Presentation on theme: "Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920) Unit 1Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism ( )Ignited by post-Civil War demand and fueled by technological advancements, large-scale industrialization began in the United States during the late 1800s. Growing industries enticed foreign immigration, fostered urbanization, gave rise to the American labor movement and developed the infrastructure that facilitated the settling of the West. A period of progressive reform emerged in response to political corruption and practices of big business.
2Chapter 3: Urbanization and Immigration Content Statement: Immigration, internal migration and urbanization transformed American life.Expectations For Learning: Explain the major social and economic effects of industrialization and the influence of the growth of organized labor following Reconstruction in the United States.
3Section 1: ImmigrationContent Elaboration: Mass immigration at the turn of the 20th century made the country more diverse and transformed American life by filling a demand for workers, diffusing new traits into the American culture and impacting the growth of cities.
5Immigration After the Civil War In years after Civil War, people came pouring into the US looking for new opportunities.“Old Immigrants” Prior to Civil War: W and N Europe (England, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia“New Immigrants” 1880’s: S and E Europe (Italy, Poland, Russia, Grease, Turkey)Early 1900’s: started to come from Asia (Japan, China) and Mexico: 9 million total immigrants: 14 million
6Problems in the Cities1. Most had been farmers, now lived and worked in cities2. did not speak English3. lived together4. hung on to customs, holidays, etc.
7Backlash Against Immigrants 1. Old immigrants were prejudice against the new immigrants2. competitors to jobs3. new immigrants willing to work for less4. American Protective Association: wanted Congress to restrict immigration5. Chinese Exclusion Act: Chinese immigration stopped for over 10 years
8Affect of Immigration on American Society New religionsNew words ‘infused’ into our English language—called “loan words”New and different foods
9The Effect of Immigration on Politics 1. More people in cities = more politicians needed2. Political machines--organizations that controls an urban political party3. Politicians used immigrantsa. did favors for votesb. gave jobs for votesc. immigrants didn’t understand politics--so they would vote for anybody who gave them a job
10OGT Short AnswerWhy did many immigrants cluster together with other people from their nation of origin in American cities? (2 pts)
11OGT Short AnswerWhat were some of the most severe problems faced by immigrants when they arrived in the US? (2 pts)
12OGT Short AnswerWhy did immigrants often cooperate with urban political machines? (2 pts)
13OGT Short AnswerWhat is an example of a cultural exchange that resulted from immigration to the US? (2 pts)
14OGT Multiple Choice_____ (2005 Practice Test) In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many immigrants who came to the United States did not speak English as their native language. One way this resulted in the exchange of cultural practices was thatA. words from other languages entered into the mainstream vocabularyB. people from other countries tended to remain culturally isolatedC. people without knowledge of English were not allowed to immigrateD. most people were able to speak several languages fluently
15OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following best explains the impact immigration has had on the American diet?A. Fast food restaurants have sprung up all over the United StatesB. There is great variety of types of restaurants serving ethnic foodsC. There are very few choices of different ethnic foods in restaurantsD. Americans eat the same food almost everyday
16OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Immigration impacts language in the United States because itA. causes the official language to change with each new immigrant cultureB. results in English speaking people resisting new wordsC. infuses new words into the languageD. maintains the current language without change
17Section 2: Farmers Move to the Cities and The Great Migration Content Elaboration: Many people left their farms for the cities seeking greater job opportunities. The Great Migration marked the mass movement of African Americans who fled the rural South for the urban North. They sought to escape prejudice and discrimination and secure better-paying jobs. They helped transform northern cities economically (e.g., as workers and consumers) and culturally (e.g., art, music, literature)
18Farmers Move to the City Review: Not as many farmers were needed due to the increase in technology, so many moved into the cities in order to get a factory job.
19The Great MigrationMany African-Americans began to move to the cities of the North forA. Better jobsB. Avoid the racism that existed in the South
20Impact on EconomicsAll of these new people moving into the cities helped the local economy—more people making and buying products!
21Impact on CultureAll of these new people helped to diversify the citiesA. ArtB. MusicC. Literature
22Example: Harlem Renaissance a. An area in New York City called Harlem.b. In Harlem, many African-Americans became great writers, poets, musicians, entertainers, and scholars.
23Section 3: Urbanization Content Elaboration: Urbanization transformed the physical nature of cities. Central cities focused on industry and commerce. Buildings became taller and tenement buildings provided housing for working families. Cities acquired additional land as they expanded outward.
24The Growth of Cities 1900: 40% lived in urban areas 1915: 50% 1915: 50%1920: over 50% in cities (1st time ever!)Where did they come from?1. immigrants2. the farms3. African-Americans from the south (Jim Crow laws)
25Urban Problems 1. Tenement houses a. Hold as many families as possible b. Poor immigrants lived therec. Bad conditions2. Dirt, disease, and crimea. Bad plumbing: flies and germsb. No bathtubs with running waterc. Tuberculosis and other diseases were common
29Physical Natures of Cities Changed Development of steel allowed for the building of skyscrapersCities had to expand to hold everyoneCities needed more services:PoliceWater and SewerGarbageSchools
30OGT Multiple Choice(Base Test March 2005) In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, improvements in steel technology allowed architects to design buildings taller than had previously been possible. As a result, skyscrapers began to be built in cities such as New York and Chicago.What was the result of this new technology on population patterns in the United States in the first half of the 20th century?A. decreased growth of suburban areasB. migration from the West to the MidwestC. increased migration from urban to rural areasD. greater population density in urban areas
31OGT Multiple Choice(Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Industrialization in the United States resulted inA. the country becoming more urban than ruralB. workers seeing no need to unite to form labor unionsC. the transformation from an urban to an agrarian societyD. politics not being affected by the economic changes
32OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following statements best reflects housing patterns for immigrants soon after their arrival to the United States?A. They tended to assimilate quickly into the existing communitiesB. They tended to spread out quickly into many different communitiesC. They tended to congregate into their own communitiesD. They tended to leave the United States soon after arriving
33OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Base Test March 2005) Consider the following changes that occurred in the United States in the late 19th Century:•Improvements in agricultural production•Increases in immigration from Europe•Advancements in networks of railroad and streetcar linesThese changes led to theA. rapid growth of urban areasB. acquisition of overseas territoriesC. elimination of large suburbs around many citiesD. movement of people from the urban to the rural areas
34OGT Multiple ChoiceThe emergence of many great African-American writers, poets, musicians, entertainers, and scholars in the New York City area was known as theA. New York City RenaissanceB. Harlem RenaissanceC. Black RenaissanceD. Manhattan Renaissance
35OGT Extended ResponseExplain four effects of industrialization on living and working conditions for the early industrial working class in the United States in the late 19th century. (4 points)
36Section 4: Gangs, Improvements in Transportation and the Growing Middle Class Content Elaboration: The crowding of cities led to increased crime with the development of gangs. Improvements in transportation (e.g., trolleys, automobiles) facilitated the development of the suburbs. A growing middle class could easily commute between residential areas and the central cities for business and recreation.
37Crime Increased population in city = increase in crime Work for pennies or get involved in crime?Gangs beganOrganized crime
39Assembly Line: Mass production of the automobile
40Better transportation Henry Ford = invented the assembly line and Model-TBetter roadsThose who could afford it moved out of the crummy citiesWhere did they move? SUBURBS! They can now drive in to work.
41Rise of the Middle Class middle class grewmore office workers needed (office workers = white collar; factory workers = blue collar)engineers and salesmen neededstandard of living increasedenjoyed sports, theater, newspapers in free time
42OGT Multiple Choice(2005 Practice Test) One effect of widespread suburbanization in the United States during the 1920’s wasA. airlines adding routes to new cities.B. increased reliance upon the automobileC. decreased immigration from Europe and AsiaD. television replacing radio as the most popular medium.
43OGT Multiple Choice(Base Test March 2005) One cause of suburbanization in the United States during the 1920’s was increasedA. overcrowding and violence in the citiesB. economic opportunities in rural townsC. emigration from the United StatesD. economic reliance upon agriculture
44OGT Multiple ChoiceBold use of the assembly line in his factories can be credited toA. Henry FordB. J.P. MorganC. Andrew CarnegieD. John D. Rockefeller