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Western Europe During the High Middle Ages

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Presentation on theme: "Western Europe During the High Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:

1 Western Europe During the High Middle Ages
Chapter 20 Western Europe During the High Middle Ages

2 The Holy Roman Empire Otto I of Saxony takes advantage of decline of Carolingian Empire to establish kingdom in north Germany, mid 10th century CE Pope John XII names Otto Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, 962 CE Think: if the Pope crowns you, who has the power, you, or the Pope? Hence the problem with the “holy” “Roman” “Empire”

3 The Regional States of Medieval Europe about 1250 CE

4 Tensions between Emperors and the Church
Investiture Contest (1100’s ish) Pope Gregory VII says only he can choose Excommunicates Emperor Henry IV (Germany) German people (read rogue princes) take opportunity to rebel Quashed with difficulty

5 Regional Monarchies: France
Capetian France Hugh Capet succeeds last Carolingian Emperor, 987 CE ELECTED by the Lords – what precedent does that set? Why is it an important detail?

6 Regional Monarchies: England
Normans in England Descendants of Vikings, settled in France Invade England in 1066 under William the Conqueror Dominate Angles, Saxons, and other Germanic groups Why would the English HATE the Normans more than other invaders/conquerors?

7 Bayeux Tapestry: Primary Source

8 The Norman Invasion


10 Italy Series of ecclesiastical states, city-states, and principalities
Papal State directly controlled by Pope,

11 Italy – (or at least the land that will become Italy)
By 12th century, city-states increasingly displace church control in northern Italy Normans invade southern Italy, displace Byzantine and Muslim authorities

12 Iberian Peninsula Muslims control Iberian peninsula, 8th-12th centuries From 11th century on, Christian conquest of Spanish Muslim territories Late 13th century, Muslims remain only in Granada



15 Growth of the Agricultural Economy
Increasing development of arable lands Minimized threat of invading nomads Clearing of swamps, forests Improved agricultural techniques Crop rotation New crops, esp. beans Horseshoes, horse collars (horses faster than oxen)

16 European Population Growth, 800-1300 CE

17 Revival of Towns and Trade
When food supplies increase what Specialization of labor Mediterranean Trade Italy well-positioned for sea trade Italian colonies established in major ports of Mediterranean, Black seas Better business Letters of credit

18 Resurgence of European Trade

19 Innovation Alert: The Horse collar has arrived!

20 The Hanseatic League “Hansa,” association of trading cities
Trade in Baltic and North seas Poland, nothern Germany, Scandinavia

21 Trade Routes of the Hanseatic League

22 Social Change The Three Estates
If you remember nothing else from this PP, please memorize this slide!!! The Three Estates Those who pray: clergy Those who fight: knights/nobility Those who work: peasants Oversimplification of complex social reality

23 Chivalry Code of conduct for nobles
Sponsored by Church to minimize fighting among Christians Technically, knight to dedicate his efforts to promotion of Christianity Protection of women

24 Troubadors Class of traveling poets, minstrels, entertainers
Spread of cultural ideas to Europe Eleanor of Aquitaine ( ) major supporter Popularization of idea of romantic love, refinement of European knights

25 Independent Cities Additions to class of “those who work” Guilds
Merchants, artisans, physicians, lawyers, etc. Guilds Late 11th century, charters of integration

26 Urban Women New economic opportunities for women
Dominated needle trade Representation in wide variety of trades Admitted to most guilds Some guilds for women only

27 Cathedral Schools Early middle ages – little education
High middle ages ( CE) increasing wealth makes education possible Schools based in cathedrals Curriculum of Latin writings

28 Aristotle’s Back! Latin translations of Byzantine Greek texts circulate in Europe Jewish and Muslim scholars provide other translations from Arabic translations St. Thomas Aquinas ( ), major proponent of Scholasticism Synthesis of Christianity and Aristotle University of Paris

29 Religious Movements Rebellion against perceived materialism of Roman Catholic Church St. Dominic ( ) and St. Francis ( ) create orders of mendicants Vows of poverty Popular preachers Religious zealots, very opposed to heretical movements

30 Medieval Expansion of Europe
Atlantic and Baltic Colonization Scandinavians explore North Atlantic Ocean Iceland, Greenland, Vinland (Canada) Canadian settlements do not succeed Kings of Denmark nominally convert to Christianity, Sweden and Finland follow

31 The medieval expansion of Europe, 1000 – 1250 CE

32 Crusading Orders Religious Christians form military-religious orders
Templars, Hospitallers, Teutonic Knights Religious vows of opposition to Islam, paganism Founded churches and monasteries

33 The Reconquest of Sicily and Spain
Sicily taken by Muslims in 9th century, reconquered by Normans in 11th century Slow displacement of Islam Opportunity for cross-cultural fertilization


35 The Beginning of the Crusades
Pope Urban II calls for liberation of Jerusalem from Muslim control, 1095 Salvation promised for casualties Peter the Hermit raises popular frenzy, mob destroyed on way to Jerusalem

36 Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade
15th century painting of Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached an impassioned sermon to take back the Holy Land.

37 Reasons For the Crusades
Pope believed they would increase his power and stop them from fighting one another. Crusaders promised their sins would be forgiven for their participation. Nobles hoped to gain wealth and land. Many saw it as a chance for travel and excitement. Serfs hoped to escape feudalism.

38 The First Crusade 1096-1099 more organized expedition
A chronicler, Radulph of Caen wrote:  "Some people said that, constrained by the lack of food, they boiled pagan adults in cooking-pots, impaled children on spits and devoured them grilled."  These events were also chronicled by Fulcher of Chartres, who wrote:  "I shudder to tell that many of our people, harassed by the madness of excessive hunger, cut pieces from the buttocks of the Saracens already dead there, which they cooked, but when it was not yet roasted enough by the fire, they devoured it with savage mouth."[1]  Albert of Aix remarked that "the Christians did not shrink from eating not only killed Turks or Saracens, but even dogs..."("Nam Christiani non solum Turcos vel Sarracenos occisos, verum etiam canes arreptos(...)")[2] more organized expedition Captures Jerusalem, largely due to poor Muslim organization Salah al-Din (Saladin) recaptures Jerusalem in 1187

39 Later Crusades and their Consequences
Five crusades by mid-13th century, none successful Fourth Crusade destroys Constantinople, Yet Crusades provide direct contact with Muslim ideologies, trade Aristotle, “Arabic” numerals, paper production

40 For the first decade of the Crusades, the Crusaders pursued a policy of terror against Muslims and Jews that included mass executions, the throwing of severed heads over besieged cities walls, exhibition and mutilation of naked cadavers, and even cannibalism.

41 Impact of the Crusades Increased Anti-Semitism Increased Trade
Weakened the Power of the Church Weakening of Feudalism Increase in Learning Exposed to Muslim advancements in math, science, literature, art and geographical knowledge

42 The evolution of a city: London
Go to this website, find evidence of these factors: Invasions Disease Agriculture Commerce Transportation Labor

43 What effect did the Little Ice Age likely have on London?
Extrapolate this information into commerce, disease, invasion etc. What effects could we anticipate from our knowledge base?

44 So what happened to other cities as a result of the Middle ages?
Cordoba Timbuktu Paris Baghdad Beijing Delhi Constantinople Research your favorite city from the list. How did events, culture, climate, trade, and other factors ‘change’ the city from 1000 to 1500?

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