Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: Postwar Confidence and Anxiety"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 13: Postwar Confidence and Anxiety Demobilization – decreasing the man power in the military by allowing service men and women to return homeGI Bill of Rights – Federal law that granted benefits to veteran’sA year of unemployment benefits if they could not find a jobFinancial aid for collegeGovernment loans for building and starting businesses.
2 1957 1 baby born every 7 seconds 1A. Baby BoomIt seems to me that every other young housewife I see is pregnant British visitor to America, 19581957 1 baby born every 7 seconds
3 Dr. Benjamin Spock and the Anderson Quintuplets 1B. Baby BoomDr. Benjamin Spock and the Anderson Quintuplets
4 Converting War Time Economy Inflation most painful economic problem after warU.S. untouched by war’s devastationU.S. produce 50% of world’s outputTechnology improves productivityUse of computers began in businessIncreased military spending leads to new technologiesDevelopment of plastics and light metal alloysMarshall Plan increased demand for American goods
5 The Taft-Hartley ActRepublicans take control of both houses of Congress in 1946 and seek to return to a conservative government:Lower taxesReduced government regulationSupport for businessAnti-Union – reduce the power of unions to aid businessEnd price controls passed during the warTaft, a conservative Republican Senator sponsored actAuthorized President- 80 day cooling off period for strikes in essential industriesBanned shops closed to non-union membersTruman Vetoes but is overridden
6 Truman and Civil Rights Supports the trend in post war America against intolerance- Lesson of discrimination of the Nazis- rings loud and clear- Nuremberg Trials began, the truth of Nazi racism comes outWar was fought for freedom- freedom should be available at homeSome former soldiers don’t like racism in USAAmerican society is developing conditions for change emerge
7 Incremental Civil Rights for African Americans 1946 Morgan v. Virginia- segregation in public interstate travel was unconstitutional1950- Shelley v. Kraemer- restrictive covenants in housing- not selling property to members of certain groups violated the Constitution
8 Civil RightsTruman desegregated the Military and Federal Civil ServiceBig step in the early struggle for an end to discrimination
9 Election 1948Southern Democrats leave national party in response to Truman's support for Civil RightsDixicratsStrom Thurmond- South Carolina Senator, runs for presidentDewey runs for the RepublicansTruman appeared to lose- but appeals directly to the people citing the “Do nothing Republican Congress” and Wins the Election
11 Fair Deal Liberal programs of Truman similar to New Deal National health insuranceLimited and refused by Republican Congress 1946
12 Eisenhower Charts Middle Path Eisenhower popular choice for president in 1952 – both parties wanted him!!First elected post he ever held was presidentCharted middle courseAgreed government was too big, but did not repeal New Deal programsFederal spending increased during his presidency
13 The Car Culture Automania Car Culture Takes Over Cheap, plentiful gas, easy credit, advertising increase car salesNo public transit in suburbs; cars necessaryCar Culture Takes OverDepended on cars to get to workCars necessary to grocery shop or go to new suburban shopping mallsFast food restaurants and drive-in movies capitalize on carTowns near highways prosper; those near older, smaller roads declineNEXT
14 Mobility Takes Its Toll continued The Car CultureMobility Takes Its TollCars create social, environmental problems— e.g. accidents, pollutionUpper-, middle-class whites leave cities; jobs, businesses followEconomic gulf widens between suburban and urban- also widens gap between middle class and the poorNEXT
15 Chapter 13: Postwar Confidence and Anxiety Interstate Highway Act$$$ to build 41,000 miles of highway consisting of multilane expressways that would connect the nation’s major citiesBiggest public works expenditure in historyModeled after the German Autobahn that Hitler builtIke’s plan for rapid mobilization in times of international crisis.In 1990, became known as the Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways
18 Chapter 13: Postwar Confidence and Anxiety Sunbelt – Name given to southern and western states during the migration of the U.S population from eastern and northern citiesHouston, TX - Benefited from boom in petrochemical and aerospace businessMigration had a heavy impact on the shift of representative power in CongressCalifornia and Texas are now players in the Electoral College gameFactors in moveClimateLarge number of jobs (especially defense industries)Air conditioningInflux of Latino populations
20 The Organization and the Organization Man Employment in the U.S.By 1956, majority of Americans not in blue-collar (industrial) jobsMore in higher-paying, white-collar (office, professional) positionsMany in services, like sales, advertising, insurance, communications (service sector)Conglomerates• Conglomerates—corporation that owns smaller, unrelated companies• Diversify to protect from downturns in individual industriesNEXT
21 Franchises Social Conformity The Organization and the Organization ManFranchises• Franchise—company offers similar products, services in many places- also the right to use company name and system• Fast-food restaurants among first, most successful franchisesSocial ConformityMany employees with well-paid, secure jobs lose individualityPersonality tests see if job candidates fit in company cultureCompanies reward teamwork, loyalty, encourage conformityNEXT
22 Chapter 13: Postwar Confidence and Anxiety Multinational Corporation - Companies that produced and sold their goods and services all over the world and established branches abroad.General Motors, General Electric, International Business Machines, Coca-ColaConsumerism – large-scale buying, most of it on creditUnion Gains1955 AFL and CIO combine to form AFL-CIOEducational OpportunitiesNumber of young people attending college increaseGovernment funds education (science and math)California Master Plan
23 Consumerism Unbound New Products Planned Obsolescence • 60% of Americans in middle class; twice as many as before WW II• Consumerism (buying material goods) equated with success• Numerous new products appear on market in response to demandPlanned Obsolescence• Planned obsolescence—making products that get outdated, wear out- makes consumers buy or want to buy new onesNEXT
24 Buy Now, Pay Later The Advertising Age continued Consumerism UnboundBuy Now, Pay LaterCredit purchases, credit cards, installments extend payment periodPrivate debt grows; consumers confident of future prosperityThe Advertising AgeMost people have satisfied basic needs; ads encourage extra spendingPsychological appeals in ads lure consumers to particular productsAds appear in all media; television emerges as powerful new tool
26 Well-Defined Gender Roles The ideal modern woman married, cooked and cared for her family, and kept herself busy by joining the local PTA and leading a troop of Campfire Girls. She entertained guests in her family’s suburban house and worked out on the trampoline to keep her size 12 figure Life magazine, 1956Marilyn MonroeThe ideal 1950s man was the provider, protector, and the boss of the house Life magazine, 19551956 William H. Whyte, Jr. The Organization Mana middle-class, white suburban male is the ideal.
27 Religious RevivalToday in the U. S., the Christian faith is back in the center of things Time magazine, 1954Church membership: 1940 64,000, 114,000,000Television Preachers:1. Catholic Bishop Fulton J. Sheen “Life is Worth Living”2. Methodist Minister Norman Vincent Peale The Power of Positive Thinking3. Reverend Billy Graham ecumenical message; warned against the evils of Communism.
28 Religious Revival Hollywood: apex of the biblical epics. The Robe The Ten Commandments Ben HurIt’s un-American to be un-religious! The Christian Century, 1954
29 The Suburban Lifestyle Advances in Medicine and Childcare• New drugs fight, prevent childhood diseases• Dr. Jonas Salk develops vaccine for poliomyelitis• Pediatrician Dr. Benjamin Spock writes popular guide for parents• Baby boom impacts economy, educational systemNEXT
30 Popular Culture New Era of the Mass Media The Rise of Television • Mass media—means of communication that reach large audiences• TV first widely available 1948; in almost 90% of homes in 1960• Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates communications• By 1956, FCC allows 500 stations to broadcast• Programs: comedies, news, dramas, variety shows, children’s shows• Lifestyle changes: TV Guide is popular magazine; TV dinnersNEXT
31 Stereotypes and Gunslingers New Era of the Mass MediaStereotypes and GunslingersWomen, minorities on TV are stereotypes; few blacks, LatinosWesterns glorify historical frontier conflictsRaise concerns about effect of violence on childrenRadio and MoviesTelevision cuts into radio, movie marketsRadio turns to local news, weather, music, community affairsMovies capitalize on size, color, sound advantages; try gimmicksNEXT
32 Television Truth, Justice, and the American way! 1946 7,000 TV sets in the U. S 50,000,000 TV sets in the U. S.Television is a vast wasteland. Newton Minnow, Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, 1961Mass Audience TV celebrated traditional American values.Truth, Justice, and the American way!
33 Television – The Western Davy Crockett King of the Wild FrontierSheriff Matt Dillon, GunsmokeThe Lone Ranger (and his faithful sidekick, Tonto): Who is that masked man??
34 Television - Family Shows Glossy view of mostly middle-class suburban life.But...I Love LucyThe HoneymoonersSocial Winners?... AND… Loosers?
35 African Americans and Rock ‘n’ Roll • Black musicians add electric instruments to blues—rhythm and blues• Rock ‘n’ roll—mix of rhythm and blues, country, pop• Has heavy rhythm, simple melodies, lyrics about teenage concerns• Music appeals to newly affluent teens who can buy records• Many adults concerned music will lead to delinquency, immoralityNEXT
36 1951 “race music” “ROCK ‘N ROLL” Elvis Presley “The King” Teen CultureIn the 1950s the word “teenager” entered the American language. By 1956 13 mil. teens with $7 bil. to spend a year.1951 “race music” “ROCK ‘N ROLL”Elvis Presley “The King”
37 Behavioral Rules of the 1950s: Teen CultureBehavioral Rules of the 1950s:Obey Authority.Control Your Emotions.Don’t Make Waves Fit in with the Group.
38 A Subculture Emerges The Beat Movement • Beat movement—writers, artists express social, literary nonconformity• Poets, writers use free, open form; read works aloud in coffeehouses• Beatnik attitudes, way of life attract media attention, studentsNEXT
39 The “Beat” Generation: Jack Kerouac On The RoadAllen Ginsberg poem, “Howl”Neal CassadyWilliam S. Burroughs“Beatnik”“Clean” Teen
40 The Other America The Urban Poor White Flight 1962, 25% of Americans below poverty levelPost WW II–1960, 5 million blacks go from rural South to urban NorthWhite flight results in loss of businesses, tax payers to citiesCities can no longer afford to maintain or improve:- schools, public transportation, police and fire departmentsThe Other America by Michael Harrington – documents changes in citiesContinued . . .NEXT
41 The Inner Cities Urban Renewal continued The Urban PoorThe Inner CitiesPoverty grows rapidly in decaying inner citiesPoor economic conditions lead to illness and terrible conditionsUrban Renewal• Urban renewal—replace rundown buildings with new low-income housing• Housing and Urban Development Dept. created to improve conditions• Not enough housing built for displaced peopleNEXT
42 Rural Poor Plight of rural poor just as bad Included Mississippi delta sharecroppers, miners in Appalachia and farmers in remote areasCorporations and large farmers dominated farm production, forcing small farmers out of businessMany left to the urban areas, some remained behind hoping for better economic times
43 Poverty Leads to Activism Mexicans Seek EmploymentMany Southwest Mexicans become U.S. citizens after Mexican War1942–47, Mexican braceros, hired hands, allowed into U.S. to workAfter war, many remain illegally; many others enter to look for workThe Longoria IncidentUndertaker refuses funeral services to Felix Longoria, WW II veteranOutraged Mexican-American veterans organize G.I. ForumUnity League of CA registers voters, promotes responsive candidatesContinued . . .NEXT
44 Native Americans Continue their Struggle continued Poverty Leads to ActivismNative Americans Continue their StruggleDuring Depression, U.S. policy of Native American autonomyNational Congress of American Indians: civil rights, maintain customsU.S. stops family allotments, wages; outsiders take tribal landsThe Termination Policy• Termination policy cuts economic support, gives land to individuals• Bureau of Indian Affairs helps resettlement in cities• Termination policy is a failure; abandoned in 1963NEXT