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Safety and Security Concerns: Criminal. CRIME RATE Began to decrease in the early 90’s, but still remains high Crimes can be categorized in numerous ways.

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Presentation on theme: "Safety and Security Concerns: Criminal. CRIME RATE Began to decrease in the early 90’s, but still remains high Crimes can be categorized in numerous ways."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety and Security Concerns: Criminal

2 CRIME RATE Began to decrease in the early 90’s, but still remains high Crimes can be categorized in numerous ways one way is by types Street crime Victimless crime White collar crime Organized crime Domestic crime Juvenile crime Workplace violence Terrorism

3 STREET CRIME Felony crimes Murder Rape Robbery aggravated assault Burglary Auto theft Grand larceny Arson

4 VICTIMLESS CRIMES Someone other than victim is complainant Participant enter into activity voluntarily Gambling Pornography Illegal drugs Illicit sexual behavior Public drunkenness Disorderly conduct Vagrancy

5 WHITE COLLAR CRIME Offense committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his/her occupation Political corruption (e.g., bribery) Illegal business practices, (e.g., price fixing) Tax evasion Fraud Embezzlement Economic crime and industrial espionage A national security issue According to government sources it is the greatest single threat

6 ORGANIZED CRIME The systematic engagement in illegal activities and provision of illegal services by a permanent group of individuals. The existence is maintained Through the use of threats Force Monopoly control Corruption Proceeds may be used to fund legitimate businesses as fronts for illegal activities Images often depict organized crime as Mafia or La Cosa Nostra under the control of Godfather, but today crosses all ethnic and cultural lines

7 DOMESTIC CRIME One is more likely to be assaulted, beaten, even killed, in one’s own home by a loved one than anywhere else or by anyone else in society Usually has a long history May manifest into the workplace or other places outside the home Many states have toughened laws related to domestic abuse According to statutory provisions, domestic abuse, as compared to child abuse, is a crime committed against an adult or fully emancipated minor in a present or past relationship of an intimate nature, includes: Spouse A former spouse Present or former cohabitant (not roommates) Persons in dating or same-sex relationships Person whom the perpetrator has had a child

8 JUVENILE CRIME Most street crimes are committed by a juvenile offenders (younger than 18 yrs) Are typically referred to juvenile court Juvenile court, acting under the principle of parens patriae and functioning as a parent on behalf of the child, has jurisdiction over dependency and delinquency Dependency Issues arise when the child has been neglected, sexually abused, or battered Delinquency Issues arise when the child commits an act that would be a crime if it were committed by an adult

9 WORKPLACE VIOLENCE Is categorized as employee, occupational, and attached workplace violence Workplace violence between employees is identified as workplace violence, stemming from employment relationship Occupational workplace violence is violence that occurs in the workplace and results from one’s occupation, violence associated with unsafe working conditions Attached workplace violence is violence that occurs in the workplace but that stems from relationship that exists outside the workplace

10 TERRORISM Involves the use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce May be the product of an individual or a group Idealistic and political groups Economic opportunists “Urban” terrorists or gangs, such as predatory gangs, ethnic “turf” gangs, and economic gangs Career criminals Domestic violence perpetrators Pro-life, anti-abortion, pro-choice activists Animal rights activists Environmentalists Acts of terrorism are increasing in the US

11 CRIME RATES, STATISTICS, AND TRENDS As a result of congressional action, in 1929, the attorney general of the US and the FBI were authorized to develop and implement a uniform system for collection and dissemination of crime statistics Was designed to identify major crime trends by comparing seven crimes in the Crime Index, or Part I, of the UCR Murder Forcible rape Robbery Aggravated assault Burglary Larceny (theft) Motor vehicle theft Arson (added in 1979) Crime data is supplied voluntarily by law enforcement agencies

12 UNIFORM CRIME RATE Published annually by the FBI Often referred to as Index Crimes, or leading crime indicators Includes only serious crimes against persons and property (crimes indicated on the previous slide) Initially 400 agencies reported crime statistics By 1971, 8000 of the 20,000 agencies reported information 1994- 16,313 agencies reported Criticisms of the UCR is that it includes information relative to crime reports submitted to the FBI voluntarily, and only 80% of all law enforcement agencies report data

13 NATIONAL INCIDENT-BASED REPORTING SYSTEM (NIBRS) 1989 FBI introduces new crime-reporting system to address criticisms of the UCR and the NCVS Deals with the volume, diversity, and complexity of the crime Requires more detailed reports Substituted the Part I and Part II crime list with Group A and Group B list, as far as the old UCR Part I list focused on street crimes where as the new Group A list is more inclusive and widens criminological interest to “crime in suits”, such as white collar crime

14 NIBRS GROUP A Arson Assault Bribery Burglary, breaking and entering Counterfeiting, forgery Destruction, damage, vandalism of property Drug and narcotic offenses Embezzlement Extortion, blackmail Fraud Gambling offenses

15 NIBRS/ GROUP A (CONT.) Homicide offenses Kidnapping, abduction Larceny, theft Motor vehicle theft Pornography, obscene material offenses Prostitution Robbery Sex offenses, forcible Sex offenses, nonforcible Stolen property offenses Weapon law violation

16 GROUP B Writing bad checks Curfew violations, loitering, vagrancy Disorderly conduct Driving under the influence Drunkenness Family offenses, nonviolent Liquor law violations Peeping Tom offenses Runaway-related offenses Trespass of real property All other offenses

17 CAUSES OF CRIME Criminology is the scientific study of the cause of crime, study of violation of norms or antisocial behavior or in its narrowest term, the study of deviant behavior as it relates to violations of the law Causes of crime are unknown There are many different views of the causes There are many theories about causes

18 THEORIES PSYCHOLOGICAL Ego-state theories, Sigmund Freud’s id, ego, and super ego Personality-disorder theories, mental deficiency, psychopathy or sociopathy, and psychosis SOCIOLOGICAL Focuses on the impact of external forces on the individual Includes ecological, cultural, and social influences PHYSIOLOGICAL Deals with heredity, biochemicals in the body, and anthropology OTHER Economic Drug culture Demographic Urbanization Cultural differences Expectation level Changing moral standards Statistical effciency

19 CRIME PREVENTION “CRIME PREVENTION BEGINS IN THE HIGH CHAIR AND NOT THE ELECTRIC CHAIR” Strategies include Education Treatment Diversion Rehabilitation Deterrence through law enforcement and security Collaboration between individuals, groups, and institutions

20 Lesson 1 QUESTIONS 1. What is one of the greatest safety and security concerns for people? 2. What does UCR stand for? 3. Give an example of a victimless crime. 4. Who coined the phrase white collar crime ? 5. What type of crime accounts for a greater total financial loss to the American people than street crime? 6. What activity can Organized Crime be traced back to as early as the period between 1919 to 1933? 7. What does the term parens patriae mean?

21 Lesson 1 QUESTIONS 8. What new category of crime has developed in recent years due to special attention being focused on it? 9. What are some reasons people do not report crime? 10. As household income rises, the burglary rate tends to drop or increase ? 11. why has the day-time burglaries increased? 12. According to Freud’s ego-state theory, what is the cause of criminal behavior? 13. What is the formative and developmental years? 14. What does crime prevention strategies include? 15. What does the book say may be the ultimate solution for preventing of or reoccurrence of crime?

22 Answers 1. The fear of crime 2. Uniform Crime Report 3. Gambling, pornography, illegal drugs, Illicit sexual behavior, public drunkenness, disorderly conduct, vagrancy 4. Edwin Sutherland 5. White collar 6. Prohibition 7. That the juvenile court is functioning as a parent on the behalf of the child, has jurisdiction over dependency and delinquency.

23 Answers 8. Workplace Violence 9. The victim felt that nothing would be accomplished, the incident was not serious enough for police attention, and fear of reprisal 10. Drop 11. Because more women have entered the workforce and houses are unoccupied during regular daytime business hours. 12. According to the theory, criminal behavior results from a conflict between the id and the superego 13. Ages 1-5 years of age 14. Education, treatment, diversion, rehabilitation, and deterrence through law enforcement and security 15. Positive intervention or deterrence before a crime is committed

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