2Cognitive Objectives (1 of 5) 5-4.1 State the components of the nervous system.5-4.2 List the functions of the central nervous system.5-4.3 Define the structure of the skeletal system as it relates to the nervous system.5-4.4 Relate mechanism of injury to potential injuries of the head and spine.5-4.5 Describe the implications of not properly caring for potential spine injuries.5-4.6 State the signs and symptoms of a potential spine injury.
3Cognitive Objectives (2 of 5) 5-4.7 Describe the method of determining if a responsive patient may have a spine injury.5-4.8 Relate the airway emergency medical care techniques to the patient with a suspected spine injury.5-4.9 Describe how to stabilize the cervical spine.Discuss indications for sizing and using a cervical spine immobilization device.Establish the relationship between airway management and the patient with head and spine injuries.
4Cognitive Objectives (3 of 5) Describe a method for sizing a cervical spine immobilization device.Describe how to log roll a patient with a suspected spine injury.Describe how to secure a patient to a long spine board.List instances when a short spine board should be used.Describe how to immobilize a patient using a short spine board.
5Cognitive Objectives (4 of 5) Describe the indications for the use of rapid extrication.List the steps in performing rapid extrication.State the circumstance when a helmet should be left on the patient.Discuss the circumstances when a helmet should be removed.Identify different types of helmets.Describe the unique characteristics of sports helmets.
6Cognitive Objectives (5 of 5) Explain the preferred methods to remove a helmet.Discuss alternative methods for removal of a helmet.Describe how the patient’s head is stabilized to remove the helmet.Differentiate how the head is stabilized with a helmet compared to without a helmet.
7Affective Objectives (1 of 2) Explain the rationale for immobilization of the entire spine when a cervical spine injury is suspected.Explain the rationale for utilizing immobilization methods apart from the straps on the cots.Explain the rationale for utilizing a short spine immobilization device when moving a patient from the sitting to the supine position.
8Affective Objectives (2 of 2) Explain the rationale for utilizing rapid extrication approaches only when they indeed will make the difference between life and death.Defend the reasons for leaving a helmet in place for transport of a patient.Defend the reasons for removal of a helmet prior to transport of a patient.
9Psychomotor Objectives (1 of 3) Demonstrate opening the airway in a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.Demonstrate evaluating a responsive patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.Demonstrate stabilization of the cervical spine.Demonstrate the four-person log roll for a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.Demonstrate how to log roll a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury using two people.
10Psychomotor Objectives (2 of 3) Demonstrate securing a patient to a long spine board.Demonstrate using the short board immobilization technique.Demonstrate the procedure for rapid extrication.Demonstrate preferred methods for stabilization of a helmet.Demonstrate helmet removal techniques.
11Psychomotor Objectives (3 of 3) Demonstrate alternative methods for stabilization of a helmet.Demonstrate completing a prehospital care report for patients with head and spinal injuries.
14Sensory and Connecting Nerves The connecting nerves in the spinal cord form a reflex arc.If a sensory nerve in this arc detects an irritating stimulus, it will bypass the brain and send a direct message to a motor nerve.
15How the Nervous System Works The nervous system controls virtually all of our body activities including reflex, voluntary and involuntary activitiesVoluntary activities are action that we consciously perform (ie, passing a dish)Involuntary activities are actions that are not under our control (ie, body functions)Body functions are controlled by the autonomic nervous system
16Autonomic Nervous System Two componentsSympathetic nervous systemReacts to stress with a flight or fright response.Some common responses are dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, or rising BP.Parasympathetic nervous systemCauses the opposite effect of the sympathetic nervous system
18Anatomy and Physiology of the Skeletal System Two layers of bone protect the brain.Skull is divided into cranium and face.Injury to the vertebrae can cause paralysis.Vertebrae are connected by intervertebral disks.
19Head Injuries Scalp lacerations Skull fractures Brain injuries Medical conditionsComplications of head injuries
20Scalp Lacerations Scalp has a rich blood supply. There may be more serious, deeper injuries.
21Skull Fracture Indicates significant force Signs Obvious deformity Visible crack in the skullRaccoon eyesBattle’s sign
22Concussion (1 of 2) Brain injury Temporary loss or alteration in brain functionMay result in unconsciousness, confusion, or amnesia
23Concussion (2 of 2) Brain can sustain bruise when skull is struck. There will be bleeding and swelling.Bleeding will increase the pressure within the skull.
24Intracranial Bleeding Laceration or rupture of blood vessel in brainSubduralIntracerebralEpidural
25Other Brain Injuries Brain injuries are not always caused by trauma. Medical conditions may cause spontaneous bleeding in the brain.Signs and symptoms of nontraumatic injuries are the same as those of traumatic injuries.There is no mechanism of injury.
26Complications of Head Injury Cerebral edemaConvulsions and seizuresVomitingLeakage of cerebrospinal fluid
27Signs and Symptoms (1 of 3) Lacerations, contusions, hematomas to scalpSoft areas or depression upon palpationVisible skull fractures or deformitiesEcchymosis around eyes and behind the earClear or pink CSF leakage
28Signs and Symptoms (2 of 3) Failure of pupils to respond to lightUnequal pupilsLoss of sensation and/or motor functionPeriod of unconsciousnessAmnesiaSeizures
29Signs and Symptoms (3 of 3) Numbness or tingling in the extremitiesIrregular respirationsDizzinessVisual complaintsCombative or abnormal behaviorNausea or vomiting
30Spine Injuries Compression injuries occur from a fall. Motor vehicle crashes or other types of trauma can overextend, flex, or rotate the spine.Distraction: When spine is pulled along its length; causes injuries.Hangings are an example.
31Significant Mechanisms of Injury Motor vehicle crashesPedestrian-motor vehicle collisionsFallsBlunt or penetrating traumaMotorcycle crashesHangingsDriving accidentsRecreational accidents
32Your unit is on standby at the All American College during a gymnastic tournament. A bystander comes to you and states a 19-year-old female gymnast has fallen head first from a balance beam.You find the patient prone on a rubber mat awake and breathing normal. No threats to life are observed.You are the provider
33You are the provider continued What is the mechanism of injury?What injuries do you suspect?What is the next step in the assessment process?You are the provider continued
34Observe scene for hazards; take BSI precautions. Scene Size-upObserve scene for hazards; take BSI precautions.Anticipate problems with ABCs.Pay attention for changes in level of consciousness.Call for ALS backup as soon as possible when serious MOI is present.Look for a deformed helmet or deformed windshield.
35You are the provider continued (1 of 2) You manually stabilize the spine and log roll the patient.You assess the ABCs and place the patient on oxygen via nonrebreathing mask.She said she felt pain in her neck right away and has tingling in her arms and legs. You begin a rapid trauma assessment.You are the provider continued (1 of 2)
36You are the provider continued (2 of 2) Why did you do a rapid trauma assessment?What steps comes next?You are the provider continued (2 of 2)
37Does your neck or back hurt? Can you move your hands and feet? Initial AssessmentAsk the patient:What happened?Where does it hurt?Does your neck or back hurt?Can you move your hands and feet?Did you hit your head?Confused or slurred speech, repetitive questioning, or amnesia indicate head injury.Ask when patient lost consciousness.Stabilize the spine.
38ABCs Use jaw-thrust maneuver to open airway. Vomiting may occur. Suction immediately.Move patient as little as possible. Do not remove c-collar.Consider providing positive pressure ventilations.A pulse that is too slow can indicate a serious condition.Assess and treat for shock.
40You are the provider continued (1 of 3) You check for an absence of a distal pulse. Pulse is normal. Bleeding is not noted.You determine that this patient is a low-priority transport.You are the provider continued (1 of 3)
41You are the provider continued (2 of 3) What do you need to be sure to ask during the SAMPLE history?Describe the rest of your emergency care.You are the provider continued (2 of 3)
42You are the provider continued (3 of 3) You quickly inspect and palpate the chest for DCAP-BTLS. This was unremarkable.You start the patient on high-flow oxygen.You apply a cervical collar and immobilize her to a long board.The patient could vomit. Be ready to reposition the long board and suction.You are the provider continued (3 of 3)
43Focused History and Physical Exam The absence of pain does not rule out a potential spinal injury.Do not ask patients with possible spinal injuries to move their neck.
44Rapid Physical Exam for Significant Trauma (1 of 2) Quickly use DCAP-BTLS.Decreased level of consciousness is the most reliable sign of head injury.Expect irregular respirations.Look for blood or CSF leaking from ears, nose, or mouth.
45Rapid Physical Exam for Significant Trauma (2 of 2) Look for bruising around eyes, behind ears.Evaluate pupils.Do not probe scalp lacerations. Do not remove an impaled object.
46Focused Physical Exam for Nonsignificant Trauma Watch for change in level of consciousness.Use Glasgow Coma Scale.Pain, tenderness, weakness, numbness, and tingling are signs of spinal injury.May lose sensation or become paralyzedMay become incontinent
47Baseline Vital Signs/ SAMPLE History Complete set of baseline vital signs is essential.Assess pupil size and reactivity to light; continue to monitor.Gather as much history as possible while preparing for transport.
48Interventions (1 of 2) Control bleeding. Fold torn skin flaps back down onto the skin bed.Do not apply excessive pressure.If dressing becomes soaked, place a second dressing over it.
49Interventions (2 of 2)Once bleeding has been controlled, secure with a soft self-adhering roller bandage.Monitor and treat for shock.Protect airway from vomiting.Provide immediate transport.
50Detailed Physical Exam Perform if time permits.Can help identify subtle or covert injuries
51Focus on reassessing ABCs, interventions, vital signs. Ongoing AssessmentFocus on reassessing ABCs, interventions, vital signs.Communication and documentationHospital may prepare better with info from your assessment.Document changes in level of consciousness.Include history.Document vital signs every 5 minutes if unstable, every 15 minutes if stable.
52Emergency Medical Care of Spinal Injuries Follow BSI precautions.Manage the airway.Perform the jaw-thrust maneuver to open the airway.Consider inserting an oropharyngeal airway.Administer oxygen.Stabilize the cervical spine.
53Stabilization of the Cervical Spine (1 of 3) Hold head firmly with both hands.Support the lower jaw.Move to eyes-forward position.
54Stabilization of the Cervical Spine (2 of 3) Support head while partner places cervical collar.Maintain the position until patient is secured to a backboard.
55Stabilization of the Cervical Spine (3 of 3) Do not force the head into a neutral, in-line position if:Muscles spasmPain increasesNumbness, tingling, or weakness developThere is a compromised airway or breathing problems.
56Emergency Medical Care of Head Injuries Establish an adequate airway.Control bleeding and provide adequate circulation.Assess the patient’s baseline level of consciousness.
57Managing the Airway Establish an adequate airway. Use the jaw-thrust maneuver.Maintain head in neutral, in-line position.Place cervical collar.Suction.Provide high-flow oxygen.Continue to assist ventilations and administer oxygen.
58Circulation Begin CPR if patient is in cardiac arrest. Blood loss aggravates hypoxia.Shock can occur.Transport immediately to trauma center.If patient becomes nauseated or vomits, place on left side.
59Preparation for Transport: Supine Patients (1 of 2) Maintain in-line stabilization.Have the other team members position the immobilization device.Log roll patient.
60Preparation for Transport: Supine Patients (2 of 2) Secure patient to backboard.Reassess pulse, motor, and sensory function in each extremity and continue to do so periodically.
61Preparation for Transport: Sitting Patients (1 of 2) Maintain manual in-line stabilization.Apply a cervical collar.Place a short board behind patient.Position device around patient.
62Preparation for Transport: Sitting Patients (2 of 2) Turn patient and lower to long backboard.Secure short and long backboards together.Reassess the pulse, motor function, and sensation.
63Preparation for Transport: Standing Patients Stabilize the head and neck and apply a cervical collar.Position board behind patient.Carefully lower the patient to the ground.
64Applying a Cervical Collar (1 of 2) One EMT-B provides continuous manual in-line support of the head.Measure the proper size collar.
65Applying a Cervical Collar (2 of 2) Place the chin support snuggly under the chin.Wrap the collar around the neck.Ensure that the collar fits.
66Backboards Short backboards Used on patients found in a sitting positionLong backboardsProvide full-body immobilization
67Helmet Removal (1 of 4)Is the airway clear and is the patient breathing adequately?Can airway be maintained and ventilations assisted with helmet in place?How well does the helmet fit?Can the patient move within the helmet?Can the spine be immobilized in a neutral position with the helmet on?
68Helmet Removal (2 of 4)A helmet that fits well prevents the head from moving and should be left on, as long as:There are no impending airway or breathing problems.It does not interfere with assessment and treatment of the airway.You can properly immobilize the spine.
69Helmet Removal (3 of 4) Open the face shield. Prevent head movement. Partner places hands.Gently slip helmet off halfway.
70Helmet Removal (4 of 4)Partner slides hands from occiput to back of head.Remove helmet.Stabilize spine.Apply cervical collar.Pad as needed.
71Pediatric Needs (1 of 2)Immobilize a child in the car seat, if possible.
72Pediatric Needs (2 of 2)Children may need extra padding to maintain immobilization.Children may need extra padding under the shoulders.
73ReviewThe brain, a part of the central nervous system (CNS), is divided into the:A. cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.B. cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord.C. cerebellum, cerebrum, and spinal cord.D. spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebral cortex.
74ReviewAnswer: ARationale: The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system (CNS). The brain is divided into three major regions: the cerebrum (the largest portion; also called the gray mater), the cerebellum, and the brain stem. Each region of the brain carries out specific functions.
75ReviewThe brain, a part of the central nervous system (CNS), is divided into the:cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem.Rationale: Correct answerB. cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord.Rationale: The spinal cord is not part of the brain.C. cerebellum, cerebrum, and spinal cord.D. spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebral cortex.
76Review2. A young male was involved in a motor-vehicle accident and experienced a closed head injury. He has no memory of the events leading up to the accident, but remembers that he was going to a birthday party. What is the correct term to use when documenting his memory loss?A. ConcussionB. Cerebral contusionC. Retrograde amnesiaD. Anterograde amnesia
77ReviewAnswer: CRationale: The term amnesia means loss of memory; it is common in patients who have experienced a cerebral concussion. Amnesia of events leading up to an injury is called retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia—also called posttraumatic amnesia—is the inability to remember events that occurred—or will occur—after the injury.
78Review2. A young male was involved in a motor-vehicle accident and experienced a closed head injury. He has no memory of the events leading up to the accident, but remembers that he was going to a birthday party. What is the correct term to use when documenting his memory loss?ConcussionRationale: This occurs when the brain is jarred inside the skull.B. Cerebral contusionRationale: This is when tissue is bruised and damaged in a local area. It may result in prolonged confusion.C. Retrograde amnesiaRationale: Correct answerD. Anterograde amnesiaRationale: This is the loss of memory relating to events that occurred after the injury.
79Review3. During immobilization of a patient with a possible spinal injury, manual stabilization of the head must be maintained until:A. an appropriate-size extrication collar has been placed.B. the patient is fully immobilized on a long spine board.C. a range of motion test of the neck has been completed.D. pulse, motor, and sensory functions are found to be intact.
80ReviewAnswer: BRationale: Manual stabilization of the patient’s head must be maintained until he or she is fully secured to the long spine board. This includes the application of an extrication collar, straps, and lateral immobilization (head blocks). Pulse, motor, and sensory functions must be checked before and after the immobilization process. Do not assess range of motion in a patient with a possible spinal injury; this involves moving the patient’s neck and may cause further injury.
81Review3. During immobilization of a patient with a possible spinal injury, manual stabilization of the head must be maintained until:an appropriate-size extrication collar has been placed.Rationale: This is only one small part of the total immobilization process.B. the patient is fully immobilized on a long spine board.Rationale: Correct answerC. a range of motion test of the neck has been completed.Rationale: Do not assess the range of motion in a patient with a possible spinal injury.D. pulse, motor, and sensory functions are found to be intact.Rationale: This is done before and after complete immobilization.
82Review4. A man is found slumped over the steering wheel, unconscious and making snoring sounds, after an automobile accident. His head is turned to the side and his neck is flexed. You should:A. gently rotate his head to correct the deformity.B. carefully hyperextend his neck to open his airway.C. apply an extrication collar with his head in the position found.D. manually stabilize his head and move it to a neutral, inline position.
83ReviewAnswer: DRationale: The patient’s snoring sounds indicate an airway problem, which must be corrected or he may die. Manually stabilize his head; carefully move it to a neutral, inline position; and reassess his breathing. Do not rotate or hyperextend the neck of a patient with a possible spinal injury; the results could be disastrous.
84Review4. A man is found slumped over the steering wheel, unconscious and making snoring sounds, after an automobile accident. His head is turned to the side and his neck is flexed. You should:gently rotate his head to correct the deformity.Rationale: Do not hyperextend the neck of a patient with a possible spinal injury.B. carefully hyperextend his neck to open his airway.C. apply an extrication collar with his head in the position found.Rationale: The head must be placed in a neutral position to open the airway.D. manually stabilize his head and move it to a neutral, inline position.Rationale: Correct answer
85Review5. As you are assessing a 24-year-old man with a large laceration to the top of his head, you should recall that:A. the scalp, unlike other parts of the body, has relatively fewer blood vessels.B. blood loss from a scalp laceration may contribute to hypovolemic shock in adults.C. any avulsed portions of the scalp should be carefully cut away to facilitate bandaging.D. most scalp injuries are superficial and are rarely associated with more serious injuries.
86ReviewAnswer: BRationale: Although the scalp is highly vascular and tends to bleed heavily when injured, scalp injuries are rarely the sole cause of hypovolemic shock in adults. However, they can contribute to hypovolemia caused by injuries elsewhere in the body. Scalp lacerations, deep or superficial, should prompt you to look for more serious underlying injuries, such as a skull fracture. If the injury involves an avulsion, the avulsed flap of skin should be carefully replaced to its original position, not cut away.
87Review (1 of 2)5. As you are assessing a 24-year-old man with a large laceration to the top of his head, you should recall that:the scalp, unlike other parts of the body, has relatively fewer blood vessels.Rationale: The scalp is highly vascular.B. blood loss from a scalp laceration may contribute to hypovolemic shock in adults.Rationale: Correct answer
88Review (2 of 2)5. As you are assessing a 24-year-old man with a large laceration to the top of his head, you should recall that:C. any avulsed portions of the scalp should be carefully cut away to facilitate bandaging.Rationale: The avulsed flap should be carefully replaced to its original position.D. most scalp injuries are superficial and are rarely associated with more serious injuries.Rationale: Deep or superficial scalp lacerations should prompt EMS providers to assess for more serious underlying injuries.
89Review6. A 44-year-old man was struck in the back of the head and was reportedly unconscious for approximately 30 seconds. He complains of a severe headache and “seeing stars,” and states that he regained his memory shortly before your arrival. His presentation is MOST consistent with a/an:A. cerebral contusion.B. cerebral concussion.C. subdural hematoma.D. intracerebral hemorrhage.
90ReviewAnswer: BRationale: A concussion occurs when the brain is jarred around inside the skull. It may result in a brief loss of consciousness and occasionally, amnesia. Seeing stars is a common finding following trauma to the back of the head (occiput), as this region is primarily responsible for vision. A concussion—the least severe of all closed head injuries—typically does not result in physical damage to the brain. Compared to a concussion, a cerebral contusion, subdural hematoma, and intracerebral hemorrhage are usually associated with a more prolonged loss of consciousness.
91Review6. A 44-year-old man was struck in the back of the head and was reportedly unconscious for approximately 30 seconds. He complains of a severe headache and “seeing stars,” and states that he regained his memory shortly before your arrival. His presentation is MOST consistent with a/an:cerebral contusion.Rationale: This is when brain tissue is damaged and the patient presents with prolonged confusion and loss of consciousness.B. cerebral concussion.Rationale: Correct answerC. subdural hematoma.Rationale: This is an accumulation of blood beneath the dura mater.D. intracerebral hemorrhage.Rationale: This is bleeding within the brain itself.
92Review7. A rapid and prolonged loss of consciousness is MOST common in patients with a/an:A. epidural hematoma.B. subdural hematoma.C. cerebral concussion.D. cerebral contusion.
93ReviewAnswer: ARationale: Epidural hematomas are caused by injury to an artery—usually the middle meningeal artery—that lies in between the skull and brain. Because arteries bleed faster than veins, patients with an epidural hematoma typically experience an immediate and prolonged loss of consciousness as intracranial pressure increases. Subdural hematomas are the result of injury to a vein; therefore, they tend to bleed slowly and usually cause a progressive decline in level of consciousness. Cerebral concussions and contusions may cause a loss of consciousness, but it is typically brief.
94Review7. A rapid and prolonged loss of consciousness is MOST common in patients with a/an:epidural hematoma.Rationale: Correct answerB. subdural hematoma.Rationale: Subdural hematomas tend to bleed slowly and usually cause a progressive decline in level of consciousness.C. cerebral concussion.Rationale: Cerebral concussions may cause a loss of consciousness, but is typically brief.D. cerebral contusion.Rationale: Contusions may cause a loss of consciousness, but is typically brief.
95Review8. Your patient is a 21-year-old male who has massive face and head trauma after being assaulted. He is lying supine, is semiconscious, and has blood in his mouth. You should:A. insert a nasal airway, assess his respirations, and give 100% oxygen.B. suction his airway and apply high-flow oxygen via nonrebreathing mask.C. manually stabilize his head, logroll him onto his side, and suction his mouth.D. apply a cervical collar, suction his airway, and begin assisting his ventilations.
96ReviewAnswer: CRationale: Blood or other secretions in the mouth place the airway in immediate jeopardy and must be removed before they are aspirated. At the same time, you must protect the patient’s spine due the mechanism of injury. Therefore, you should manually stabilize the patient’s head, logroll him onto his side (allows drainage of blood from his mouth), and suction his mouth for up to 15 seconds. After ensuring that his airway is clear, assess his breathing and give high-flow oxygen or assist his ventilations. Nasal airways should not be used in patients with severe facial or head trauma.
97Review (1 of 2)8. Your patient is a 21-year-old male who has massive face and head trauma after being assaulted. He is lying supine, is semiconscious, and has blood in his mouth. You should:insert a nasal airway, assess his respirations, and give 100% oxygen.Rationale: Nasal airways should not be used in patients with severe facial or head trauma or with suspected fractures.B. suction his airway and apply high-flow oxygen via nonrebreathing mask.Rationale: This must be done after manual stabilization of the spine and rolling the patient to his side.
98Review (2 of 2)8. Your patient is a 21-year-old male who has massive face and head trauma after being assaulted. He is lying supine, is semiconscious, and has blood in his mouth. You should:C. manually stabilize his head, logroll him onto his side, and suction his mouth.Rationale: Correct answerD. apply a cervical collar, suction his airway, and begin assisting his ventilations.Rationale: The cervical collar should be applied but manual stabilization must take place first. There are no indications here that the patient’s rate of respirations are inadequate and require assisted ventilations.
99Review9. A distraction injury to the cervical spine would MOST likely occur following:A. a diving accident.B. blunt neck trauma.C. hyperextension of the neck.D. hanging-type mechanisms.
100ReviewAnswer: DRationale: Excessive traction on the neck, such as what occurs during hanging-type mechanisms, can cause a distraction injury of the cervical spine. Distraction injuries can cause separation of the vertebrae and stretching or tearing of the spinal cord.
101Review9. A distraction injury to the cervical spine would MOST likely occur following:a diving accident.Rationale: This would possibly cause a compression injury.B. blunt neck trauma.Rationale: This can result in a fracture or neurologic deficit.C. hyperextension of the neck.D. hanging-type mechanisms.Rationale: Correct answer
102Review10. You should NOT remove an injured football player’s helmet if:A. a cervical spine injury is suspected, even if the helmet fits loosely.B. the patient has a patent airway, even if he has breathing difficulty.C. he has broken teeth, but only if the helmet does not fit snugly in place.D. the face guard can easily be removed and there is no airway compromise.
103ReviewAnswer: DRationale: In general, you should leave a helmet on if it fits snug and does not allow movement of the head within the helmet, the patient’s airway is patent, no airway problems are anticipated, and the patient is breathing without difficulty. If you can easily remove the face guard (often the case with football helmets) and there are no airway problems, do so but leave the helmet on. If the helmet is loose, the airway is in anyway compromised, or the patient has difficulty breathing or is in cardiac arrest, the helmet must be removed.
104Review10. You should NOT remove an injured football player’s helmet if:a cervical spine injury is suspected, even if the helmet fits loosely.Rationale: If the helmet allows for movement of the head, it should be removed.B. the patient has a patent airway, even if he has breathing difficulty.Rationale: The helmet must be removed if the patient is having breathing difficulty.C. he has broken teeth, but only if the helmet does not fit snugly in place.Rationale: Broken teeth present a potential for airway obstruction.D. the face guard can easily be removed and there is no airway compromise.Rationale: Correct answer