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Deviance. What is it? Behavior that departs from societal or group norms Ranges from criminal behavior to wearing heavy make-up Deviance is a matter of.

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Presentation on theme: "Deviance. What is it? Behavior that departs from societal or group norms Ranges from criminal behavior to wearing heavy make-up Deviance is a matter of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Deviance

2 What is it? Behavior that departs from societal or group norms Ranges from criminal behavior to wearing heavy make-up Deviance is a matter of social definition and can vary from group to group and society to society

3 2 types Negative deviance – Involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms Positive deviance – Involves over conformity to norms leading to imbalance and extremes of perfectionism anorexia

4 Who is a deviant? Someone who has violated one or more of society’s most highly valued norms

5 Social Control All societies have ways to promote order, stability, and predictability in social life Def: ways to promote conformity to norms If it were absent, there would be chaos 2 types: – Internal – external

6 Internal Social Control Lies within the individual Developed during the socialization process When you know its wrong to steal, you have internalized this social norm

7 External Social Control Socialization does not ensure that all people will conform to social norms External social control is based on social sanctions – Rewards and punishments Negative sanctions – Intended to stop socially unacceptable behavior – Criticism, fines and imprisonment Positive sanctions – Encourage conformity – Allowances, promotions and smiles of approval

8 Functionalism and Deviance Functionalists believe that some deviance can contribute to the smooth operation of society Deviance has both positive and negative consequences for society

9 Negative Effects Erodes trust A society with widespread suspicion and distrust cannot function smoothly If not punished or corrected, deviance can also cause nonconforming behavior in others Stimulates more deviance in others Expensive both in human resources and monetary resources

10 Positive Effects Clarifies norms by exercising social control to defend its values Temporary safety valve Increases unity within a society or group Strengthens their commitment to that value Promotes needed social change

11 Strain Theory Deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means Anomie social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting or absent Conformity- when people accept the goal and the means to achieve it

12 4 responses to Strain considered deviant Innovation – Accepts the goal of success but uses illegal means to achieve it Ritualism – Rejects the goal (success) but continues to use the legitimate means Retreatism – Deviant response in which both the legitimate means and approved goals are rejected Rebellion – People reject both success and the approved means for achieving it

13 Control Theory Conformity to social norms depends on the presence of strong bonds between individuals and society If the bonds are weak (anomie) deviance occurs Social bonds control the behavior of people

14 4 basic elements of social bonds Attachment – The stronger your attachment to groups or individuals, the more likely you are to conform Commitment – The greater your commitment to social goals, the more likely you are to conform Involvement – Participation in approved social activities increase the probability of conformity Belief – Belief in the norms and values promotes conformity

15 Symbolic Interactionism Deviance is transmitted through socialization in the same way that non-deviant behavior is learned

16 Differential Association Theory Emphasizes the role of primary groups in transmitting deviance i.e., the more people one is exposed to who break the law, the more apt they are to be criminals

17 3 characteristics The ratio of deviant to non-deviant individuals Whether the deviant behavior is practiced by significant others The age of exposure

18 Labeling Theory Theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant **Deviant behavior is always a matter of social definition Exists when some members of a group or society label others as deviants ** girls receive more stigma to teen pregnancy than boys ** lower-class youths are “expected” to be criminals while middle class youths are not

19 Degrees of Deviance? 2 types – Primary deviance Person engages only in isolated acts of deviance – Secondary deviance Deviance as a lifestyle and a personal identity **Person’s who life and identity are organized around deviance This status overshadows all other status’

20 Consequences of Labeling Can cause pain and suffering Stigma- undesirable characteristic or label used by others

21 Conflict Theory and Deviance Deviance in an industrial society is behavior that those in control see as threatening to their interests Supporters of this theory believe that minorities receive unequal treatment in the American criminal justice system

22 **Basic ways the culture defends itself Look on page 218

23 Why are minorities & whites treated differently? Minorities generally do not have the economic resources to buy good legal services Crimes against whites tend to be punished more severely than crimes against minorities Victim discounting reduces the seriousness of crimes directed at members of lower social classes Therefore, if the victim is less valuable, the crime is less serious and the penalty less severe

24 White Collar Crime Any crime committed by respectable and high status people in the course of their occupations Economic crimes ** price fixing, insider trading, illegal rebates, embezzlement, bribery of a corporate customer, manufacture of hazardous products, toxic pollution and tax evasion

25 Costs of white collar crime 18x higher than street crime That being said, white collar criminals are treated more leniently than other criminals Convicted white collar criminals are less likely to be imprisoned

26 Crime Acts in violation of statue law ** 2,800 acts are classified as federal crimes and many more violate state and local statutes FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports is a major source of crime stats – This is voluntary **UCS tracks 9 types of crimes: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson and hate crimes

27 How reliable are the stats? Major strength: reporting system of experienced police officers Major limitations: – See page 226 Another source: NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey 2 advantages: – Helps make up for underreporting of crime – Surveys are more scientifically sound

28 Juvenile Crime Juvenile delinquent behavior includes deviance that only the young can commit – i.e., failing to attend school, underage drinking and smoking Reached its lowest level in 1999 why? – Decline in the demand for crack cocaine – Crack gangs that provided guns to juv. have reached truces – Repeat violent juv. Offenders have been given stiffer sentences – Police are cracking down on illegal guns on the street

29 Criminal Justice System Made up of the institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statues *includes police, courts and correctional system Draws on4 approaches to control and punish lawbreakers: – Deterrence – Retribution – Incarceration – Rehabilitation

30 Deterrence Uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminal actions Does work if potential lawbreakers know 2 things – They are likely to get caught – Punishment will be severe This is difficult in the US so punishment does not have the deterrent effect it could have

31 **Death Penalty?? 66% of all Americans favor the death penalty ¾ of all white Americans favor the death penalty 40% of black Americans favor the death penalty 52% of hispanic Americans favor the death penalty

32 Retribution Type of punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts – Eye for an eye

33 Incarceration Keeping criminals in prisons

34 Rehabilitation Attempt to re-socialize criminals 30-60% of those released from prisons are sent back in 2-5 years Recidivism- repetition of or return to criminal behavior

35 Alternatives to prisons Combination of prison and probation – Serve part of their sentence in prison and the rest on probation Community based programs – Reintroduce criminals into society – *get out of prison for part of the day Diversion strategy – Aimed at preventing or reducing the offender’s involvement in the criminal justice system – Community based treatment program rather than a prison or probationary program

36 **Do they work? They haven’t been evaluated enough to evaluate their effectiveness


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