Presentation on theme: "Western Europe During the High Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:
1 Western Europe During the High Middle Ages Chapter 20Western Europe During the High Middle Ages
2 The Holy Roman EmpireOtto I of Saxony takes advantage of decline of Carolingian Empire to establish kingdom in north Germany, mid 10th century CEPope John XII names Otto Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, 962 CEThink: if the Pope crowns you, who has the power, you, or the Pope? Hence the problem with the “holy” “Roman” “Empire”
3 The Regional States of Medieval Europe about 1250 CE
4 Tensions between Emperors and the Church Investiture Contest (1100’s ish)Pope Gregory VII says only he can chooseExcommunicates Emperor Henry IV (Germany)German people (read rogue princes) take opportunity to rebelQuashed with difficulty
5 Regional Monarchies: France Capetian FranceHugh Capet succeeds last Carolingian Emperor, 987 CEELECTED by the Lords – what precedent does that set? Why is it an important detail?
6 Regional Monarchies: England Normans in EnglandDescendants of Vikings, settled in FranceInvade England in 1066 under William the ConquerorDominate Angles, Saxons, and other Germanic groupsWhy would the English HATE the Normans more than other invaders/conquerors?
10 Italy Series of ecclesiastical states, city-states, and principalities Papal State directly controlled by Pope,
11 Italy – (or at least the land that will become Italy) By 12th century, city-states increasingly displace church control in northern ItalyNormans invade southern Italy, displace Byzantine and Muslim authorities
12 Iberian PeninsulaMuslims control Iberian peninsula, 8th-12th centuriesFrom 11th century on, Christian conquest of Spanish Muslim territoriesLate 13th century, Muslims remain only in Granada
15 Growth of the Agricultural Economy Increasing development of arable landsMinimized threat of invading nomadsClearing of swamps, forestsImproved agricultural techniquesCrop rotationNew crops, esp. beansHorseshoes, horse collars (horses faster than oxen)
17 Revival of Towns and Trade When food supplies increase whatSpecialization of laborMediterranean TradeItaly well-positioned for sea tradeItalian colonies established in major ports of Mediterranean, Black seasBetter businessLetters of credit
22 Social Change The Three Estates If you remember nothing else from this PP, please memorize this slide!!!The Three EstatesThose who pray: clergyThose who fight: knights/nobilityThose who work: peasantsOversimplification of complex social reality
23 Chivalry Code of conduct for nobles Sponsored by Church to minimize fighting among ChristiansTechnically, knight to dedicate his efforts to promotion of ChristianityProtection of women
24 Troubadors Class of traveling poets, minstrels, entertainers Spread of cultural ideas to EuropeEleanor of Aquitaine ( ) major supporterPopularization of idea of romantic love, refinement of European knights
25 Independent Cities Additions to class of “those who work” Guilds Merchants, artisans, physicians, lawyers, etc.GuildsLate 11th century, charters of integration
26 Urban Women New economic opportunities for women Dominated needle tradeRepresentation in wide variety of tradesAdmitted to most guildsSome guilds for women only
27 Cathedral Schools Early middle ages – little education High middle ages ( CE) increasing wealth makes education possibleSchools based in cathedralsCurriculum of Latin writings
28 Aristotle’s Back!Latin translations of Byzantine Greek texts circulate in EuropeJewish and Muslim scholars provide other translations from Arabic translationsSt. Thomas Aquinas ( ), major proponent of ScholasticismSynthesis of Christianity and AristotleUniversity of Paris
29 Religious MovementsRebellion against perceived materialism of Roman Catholic ChurchSt. Dominic ( ) and St. Francis ( ) create orders of mendicantsVows of povertyPopular preachersReligious zealots, very opposed to heretical movements
30 Medieval Expansion of Europe Atlantic and Baltic ColonizationScandinavians explore North Atlantic OceanIceland, Greenland, Vinland (Canada)Canadian settlements do not succeedKings of Denmark nominally convert to Christianity, Sweden and Finland follow
31 The medieval expansion of Europe, 1000 – 1250 CE
32 Crusading Orders Religious Christians form military-religious orders Templars, Hospitallers, Teutonic KnightsReligious vows of opposition to Islam, paganismFounded churches and monasteries
33 The Reconquest of Sicily and Spain Sicily taken by Muslims in 9th century, reconquered by Normans in 11th centurySlow displacement of IslamOpportunity for cross-cultural fertilization
35 The Beginning of the Crusades Pope Urban II calls for liberation of Jerusalem from Muslim control, 1095Salvation promised for casualtiesPeter the Hermit raises popular frenzy, mob destroyed on way to Jerusalem
36 Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade 15th century painting of Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached an impassioned sermon to take back the Holy Land.
37 Reasons For the Crusades Pope believed they would increase his power and stop them from fighting one another.Crusaders promised their sins would be forgiven for their participation.Nobles hoped to gain wealth and land.Many saw it as a chance for travel and excitement.Serfs hoped to escape feudalism.
38 The First Crusade 1096-1099 more organized expedition A chronicler, Radulph of Caen wrote: "Some people said that, constrained by the lack of food, they boiled pagan adults in cooking-pots, impaled children on spits and devoured them grilled." These events were also chronicled by Fulcher of Chartres, who wrote: "I shudder to tell that many of our people, harassed by the madness of excessive hunger, cut pieces from the buttocks of the Saracens already dead there, which they cooked, but when it was not yet roasted enough by the fire, they devoured it with savage mouth." Albert of Aix remarked that "the Christians did not shrink from eating not only killed Turks or Saracens, but even dogs..."("Nam Christiani non solum Turcos vel Sarracenos occisos, verum etiam canes arreptos(...)")more organized expeditionCaptures Jerusalem, largely due to poor Muslim organizationSalah al-Din (Saladin) recaptures Jerusalem in 1187
39 Later Crusades and their Consequences Five crusades by mid-13th century, none successfulFourth Crusade destroys Constantinople,Yet Crusades provide direct contact with Muslim ideologies, tradeAristotle, “Arabic” numerals, paper production
40 For the first decade of the Crusades, the Crusaders pursued a policy of terror against Muslims and Jews that included mass executions, the throwing of severed heads over besieged cities walls, exhibition and mutilation of naked cadavers, and even cannibalism.
41 Impact of the Crusades Increased Anti-Semitism Increased Trade Weakened the Power of the ChurchWeakening of FeudalismIncrease in LearningExposed to Muslim advancements in math, science, literature, art and geographical knowledge
42 The evolution of a city: London Go to this website, find evidence of these factors:InvasionsDiseaseAgricultureCommerceTransportationLabor
43 What effect did the Little Ice Age likely have on London? Extrapolate this information into commerce, disease, invasion etc. What effects could we anticipate from our knowledge base?
44 So what happened to other cities as a result of the Middle ages? CordobaTimbuktuParisBaghdadBeijingDelhiConstantinopleResearch your favorite city from the list. How did events, culture, climate, trade, and other factors ‘change’ the city from 1000 to 1500?