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An Integrated ECC and Redundancy Repair Scheme for Memory Reliability Enhancement National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan Chin-Lung Su, Yi-Ting Yeh,

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Presentation on theme: "An Integrated ECC and Redundancy Repair Scheme for Memory Reliability Enhancement National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan Chin-Lung Su, Yi-Ting Yeh,"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Integrated ECC and Redundancy Repair Scheme for Memory Reliability Enhancement National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Taiwan Chin-Lung Su, Yi-Ting Yeh, and Cheng-Wen Wu

2 2 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Introduction  Memory cores are widely used in SOC designs  They have higher density and occupy larger area  Dominate the chip yield  Their use is increasing in nano-technologies according to ITRS  Reliability is also an important issue for memory  ECC and redundancy repair are both widely used fault tolerance techniques  After production test, there may be some un-used redundancy  Combine ECC and un-used redundancy  Higher yield and greater degree of fault tolerance

3 3 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Chip Area Breakdown Source: International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS),

4 4 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Typical RAM BIST Architecture RAM Test Collar (MUX) BIST Module Controller Comparator Pattern Generator Go/No-Go RAM Controller Counter LUT LFSR Microprogram Hardwired CPU core IEEE

5 5 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Sharing Controller & Sequencer

6 6 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Typical RAM ECC Architecture RAM Cb Gen Decoder Syndrome Gen Corrector SingleDouble Syndrome Data Bus Mainly for improving reliability

7 7 IC-DFN/08-06/cww RAM Built-In Self-Repair (BISR) RAM MUX BIST Redundancy Analyzer Reconfiguration Mechanism Spare Elements I/O Mainly for improving yield

8 8 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Main Memory Spare Memory BIRA BIST Wrapper Q D A A Power-On BISR Scheme MAO POR MAO: mask address output; POR: power-on reset Source: ITC’03

9 9 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Proposed Scheme  Integrated ECC and Redundancy Repair Scheme  Hard errors are repaired by physical redundancy in field  Soft-error correction ability is not harmed by hard errors  Enhance reliability  Assumptions  During Error Identification phase, no other faults may occur  Error rate << system clock speed

10 10 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Phases of Proposed Scheme

11 11 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Error Identification Phase  Write back process  Write the corrected data back to memory  Read data from the same address  Soft error may be eliminated with this process  Assume that no other errors may occur  After error identification  “Hard repair phase” for a hard error/fault  “Fault-free phase” for a soft error

12 12 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Hard Repair Phase  Repair this hard fault with spare  Map the faulty word to redundant word  Write the corrected data into redundant word  Hard fault location  In main memory: follow the above procedure  In redundant memory: mark the faulty redundant element  During this phase, memory cannot be accessed  Idle mode  Hard fault is removed after this phase  Reliability and MTTF is increased

13 13 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Experimental Results  Technology: TSMC 0.25um CMOS process  The redundant memory consists of eight spare rows and four spare columns Memory SizeECCBISTRCTotal (%) 32K x 321, K x 641, K x 1282, K x 641, K x 1281,

14 14 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Experimental Results (cont.) Memory SizeArea (gates)MTTF (hours)Cost 8k X 32!ECC SEC SECP k X 64!ECC SEC SECP k X 128!ECC SEC SECP Cost = Area / MTTF !ECC: Without ECC SEC: With SEC/DED ECC SECP: Proposed Scheme Area = Memory + ECC + BIST

15 15 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Reliability Improvement 8K x 64 memory r+c = 12

16 16 IC-DFN/08-06/cww Conclusions  An integrated ECC and redundancy repair scheme is proposed  Enhancing memory reliability and MTTF  Low area overhead  Integrating ECC Controller with BIST  No timing penalty in normal operation  Cost-effective way for reducing the effect of parametric defects


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