2Origins of the Cold WarWhy was 1945 a critical year in United States foreign relations?What were the postwar goals of the United States and the Soviet Union?How did the iron curtain tighten the Soviet Union’s hold over Eastern Europe?How did the Truman Doctrine complement the policy of containment?
31945—A Critical YearAs the end of World War II approached, relations between the Communist Soviet Union and its wartime allies, the United States and Great Britain, grew increasingly tense.At a meeting at Yalta in February, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed on the postwar division of Germany but disagreed on the future of Poland.
41945—A Critical YearIn April, representatives of 50 countries, including the United States, adopted the charter for the United Nations, an organization dedicated to cooperation in solving international problems.On April 12, Roosevelt died unexpectedly, making Vice President Truman the new President. Truman continued Roosevelt’s negotiations with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference in July.
5Conflicting Postwar Goals American and Soviet Goals American GoalsWanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the warWanted to develop strong capitalist economies, which would provide good markets for American products
6Conflicting Postwar Goals American and Soviet Goals Wanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the warWanted to establish Soviet satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination and sympathetic to Soviet goalsWanted to promote the spread of communism throughout the world
7Soviets Tighten Their Hold Communist Expansion in Eastern EuropeAlbania and Bulgaria: Communists secure control by silencing opposition in Albania; Soviet troops seize Bulgaria.Czechoslovakia: Although it desperately tried to remain democratic, Czechoslovakia became a Soviet satellite nation in 1948.
8Soviets Tighten Their Hold Hungary and Romania: By arresting anti-Communist leaders in Hungary and forcing the appointment of a Communist prime minister in Romania, Communists achieved power in both nations.East Germany: To make sure Germany could not threaten his nation again, Stalin established a totalitarian government, naming the state the German Democratic Republic.
9Soviets Tighten Their Hold Finland and Yugoslavia: Both countries maintained their independence from Soviet control – Finland, by signing a treaty of cooperation, and Yugoslavia, by following the leadership of Tito.
11Containment and the Truman Doctrine The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for world influence came to be known as the Cold War.The American policy of containment accepted the fact that Eastern Europe was under Communist control, but sought to prevent Communist governments from forming elsewhere in the world.
12Containment and the Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine, which applied the principles of containment, stated that the United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest. The Truman Doctrine was first applied in the cases of Greece and Turkey.
13The Cold War Heats UpHow did the Marshall Plan, the Berlin airlift, and NATO help to achieve American goals in postwar Europe?How did Communist advances affect American foreign policy?How did the Cold War affect American life at home?
14The Marshall PlanThe United States wanted to help European nations recover from the war and become economically strong democracies. It also wanted to prevent Communists from continuing to gain power in Europe.The Marshall Plan was created in 1947 by U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall as a means to achieve these goals. According to the Marshall Plan, participating nations would design recovery programs and would receive financial aid from the United States.
15The Marshall PlanSeventeen Western European nations joined the plan, receiving a total of $13 billion in aid.
16The Berlin AirliftAs part of the postwar division of Germany, the city of Berlin, located in Communist East Germany, was divided into West Berlin (capitalist) and East Berlin (Communist).In June 1948, Stalin banned all shipments to West Berlin through East Germany, creating a blockade which threatened to cut off supplies to the city.
17The Berlin AirliftIn response, Allied nations began the Berlin airlift, which delivered thousands of tons of food and other supplies to West Berlin via air.Although the Soviet blockade ended in May 1949, Berlin remained a focal point of Cold War conflict.
18NATO Why create a treaty organization? Soviet vetoes prevented the United Nations from resolving a number of postwar problems.The United States sought to avoid the problems of post–World War I isolationism.The United States did not want to be the only nation in the Western Hemisphere committed to fighting communism. A Canadian role in the treaty organization would be vital.
19NATOWhat was NATO?The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in April 1949.In joining NATO, the United States, Canada, and ten Western European nations pledged to support one another against attack, a principle known as collective security.In response, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations.
20Communist Advances The Soviet Atomic Threat In September 1949, Truman announced that the Soviet Union had successfully tested an atomic bomb.In response, the United States began developing the even more powerful hydrogen bomb, reestablishing itself as the world’s leading nuclear power.The newly formed Federal Civil Defense Administration distributed information on how to survive a nuclear attack; this information was ridiculed by experts.
21Communist Advances China Falls to the Communists During World War II, competing factions in China had cooperated, but fighting between them resumed towards the end of the war.At first, the United States supported Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi against Communist Mao Zedong. However, the United States later decided to focus on Western Europe instead.Many Americans viewed Mao Zedong’s creation of a Communist state in China as a failure of Truman’s policies.
22The Cold War at HomeDuring the late 1940s, fear of Communist spies created a climate of suspicion in the United States.Truman established a federal employee loyalty program in 1947, checking the backgrounds of all new and existing federal employees.
23The Cold War at HomeThe House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) began investigating Hollywood personalities who the committee claimed, had Communist leanings. When one group, known as the Hollywood Ten, refused to answer HUAC’s questions, they were cited for contempt of Congress and imprisoned.Hollywood studios compiled a blacklist, a list circulated to employers naming persons who should not be hired. Blacklisted individuals came from all sections of the industry and included anyone who seemed subversive.
24The Cold War at HomeFueled by fears of disloyal immigrants from Communist countries, the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act reestablished the immigration quota system from This act discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia and Southern and Central Europe.Two famous spy cases reinforced fears that Soviet spies in the United States were sharing American secrets with foreign Communists. These were the cases of Alger Hiss and of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
25The Korean WarHow did Communist expansion in Asia set the stage for the Korean War?Who fought in the Korean War, and what were the three stages of the war?What were the effects of the Korean War?
26Communist Expansion in Asia The Chinese Civil WarCivil war began in the mid-1920s and intensified after World War II.Mao Zedong won support for the Communists by redistributing land and offering schooling and healthcare.Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalist Party lost support because of harsh treatment of the population, high taxes, and corruption.When the Communists took power in 1949, the Nationalists fled to Taiwan.
27Communist Expansion in Asia The Division of KoreaWorld War II ended before a plan could be made for Korean independence from Japan.Korea was temporarily divided at the thirty-eighth parallel, the latitude line running through approximately the midpoint of the peninsula.A pro-American government formed in South Korea, while a Communist government formed in North Korea.
28The Korean ConflictIn June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops invaded South Korea, aiming to reunite the nation by force.A UN resolution, which passed because the Soviets were not there to veto it, called on member states to defend South Korea and restore peace. Roughly 80 percent of the troops who served in the resulting UN police action were American.
29The Korean ConflictBy attacking North Korean supply lines, General Douglas MacArthur was able to gain an advantage and push north. However, a stalemate developed after China helped the North Koreans push the UN forces back into South Korea.A truce signed in 1953 left Korea again divided near the thirty eighth parallel.
30The Effects of the Korean War Post-Korean War Changes in AmericaWarfare — Limited war, limited victoryIntegration of the Military — First war in which white Americans and African Americans served in the same unitsIncreased Power of the Military — A military-industrial complex developed as the military established links with the corporate and scientific communities.Foreign Policy in Asia — September 1951 peace treaty signed with Japan; relations worsen with Communist China
31The Continuing Cold War What were the characteristics of the McCarthy era?How was the Cold War waged in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America during the 1950s?How did the arms race develop?
32The McCarthy Era McCarthy’s Rise to Power Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy, up for reelection raised the specter of Communist conspiracies within the United States.McCarthy produced a list of 250 names of presumed Communist-supporting government employees. Later, when scrutinized, this list was reduced to 57.Although McCarthy’s accusations were usually baseless and unprovable, few were willing to risk their reputations by speaking out against him.
33The McCarthy Era McCarthy’s Fall In early 1954, McCarthyism, the name given to McCarthy’s crusade, reached the army.Democrats asked that the hearings between McCarthy and the army be televised, hoping to swing popular opinion against McCarthy.By mid-June 1954, McCarthy had lost even his strongest supporters. The Senate formally condemned him for his actions.
34The Cold War in the 1950sUnited States involvement around the world, 1947–1956Eastern Europe — Wary of war with the Soviets, America did not support uprisings in East Germany, Poland, and Hungary.Southeast Asia — Korean War ends; former French colony of Vietnam is divided into Communist North and anti-Communist South.
35The Cold War in the 1950sMiddle East — United States supports Israel, backs groups that restore a pro-American Shah in Iran; the Suez Crisis in Egypt erupts.Latin America — Organization of American States (OAS) is created; American aid helps anti-Communist leaders gain and retain power.
36The Arms RaceThroughout the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in an arms race, a struggle to gain weapons superiority.Deterrence, the policy of maintaining a military arsenal so strong that no enemy will attack for fear of retaliation, resulted in the escalating development of powerful nuclear weapons.The American policy of brinkmanship involved bringing the United States to the brink of war without actually entering into war.
37The Arms Race in the Skies To carry bombs to their targets, the Soviet Union developed long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles, or ICBMs.In 1957, one of these rockets was used to launch the Soviet satellite Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.When a Soviet guided missile shot down an American U-2 spy plane, the resulting U-2 incident shattered American confidence and prompted a desire to match—and surpass—Soviet weapons technology.
38The Postwar Years at Home (1945–1960) Chapter 27The Postwar Years at Home(1945–1960)
39The Postwar Economy How did businesses reorganize after World War II? How did technology transform life after World War II?In what ways did the nation’s work force change following World War II?Why did suburbs and highway systems grow after World War II?How did postwar conditions affect consumer credit?
40Businesses Reorganize The postwar years were a time of great economic growth in America. Between 1945 and 1960, the per capita income, or average annual income per person, rose considerably.American businesses switched from providing war needs to meeting increasing demand for consumer products. In order to protect against economic downturns, many formed conglomerates, corporations made up of three or more unrelated businesses.The franchise system, in which small businesses contract with larger parent companies for goods and services, flourished.
41Technology Transforms Life Developments in Technology During the 1950sTelevision — Television becomes a popular and powerful medium.Computers and Electronics — The invention of the transistor, a tiny circuit device that amplifies, controls, and generates electrical signals, revolutionizes computers and radios.Nuclear Power — Wartime nuclear research is put to peacetime use in nuclear power plants and nuclear-powered submarines.Advances in Medicine — Dr. Jonas Salk develops a vaccine against polio; advances in antibiotics and surgical techniques save countless lives.
42Changes in the Work force White Collar WorkersCorporate expansion created more white-collar jobs.Office work was less dangerous and exhausting than factory work, and provided more opportunity for advancement.White collar workers often had little connection to their companies’ products, and often felt pressure to dress, think, and act alike.
43Changes in the Work force Blue Collar WorkersNew machines reduced the number of manual labor-intensive jobs.Working conditions and wages improved.Labor unions won important gains; the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations merged to form the powerful AFL-CIO.
44The Baby BoomThe baby boom, or rise in birth rates, that had begun in the 1940s continued into the 1950s.
45Suburbs, Cars, and Highways Suburban GrowthThe GI Bill of Rights gave returning soldiers low-income mortgages, enabling many to buy homes in newly built suburbsDevelopers such as William J. Levitt built entire communities quickly and on one mold, using preassembled materials.Although most Americans enjoyed living in communities such as Levitt’s, others complained that the new developments lacked variety.
46Suburbs, Cars, and Highways The growth of suburbs led more Americans to rely on cars for everyday transportation.More and better roads were needed to support the increase in cars. The 1956 Federal-Aid Highway Act provided billions of dollars to build an interstate highway system.Cars became part of American culture as new businesses such as drive-in movies emerged.
47The Growth of Consumer Credit Gasoline companies began offering credit cards with which consumers could purchase their product. Soon, lending agencies began to offer credit cards as well.Consumer debt rose as Americans used their credit cards to purchase washing machines, vacuum cleaners, television sets, and other consumer products.
48The Mood of the 1950sWhy were comfort and security so important to Americans in the 1950s?What were the accepted roles of men and women during the 1950s?How did some people challenge conformity during the 1950s?
49Comfort and SecurityEnjoying prosperity and recovering from war and economic depression, most Americans in the 1950s valued security over adventure.Youth in the 1950s enjoyed more time for school, and for recreation, than youth in earlier generations.
50Comfort and SecurityBusinesses marketed products such as movies and magazines to youths, reinforcing images of what it meant to be a teenager.Partially in response to the threats of communism and nuclear war, many Americans renewed their interest in religion. References to God were added to the Pledge of Allegiance and imprinted on U.S. currency.
51Men’s and Women’s Roles Men and women were expected to play strictly defined roles in the 1950s. While men were expected to hold jobs and support their families, women were expected to perform domestic duties.Nevertheless, more and more married women began working outside the home, some to support their families and others for the sense of satisfaction they derived from holding jobs.Some women, notably Betty Friedan, desired more freedom in choosing social roles than the 1950s cultural climate allowed.
52Youthful Rebellions Rock-and-Roll Rock-and-roll, a style of music based on black rhythm and blues, became popular among teenagers in the 1950s.Many adults disliked rock-and-roll music, claiming that it encouraged immorality.Popular with both black and white teenagers, rock-and-roll threatened those who were comfortable with racial segregation.
53Youthful Rebellions Beatniks Beatniks, many of whom were artists and writers, launched a movement that stressed spontaneity and rejected money and power.Beatniks shocked many Americans with their open sexuality and use of illegal drugs.Author Jack Kerouac embodied the Beatnik spirit for many Americans.
54Domestic Politics and Policy What were Truman’s domestic policies as outlined in his Fair Deal?How did Truman win the election of 1948?What was the Republican approach to government during the Eisenhower presidency?
55Truman’s Domestic Policies The Peacetime Economy — Reconversion, the social and economic transition from wartime to peacetime, resulted in discrepancies between wages and prices. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 required a cooling-off period during which workers on strike from industries affecting the national interest had to return to work.The Fair Deal — Modeled on Roosevelt’s New Deal, Truman’s Fair Deal was a set of proposals for postwar economic improvement. Although some measures passed, many were rejected by Congress.
56Truman’s Domestic Policies Truman on Civil Rights — Truman formed the biracial Committee on Civil Rights in 1946 to address concerns of African Americans; opposition in Congress meant that change came slowly.
57The Election of 1948Although Truman’s Democratic Party was splitting and support for him was disintegrating, Truman chose to seek another term as President in 1948.With a blunt but effective campaign style, Truman won the election despite polls’ predictions against him.In response to Roosevelt’s unprecedented four terms as President, the Twenty-second Amendment was passed in This amendment specified that no President could serve more than two elected terms.
58Eisenhower and the Republican Approach Although the language of the Twenty-second Amendment allowed Truman to run for President again in 1952, he chose not to do so.Republican Dwight Eisenhower and his running mate, Richard Nixon, were able to turn accusations about illegal campaign funding into support for their campaign.
59Eisenhower and the Republican Approach As President, Eisenhower advocated Modern Republicanism, an approach to government involving conservative economic policies but liberal social policies.Eisenhower’s administration favored big business and ending government competition for offshore oil lands. However, his presidency was marked by several economic recessions.
60Meeting the Technology Challenge NASAIn response to Americans’ fears that Soviet technology was superior to their own, the United States formed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958.NASA was created as an independent agency dedicated to space exploration.
61Meeting the Technology Challenge National Defense Education ActTo meet the scientific and technical challenge from the Soviet Union, the National Defense Education Act was passed in 1958.This act provided low-cost loans to college students, incentives for teaching math and science, and money for building science and foreign language facilities in schools.