Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 Western Europe During the High Middle Ages."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 20 Western Europe During the High Middle Ages
The Holy Roman Empire Otto I of Saxony takes advantage of decline of Carolingian Empire to establish kingdom in north Germany, mid 10 th century CE Pope John XII names Otto Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, 962 CE Think: if the Pope crowns you, who has the power, you, or the Pope? Hence the problem with the “holy” “Roman” “Empire”
The Regional States of Medieval Europe about 1250 CE
Tensions between Emperors and the Church Investiture Contest (1100’s ish) Pope Gregory VII says only he can choose Excommunicates Emperor Henry IV (Germany) German people (read rogue princes) take opportunity to rebel Quashed with difficulty
Regional Monarchies: France Capetian France Hugh Capet succeeds last Carolingian Emperor, 987 CE ELECTED by the Lords – what precedent does that set? Why is it an important detail?
Regional Monarchies: England Normans in England Descendants of Vikings, settled in France Invade England in 1066 under William the Conqueror Dominate Angles, Saxons, and other Germanic groups Why would the English HATE the Normans more than other invaders/conquerors?
Bayeux Tapestry: Primary Source
The Norman Invasion
Italy Series of ecclesiastical states, city-states, and principalities Papal State directly controlled by Pope,
Italy – (or at least the land that will become Italy) By 12 th century, city- states increasingly displace church control in northern Italy Normans invade southern Italy, displace Byzantine and Muslim authorities
Iberian Peninsula Muslims control Iberian peninsula, 8 th -12 th centuries From 11 th century on, Christian conquest of Spanish Muslim territories Late 13 th century, Muslims remain only in Granada
Growth of the Agricultural Economy Increasing development of arable lands Minimized threat of invading nomads Clearing of swamps, forests Improved agricultural techniques Crop rotation New crops, esp. beans Horseshoes, horse collars (horses faster than oxen)
European Population Growth, CE
Revival of Towns and Trade When food supplies increase what Specialization of labor Mediterranean Trade Italy well-positioned for sea trade Italian colonies established in major ports of Mediterranean, Black seas Better business Letters of credit
Resurgence of European Trade
Innovation Alert: The Horse collar has arrived! history.com/node/482 history.com/node/482 de/rome/harnessing/c ollar-ma.html de/rome/harnessing/c ollar-ma.html
The Hanseatic League “Hansa,” association of trading cities Trade in Baltic and North seas Poland, nothern Germany, Scandinavia
Trade Routes of the Hanseatic League
Social Change If you remember nothing else from this PP, please memorize this slide!!! The Three Estates Those who pray: clergy Those who fight: knights/nobility Those who work: peasants Oversimplification of complex social reality
Chivalry Code of conduct for nobles Sponsored by Church to minimize fighting among Christians Technically, knight to dedicate his efforts to promotion of Christianity Protection of women
Troubadors Class of traveling poets, minstrels, entertainers Spread of cultural ideas to Europe Eleanor of Aquitaine ( ) major supporter Popularization of idea of romantic love, refinement of European knights
Independent Cities Additions to class of “those who work” Merchants, artisans, physicians, lawyers, etc. Guilds Late 11 th century, charters of integration
Urban Women New economic opportunities for women Dominated needle trade Representation in wide variety of trades Admitted to most guilds Some guilds for women only
Cathedral Schools Early middle ages – little education High middle ages ( CE) increasing wealth makes education possible Schools based in cathedrals Curriculum of Latin writings
Aristotle’s Back! Latin translations of Byzantine Greek texts circulate in Europe Jewish and Muslim scholars provide other translations from Arabic translations St. Thomas Aquinas ( ), major proponent of Scholasticism Synthesis of Christianity and Aristotle University of Paris
Religious Movements Rebellion against perceived materialism of Roman Catholic Church St. Dominic ( ) and St. Francis ( ) create orders of mendicants Vows of poverty Popular preachers Religious zealots, very opposed to heretical movements
Medieval Expansion of Europe Atlantic and Baltic Colonization Scandinavians explore North Atlantic Ocean Iceland, Greenland, Vinland (Canada) Canadian settlements do not succeed Kings of Denmark nominally convert to Christianity, Sweden and Finland follow
The medieval expansion of Europe, 1000 – 1250 CE
Crusading Orders Religious Christians form military-religious orders Templars, Hospitallers, Teutonic Knights Religious vows of opposition to Islam, paganism Founded churches and monasteries
The Reconquest of Sicily and Spain Sicily taken by Muslims in 9 th century, reconquered by Normans in 11 th century Slow displacement of Islam Opportunity for cross- cultural fertilization
The Beginning of the Crusades Pope Urban II calls for liberation of Jerusalem from Muslim control, 1095 Salvation promised for casualties Peter the Hermit raises popular frenzy, mob destroyed on way to Jerusalem
15th century painting of Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached an impassioned sermon to take back the Holy Land. Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade
Reasons For the Crusades Pope believed they would increase his power and stop them from fighting one another. Crusaders promised their sins would be forgiven for their participation. Nobles hoped to gain wealth and land. Many saw it as a chance for travel and excitement. Serfs hoped to escape feudalism.
The First Crusade more organized expedition Captures Jerusalem, largely due to poor Muslim organization Salah al-Din (Saladin) recaptures Jerusalem in watch?v=ERKDI-exAoE watch?v=ERKDI-exAoE A chronicler, Radulph of Caen wrote: "Some people said that, constrained by the lack of food, they boiled pagan adults in cooking-pots, impaled children on spits and devoured them grilled." These events were also chronicled by Fulcher of Chartres, who wrote: "I shudder to tell that many of our people, harassed by the madness of excessive hunger, cut pieces from the buttocks of the Saracens already dead there, which they cooked, but when it was not yet roasted enough by the fire, they devoured it with savage mouth." Albert of Aix remarked that "the Christians did not shrink from eating not only killed Turks or Saracens, but even dogs..."("Nam Christiani non solum Turcos vel Sarracenos occisos, verum etiam canes arreptos(...)")
Later Crusades and their Consequences Five crusades by mid-13 th century, none successful Fourth Crusade destroys Constantinople, Yet Crusades provide direct contact with Muslim ideologies, trade Aristotle, “Arabic” numerals, paper production
For the first decade of the Crusades, the Crusaders pursued a policy of terror against Muslims and Jews that included mass executions, the throwing of severed heads over besieged cities walls, exhibition and mutilation of naked cadavers, and even cannibalism.
Impact of the Crusades Increased Anti-Semitism Increased Trade Weakened the Power of the Church Weakening of Feudalism Increase in Learning Exposed to Muslim advancements in math, science, literature, art and geographical knowledge
The evolution of a city: London om/timeline/History- of-London om/timeline/History- of-London Go to this website, find evidence of these factors: Invasions Disease Agriculture Commerce Transportation Labor
What effect did the Little Ice Age likely have on London? uk/2013/11/24/londons- little-ice-age-and-the- great-frost-fairs/ uk/2013/11/24/londons- little-ice-age-and-the- great-frost-fairs/ Extrapolate this information into commerce, disease, invasion etc. What effects could we anticipate from our knowledge base?
So what happened to other cities as a result of the Middle ages? Cordoba Timbuktu Paris Baghdad Beijing Delhi Constantinople Research your favorite city from the list. How did events, culture, climate, trade, and other factors ‘change’ the city from 1000 to 1500?