire “Greek Fire” Long-distance trade in Eurasia Cultural influence Conquest of Balkans and parts of Russia Conflict with persians weakened both empires. Persia became islamic. But byzantine held out but lost considerable territory.

12 The Conversion of Russia
Culturally diverse Kievan Rus Prince Vladimir or Kiev Sought to unify the diverse area Linked Rus with larger networks of communication and exchange “Third Rome”

13 Discussion Question #2 How did links to Byzantium transform the new civilization of Kievan Rus?


15 The West in comparative perspective
Ch. 10 Ways of the World

16 Learning Objectives Students will demonstrate knowledge of how different cultures influenced the west. Students will recognize technological advancements made by the west as a result of borrowing. Students will learn the basics of pluralism in politics in the west. Students will learn about the idea of reason and theology and its effect on faith.

17 Benchmarks

18 How Was The West Seen? Far behind other civilizations Smaller cities Weak political figures Weak economy Technologically behind

19 Catching Up How did the West catch up to other civilizations?
Answer: Borrowing

20 What Was Borrowed? Intellectual Innovations: Cultural Innovations:
Examples: Mathematics, Chess Cultural Innovations: Examples: Christian Mysticism, Music, Poetry Technological Innovations: Examples: Horse Collar, Gunpowder, Paper

21 Agricultural Advancements
Heavy wheeled plows to handle dense soil of north Europe. Horses Three- field crop rotation

22 Other Advancements Windmill, water driven Gunpowder Cannons
Question: In what ways did borrowing from abroad shape European civilization after 1000?

23 Pluralism In Politics No Empire Competing coexisting state governments
Weaker competing officials / rulers Local commoner representation in government Embryonic parliaments represented the three estates, 1-Clergey, 2-Landowning nobility, and 3-urban merchants

24 Effects of Pluralism and Competition
War Strengthened local militaries Drove Scholars and Bureaucrats Extended trading and borrowing Further advanced agriculture Lead way for capitalism

25 (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)
Reason and Faith (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)

26 Reason Theology European intellectuals were called to ask questions.
Who? What? When? Where? Why? The idea was to provide a rational foundation of faith. Reason was applied to religion, law, medicine, nature, astronomy, etc.

27 Results Of Reason Aristotle was the prominent figure in the area of theology. Many scholars were force out of European countries and took their teachings to the Islamic World. Theology was accepted and eventually taught in the University. Lead the way for scientific study.

28 Effects On Faith Religious establishments saw reason as a threat. A threat that questioned the fundamentals of their ideology. To this day there is tension between religious groups and scientific thinkers.

29 Picture Questions Does this picture portray
Christ's Divinity? Look closely at the picture before answering. How does the image portray Jesus as an All-Powerful ruler? Does this image of Jesus differ from others you have seen?

30 Visual Source 10.3 Ladder of Divine Ascent
Instructional book for Byzantine monks Taught monks to overcome temptation and ascend toward union with God The demons represent various sins How does the icon portray the spiritual journey? What sources of help are available for the monks on the ladder? What message might beginning monks have taken from this image?

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