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Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism ( )

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1 Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920)
Unit 1 Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism ( ) Ignited by post-Civil War demand and fueled by technological advancements, large-scale industrialization began in the United States during the late 1800s. Growing industries enticed foreign immigration, fostered urbanization, gave rise to the American labor movement and developed the infrastructure that facilitated the settling of the West. A period of progressive reform emerged in response to political corruption and practices of big business.

2 Chapter 3: Urbanization and Immigration
Content Statement: Immigration, internal migration and urbanization transformed American life. Expectations For Learning: Explain the major social and economic effects of industrialization and the influence of the growth of organized labor following Reconstruction in the United States.

3 Section 1: Immigration Content Elaboration: Mass immigration at the turn of the 20th century made the country more diverse and transformed American life by filling a demand for workers, diffusing new traits into the American culture and impacting the growth of cities.

4 U.S. Immigration,

5 Immigration After the Civil War
In years after Civil War, people came pouring into the US looking for new opportunities. “Old Immigrants” Prior to Civil War: W and N Europe (England, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia “New Immigrants” 1880’s: S and E Europe (Italy, Poland, Russia, Grease, Turkey) Early 1900’s: started to come from Asia (Japan, China) and Mexico : 9 million total immigrants : 14 million

6 Problems in the Cities 1. Most had been farmers, now lived and worked in cities 2. did not speak English 3. lived together 4. hung on to customs, holidays, etc.

7 Backlash Against Immigrants
1. Old immigrants were prejudice against the new immigrants 2. competitors to jobs 3. new immigrants willing to work for less 4. American Protective Association: wanted Congress to restrict immigration 5. Chinese Exclusion Act: Chinese immigration stopped for over 10 years

8 Affect of Immigration on American Society
New religions New words ‘infused’ into our English language—called “loan words” New and different foods

9 The Effect of Immigration on Politics
1. More people in cities = more politicians needed 2. Political machines--organizations that controls an urban political party 3. Politicians used immigrants a. did favors for votes b. gave jobs for votes c. immigrants didn’t understand politics--so they would vote for anybody who gave them a job

10 OGT Short Answer Why did many immigrants cluster together with other people from their nation of origin in American cities? (2 pts)

11 OGT Short Answer What were some of the most severe problems faced by immigrants when they arrived in the US? (2 pts)

12 OGT Short Answer Why did immigrants often cooperate with urban political machines? (2 pts)

13 OGT Short Answer What is an example of a cultural exchange that resulted from immigration to the US? (2 pts)

14 OGT Multiple Choice _____ (2005 Practice Test) In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many immigrants who came to the United States did not speak English as their native language. One way this resulted in the exchange of cultural practices was that A. words from other languages entered into the mainstream vocabulary B. people from other countries tended to remain culturally isolated C. people without knowledge of English were not allowed to immigrate D. most people were able to speak several languages fluently

15 OGT Multiple Choice _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following best explains the impact immigration has had on the American diet? A. Fast food restaurants have sprung up all over the United States B. There is great variety of types of restaurants serving ethnic foods C. There are very few choices of different ethnic foods in restaurants D. Americans eat the same food almost everyday

16 OGT Multiple Choice _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Immigration impacts language in the United States because it A. causes the official language to change with each new immigrant culture B. results in English speaking people resisting new words C. infuses new words into the language D. maintains the current language without change

17 Section 2: Farmers Move to the Cities and The Great Migration
Content Elaboration: Many people left their farms for the cities seeking greater job opportunities. The Great Migration marked the mass movement of African Americans who fled the rural South for the urban North. They sought to escape prejudice and discrimination and secure better-paying jobs. They helped transform northern cities economically (e.g., as workers and consumers) and culturally (e.g., art, music, literature)

18 Farmers Move to the City
Review: Not as many farmers were needed due to the increase in technology, so many moved into the cities in order to get a factory job.

19 The Great Migration Many African-Americans began to move to the cities of the North for A. Better jobs B. Avoid the racism that existed in the South

20 Impact on Economics All of these new people moving into the cities helped the local economy—more people making and buying products!

21 Impact on Culture All of these new people helped to diversify the cities A. Art B. Music C. Literature

22 Example: Harlem Renaissance
a. An area in New York City called Harlem. b. In Harlem, many African-Americans became great writers, poets, musicians, entertainers, and scholars.

23 Section 3: Urbanization
Content Elaboration: Urbanization transformed the physical nature of cities. Central cities focused on industry and commerce. Buildings became taller and tenement buildings provided housing for working families. Cities acquired additional land as they expanded outward.

24 The Growth of Cities 1900: 40% lived in urban areas 1915: 50%
1915: 50% 1920: over 50% in cities (1st time ever!) Where did they come from? 1. immigrants 2. the farms 3. African-Americans from the south (Jim Crow laws)

25 Urban Problems 1. Tenement houses a. Hold as many families as possible
b. Poor immigrants lived there c. Bad conditions 2. Dirt, disease, and crime a. Bad plumbing: flies and germs b. No bathtubs with running water c. Tuberculosis and other diseases were common




29 Physical Natures of Cities Changed
Development of steel allowed for the building of skyscrapers Cities had to expand to hold everyone Cities needed more services: Police Water and Sewer Garbage Schools

30 OGT Multiple Choice (Base Test March 2005) In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, improvements in steel technology allowed architects to design buildings taller than had previously been possible. As a result, skyscrapers began to be built in cities such as New York and Chicago. What was the result of this new technology on population patterns in the United States in the first half of the 20th century? A. decreased growth of suburban areas B. migration from the West to the Midwest C. increased migration from urban to rural areas D. greater population density in urban areas

31 OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Industrialization in the United States resulted in A. the country becoming more urban than rural B. workers seeing no need to unite to form labor unions C. the transformation from an urban to an agrarian society D. politics not being affected by the economic changes

32 OGT Multiple Choice _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following statements best reflects housing patterns for immigrants soon after their arrival to the United States? A. They tended to assimilate quickly into the existing communities B. They tended to spread out quickly into many different communities C. They tended to congregate into their own communities D. They tended to leave the United States soon after arriving

33 OGT Multiple Choice _____ (Base Test March 2005) Consider the following changes that occurred in the United States in the late 19th Century: •Improvements in agricultural production •Increases in immigration from Europe •Advancements in networks of railroad and streetcar lines These changes led to the A. rapid growth of urban areas B. acquisition of overseas territories C. elimination of large suburbs around many cities D. movement of people from the urban to the rural areas

34 OGT Multiple Choice The emergence of many great African-American writers, poets, musicians, entertainers, and scholars in the New York City area was known as the A. New York City Renaissance B. Harlem Renaissance C. Black Renaissance D. Manhattan Renaissance

35 OGT Extended Response Explain four effects of industrialization on living and working conditions for the early industrial working class in the United States in the late 19th century. (4 points)

36 Section 4: Gangs, Improvements in Transportation and the Growing Middle Class
Content Elaboration: The crowding of cities led to increased crime with the development of gangs. Improvements in transportation (e.g., trolleys, automobiles) facilitated the development of the suburbs. A growing middle class could easily commute between residential areas and the central cities for business and recreation.

37 Crime Increased population in city = increase in crime
Work for pennies or get involved in crime? Gangs began Organized crime

38 Henry Ford’s Model-T

39 Assembly Line: Mass production of the automobile

40 Better transportation
Henry Ford = invented the assembly line and Model-T Better roads Those who could afford it moved out of the crummy cities Where did they move? SUBURBS! They can now drive in to work.

41 Rise of the Middle Class
middle class grew more office workers needed (office workers = white collar; factory workers = blue collar) engineers and salesmen needed standard of living increased enjoyed sports, theater, newspapers in free time

42 OGT Multiple Choice (2005 Practice Test) One effect of widespread suburbanization in the United States during the 1920’s was A. airlines adding routes to new cities. B. increased reliance upon the automobile C. decreased immigration from Europe and Asia D. television replacing radio as the most popular medium.

43 OGT Multiple Choice (Base Test March 2005) One cause of suburbanization in the United States during the 1920’s was increased A. overcrowding and violence in the cities B. economic opportunities in rural towns C. emigration from the United States D. economic reliance upon agriculture

44 OGT Multiple Choice Bold use of the assembly line in his factories can be credited to A. Henry Ford B. J.P. Morgan C. Andrew Carnegie D. John D. Rockefeller

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