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The Progressive Era, 1900-1917 How did intellectuals, novelists, and journalists help lay the groundwork for the progressive movement? –“progressive movement”

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Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Era, 1900-1917 How did intellectuals, novelists, and journalists help lay the groundwork for the progressive movement? –“progressive movement”"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Progressive Era, How did intellectuals, novelists, and journalists help lay the groundwork for the progressive movement? –“progressive movement” – a widespread yearning for reform and an exciting sense of new social possibilities. Yearning found many outlets and focused on a wide array of issues.

2 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism –Urban Growth (early 20 th century) Immigration & Rapidly growing middle class transformed U. S. Cities (most native born, white, and Protestant) –Community leaders and worker of Progressive movement – , white collar work force grows from 5.1 million to 10.5 million (more than double the work force as a whole)

3 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism –White collar jobs, secretaries, civil engineers, and people in advertising increase phenomenally. Owners of businesses, professionals such as lawyers, doctors, and teachers –Professional groups arose, American Bar Association (grew) New, Association of Advertising Agencies (1917) American Association of University Professors (1915).

4 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism –Middle class women –Opportunities and frustration –Often became schoolteachers, secretaries, typists, clerks, and telephone operators –949,000 in 1900 to 3.4 million in 1920 –Even though # still small, the # of college educated women more than tripled in this 20 year period

5 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism “New Woman” –Divorce rate grew 1/12 in 1900 to 1/9 in 1916 –Middle class women joined white-collar workers, and college graduates in leading women’s movement

6 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism Initial reform impetus came from –Women’s clubs –Settlement houses, –Private groups like Playground Assoc. of America National Child Labor Committee, National Consumer’s League American League for Civic Improvement

7 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism Also important to the reform movement on issues affecting factory workers and slum dwellers –Urban immigrant political machines –Workers themselves Some corporate leaders mold reform measures to serve their own interests.

8 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism Progressivism could be described as a series of political and cultural responses to industrialization and its by-products: immigration, urban growth, the rise of corporate power, and widening class divisions.

9 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism Progressivism contrasted with Populism –Progressivism’s strengths lay in the cities –Many more journalists, academics, social theorists, and urban dwellers Progressives were reformers not radicals –Wished to remedy the social ills of industrial capitalism, –Not uproot the system itself

10 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism Disagreements –Many wanted stricter regulation of business, from local transit companies to the almighty trusts –Others wanted to protect workers and the urban poor. –Others tried to reform the structure of government, (esp. at municipal level) –Others fought for immigration restriction or various social-control strategies

11 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism Progressives believed that all social problems could be resolved through careful study and organized effort. –High regard for science and expert knowledge Science and Technology had produced the new industrial order, and such expertise would also solve the social problems spawned by industrialism. –Wanted research data, expert opinion, and statistics to support causes.

12 The Progressive Era, Many Faces of Progressivism Is progressivism a stage that all industrial societies pass through? Driving Factors –Human emotion –Indignation –Intense moralism –Fear of the alien –Hatred of unbridled corporate power, –Raw political ambition


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