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Week 8: Chen Ying-chen and the Washington Building Stories [Oct 31 st, 2013] Instructor: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD. Adjunct Assistant Professor, Graduate.

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Presentation on theme: "Week 8: Chen Ying-chen and the Washington Building Stories [Oct 31 st, 2013] Instructor: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD. Adjunct Assistant Professor, Graduate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 8: Chen Ying-chen and the Washington Building Stories [Oct 31 st, 2013] Instructor: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD. Adjunct Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature, NTU Taiwan Fiction and Postwar Urban Experience Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 TaiwanAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan

2 2 http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chenyingzhen.jpg

3 Nativist-realism [hsiang-tu hsieh-shih, 鄉土寫實 ] “ 鄉土 ”: literally means Native Soil [hsiang-tu]. Realism: not only a reflection of reality, but also a criticism of the problems in reality. The nativists (the people from the countryside) usually tend to be exploited by oppressors like government officials, businessmen, and city people. [good vs. evil; naïve vs. sophisticated] It proposed a local Nationalism to replace to Westernized elitist individualism of the 60s.

4 The opposition between Modernism of the 60s and Nativist-realism in the 70s culminated in the Debate of Taiwan Nativist Literature from 1977 to 1978 [ 台灣鄉土文學論戰 ]. Wang Tuo [ 王拓 ] and Chen Ying-chen vs. Peng Ko [ 彭歌 ], Chu Hsi-ning [ 朱西甯 ], and Yu Kuang-chung [ 余光中 ]. Wang Tuo and Yang Ching-chu [ 楊青矗 ] were arrested and indicted in 1979 for the involvement with the Formosa Incident [ 美麗島事件 ], but it did not silence the Nativist-realists.

5 Wikipedai Ch.Andrew

6 This work is licensed by 文訊雜誌社 for the use of “Course Database of General Education TW” ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right.

7 聯合知識庫 2008-01-05 攝影者 : 林宜靜 This work is licensed by 聯合知識庫 for the use of “Course Database of General Education TW” ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right.

8 Wikipedia Rico Shen

9 9 The City in Literature Two-way Migration National Taiwan University Richard Rong-bin Chen

10 Nativist-realism vs. Urban Fiction 10 The city in literature “The Taste of Apples” [ 蘋果的滋味 ] “Hsiao Lin in Taipei” [ 小林來台北 ] “The Drowning of an Old Cat” [ 溺死一隻老貓 ] “Night Freight” [ 夜行貨車 ] “One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker” [ 上 班族的一日 ] Urban Literature “A Guided Tour of an Apartment Complex” [ 公寓 導遊 ] “A History of Condo Sales” [ 房地產銷售史 ]

11  1937: born in Miaoli, raised in Ying-ko,Taipei County.  1960: graduated from Department of English, Tamkang College of Arts (now Tamkang U).  Arrested and imprisoned in 1968 for engaging in “pro-communist activities.”  1975: President Chiang Kai-shek died, Chen was released from the prison due to an amnesty.  1985: established Renjian zazhi [ 《人間雜誌》 ], a journal famous for its reportage which was closed in 1989 for financial reasons.  Suffering from strokes after 2006, he is now living in Beijing. 11

12 This work is from http://blog.yam.com/munch/article/6676460,b ut the original source is from 《人間雜誌》 (1985-1989) 40 期 and the magazine had ceased publication. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET http://blog.yam.com/munch/article/6676460 This work is from http://blog.roodo.com/johnnyschannel/archives/1 6437445.html,but the original source is from 《人 間雜誌》 (1985-1989) 20 期 and the magazine had ceased publication. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GET http://blog.roodo.com/johnnyschannel/archives/1 6437445.html

13 This work is from http://trendfoundation.pixnet.net/album/photo/128511992-img006- %E9%99%B3%E6%98%A0%E7%9C%9F%E8%88%87%E3%80%8A%E4%BA%BA%E9%96%93%E 3%80%8B%E9%9B%9C%E8%AA%8C%E7%A4%BE%E5%85%A8%E9%AB%94%E5%90%8C%E4 %BB%81-%E5%87%BA%E8%87%AA,but the original source is from 《人間雜誌》 (1985-1989) 39 期, 黃淇攝影 and the magazine had ceased publication. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GEThttp://trendfoundation.pixnet.net/album/photo/128511992-img006- %E9%99%B3%E6%98%A0%E7%9C%9F%E8%88%87%E3%80%8A%E4%BA%BA%E9%96%93%E 3%80%8B%E9%9B%9C%E8%AA%8C%E7%A4%BE%E5%85%A8%E9%AB%94%E5%90%8C%E4 %BB%81-%E5%87%BA%E8%87%AA

14 Against the background of Taiwan’s being isolated in the international community since the 70s, the discourse of Nativist-realism implied the problem of subjectivity, which inevitably led to the literary and cultural movement of localization [bentuhua]. Actually Nativist-realism can be traced back to its prewar period, with its representative writers like Lü Heruo [ 呂赫若 ], Lai He [ 賴和 ], and Yang Kui [ 楊逵 ]. The anthology: Oxcart: Nativist Stories from Taiwan: 1934 - 1977. Translated and introduced by Rosemary M. Haddon, and published by a German publisher named Projekt Verlag in 1996.

15 Exiles at Home: Short Stories by Chen Ying-chen. Translated by Lucien Miller, and published by Center for Chinese Studies, U of Michigan, 1986. Miller is Professor of Comparative Literature, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. “A Break in the Chain: The Short Stories of Ch’en Ying-chen” by Lucien Miller, collected in Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives, edited by Jeannette L. Faurot, published by Idiana University Press in 1980. “From Oppression to Dependency: Two Stages in the Fiction of Chen Yingzhen” by Jeffrey C. Kinkley. Modern China. Vol. 16, No. 3 (Jul., 1990), pp. 243-268

16 Short Introduction to the Translation Ch'en, who spent seven years in prison on political "subversion" charges, is known for his often brutal honesty about rural poverty and the bland hypocrisies of the middle class. Deeply moral, Ch'en's nine stories here capture his personal alienation, touching on issues of racism, business ethics, and social nonconformity that continue to worry Chinese society on both sides of the straits. (from the back cover of Exiles at Home: Short Stories by Chen Ying-chen)

17 Table of Contents 1960—”My Kid Brother, K’ang-hsiung” [ 我的弟弟 康雄 ] 1960—”The Country Village Teacher” [ 鄉村的教師 ] 1960—”The Dying” [ 死者 ] 1964—”A Couple of Generals” [ 將軍族 ] 1964—”Poor Poor Dumb Mouths” [ 悽慘的無言的嘴 ] 1966—”The Last Day of Summer” [ 最後的夏日 ] 1967 —”The Comedy of Narcissa T’ang” [ 唐倩的喜劇 ] 1967—”Roses in June” [ 六月裡的玫瑰花 ] 1978—”One day in the life of a white-collar Worker” [ 上班族的一日 ]

18 “A Couple of Generals” Love Story. A 40-year-old mainlander and a skinny teenage Taiwanese girl. Girl from Taitung. It implies that the girl might be aboriginal, which is the reason why she was sold by her parents to a brothel for 25 thousand dollars. Suicide. After the girl ran away from home, she met the mainlander in a funeral band, where musicians all had to wear uniforms like generals. The mainlander gave her money to buy her freedom, but she became a prostitute anyway. Five years later, after their reunion, they committed suicide together.

19 “Roses in June” War victim. Chen wrote a lot about the tragic lives of conscripted soldiers, like this one and “The Country Village Teacher.” Love story. It is a love story between a Taiwanese bar girl and an African-American sergeant. Psychological breakdown. Mental illness seems to be a common feature of Chen’s soldiers. After an ambush, the sergeant named Barney was able to escape, but he killed innocent Vietnamese girl later and this experience traumatized him greatly. Barney died in the end, left the pregnant bar girl behind.

20 “Washington Building” Stories “Night Freight” [ 夜行貨車 ]. March 1978. “One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker”. [ 上班族的一日 ] September 1978. “Clouds” [ 雲 ]. August 1980. A Story famous for depicting the lives of female workers, and their attempts at calling a strike and organizing a factory union. “God of Merchants” [ 萬商帝君 ]. December 1982. A story on the god-like power of Capitalism, which not only defeats nationalism, but also drives a character crazy.

21 Oppressed Workers. From 1978 to 1982, Chen used his Washington Building series [ 華盛頓大樓系列 ] to depict the lives of Taiwanese workers oppressed by both their foreign and local supervisors. Love story. In “Night Freight,” we see the love triangle among Lin Jung-ping, Liu Hsiao-ling, and Chan I-hung and the oppression from Mr. Morgenthau, head of the Taiwan Malamud Electronic Company. Ideal and reality. In “One Day in the Life of a White- collar Worker,” Huang Jing-hsiung was a capable Taiwanese, and had a dream of making a movie. One day, Huang didn’t get the promotion he deserved, so he decided to quit, and planned to fulfill the dream after his resignation, but eventually he went back to his work.

22 Night Freight [ 夜行貨車 ] Characters Mr. Morgenthau (Head of Taiwan Malamud) Mr. Solon O. Bowdell (Director of Finance of the Pacific Division of Malamud Electronic Company) Lin Jung-ping (J.P.) (Head of the financial department of Taiwan Malamud) Liu Hsiao-ling (Linda) Chan I-hung (James)

23 Mr. Morgenthau: a native of Maryland, had habits of teasing female coworkers, telling dirty jokes, and good at loud-mouthed cursing. Mr. Solon O. Bowdell: short for SOB. J.P.: a 38-year-old sturdy fellow from a farming family in Southern Taiwan with a balding crown, and a brow often touched with slight melancholy. James: a capable young man, head of a new Capital Accounting Sub-department, who had unkempt long hair and broad shoulders. A man of few words, a chain-smoker when working, uncouth, arrogant, cynic, and rebellious.

24 J.P. and James in a strong contrast Linda: “In the past you said that society, your children, your relatives —— but one thing you never mentioned: your new position in the company.” (p. 110) Dialogue between Linda and James “James...” “I’m not any fucking ‘James.’ I am Chan I-hung.” (p. 112) James used Taiwanese when speaking to J.P.: “Let’s not quarrel in front of the barbarians.... I don’t know about you. As for me, I can’t take this kind of rotten life anymore.” (p. 132) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.), The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926. Bloomington : Indiana University Press Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.), The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926. Bloomington : Indiana University Press Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.), The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926. Bloomington : Indiana University Press

25 Title of the sections. The themes or implications? I. “The Stuffed Long-tailed Pheasant” II. “The Warm, Supple Breasts” III. ”The Desert Museum” IV. “The Enameled Bronze Ring”

26 Differences in Business Culture Morgenthau: “The office in Tokyo, J.P., can never understand that public relations expense in as rational expense in China... Any expense that brings efficiency and profits counts as rational management.” J.P.: “Let’s play politics with Tokyo... This year we’ve made good grades in three quarters, enough to please them.... As soon as they’re pleased, the accounts can be easily dealt with.” (“Night Freight,”p. 103-4) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.), The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926. Bloomington : Indiana University Press

27 “One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker” Characters Ching-hsiung Hwang (Olive) Bertland Yang (B.Y.), manager of Accounting Division Rose (Oliver’s mistress) Grace (Oliver’s wife) Mr. Bottmore, President of Morrison Mutual Ltd. General Rong, Director of Taiwan Morrison Edward K. Chao (Rong’s nephew) Mr. McNell Kenneth

28 American Influence in Taiwan Bank of Florida, Harvey’s Western Restaurant, and Washington Building Cigarettes: Kent, Dunhill, More, Salem. Edward K. Chao’s resume: Graduate of Campbell College with a master’s degree in business administration Head accountant of the New York branch of Morrison Worked in Morrison’s Asia-Pacific headquarters in Manila

29 “The General Rong needed Bertland Yang was patently obvious to Olive. Many a time B.Y. had handed Olive a thick stack of receipts from the general. B.Y. didn’t need to say a thing: right away Olive would meticulously record these bills as proper company expendidtures. And that B.Y. needed Olive was equally obvious.... Olive would then expunge the accounts from the record, so that even the auditing agency sent from New York couldn’t find anything. He had also established a secret account: B.Y. was deceiving the parent company and investing in several manufacturing and business firms...”(“One Day,” p. 176) Corruption and Corporate Culture Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

30 The process of corruption “During those years he had been a dreamer. A star of ambitious hope had kept beckoning him as it glittered about the horizon. He had experienced boundless passion as well. Before long he become a lowly slave to that fickle door of the assistant manager’s office, that narrow, lacquered teakwood door which had closed, then opened, and now had shut him out at last. He had been a minor actor in an ugly, rotten drama directed by Bertland Yang, a man consumed by lust.” (p. 193) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

31 More Implications of Filmmaking Life is like scenes in a movie. “This vacated office had been within his reach, and then suddenly had vanished over the horizon like some fleeting scene from a movie.” (p. 173) Working is real and unbearable, and filmmaking is ideal and impossible. “Yesterday, right after he had sworn in his rage that he would quit, he realized that in fact he had long since fallen into a great formless net of daily drudgery in which every white-collar worker was caught.” (p. 190) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

32 Usually “it was during these lonely rides, when he was poor and hopelessly longed for a camera of his own, that he got the idea of using the bicycle as a theme for a documentary...” (p. 177), but now his creativity waned, and he could only associate the bicycle with his pathetic white- collar worker life. Another example is that even when he was watching the short video of his wedding, he asked “’Why is it that life then was full of a different kind of vitality?’ he said in a subdued voice.” (p. 191) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

33 “For over ten years, he thought, the same monotonous routine of going back and forth to the office.... Five years ago he had secured a spot in Morrison’s spacious, elegant, and fully air-conditioned offices.... To the white-collar worker... home was like a hotel—someplace you went back to in order to sleep. For the past ten years, all of his creative energies and the very essence of his existence had been centered on his work at an office” (p.176) The Problem of Overworking Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

34 Loneliness and Alienation Loneliness as the consequence of work-collar workers’ being consumed by work, and meaningful relationship among friends and family became impossible. After calling his friends from the college, Olive feels “friendless and isolated, as though everybody has abandoned him. He had come to the realization long ago that the whole world was a huge and powerful, well-meshed machine which he could not comprehend.” (p.179) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

35 What Olive’s friends thought is completely different from his own perception of the resignation. One of his friends said that Olive was "enjoying his peace and quiet at home” and continued to comment that "you high-level white-collar workers sure live better than we do." (p.179) Most of them found Olive's resignation incomprehensible, complaining that "it's really tough to make a living this year" and that they "work themselves to death just for a bowl of rice." (p.179) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

36 Ironically, the meaning of the position of an assistant manager for Olive is neither about money nor prestige, he thought "a high salary, a car-such amenities were really secondary.” “Olive yearned to have the assistant manager's chair because it meant a lighter work load, because at last he would have the abundance of freedom and drive necessary to work on the documentary film he had never been able to complete while in college." (p.177) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

37 Concept of Love Rose once said to him that “’Chinese are relatively more intelligent, but they are third rate lovers. They don’t dare love” (p. 187) and Olive is a typical example, who’s always playing safe. The general manager of Taiwan Morrison, Mr. McNell, had it all in his life, “yet he threw away his career, wife, and children, and drifted to Africa with his doleful Kenneth, so young and pale.” (p. 186) However, the love between Kenneth and Mr. McNell ended up with their drifting to Africa, and then the suicide of McNell. Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

38 Main messages The conflict between real life and ideal. The corrupted working environment of white-collar workers. The deceitful life. “White-collar work, hardly anybody realizes what a huge hoax it is. How many talented, ambitious men have been destroyed by a ridiculous feeling of security?” (p. 178) Source: Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). Lucien Miller(Eds.), Exiles at home : short stories. Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

39 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 2 Wikipedia C.I.K. http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chenyingzhen.jpg 2013/10/28 visited 5 Wikipedai Ch.Andrew http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Huang_Chunming_NIU_20100928.jpg 2013/10/28 visited 6 This work is licensed by 文訊雜誌社 for the use of “Course Database of General Education TW” ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right. 7 聯合知識庫 2008-01-05 攝影者 : 林宜靜 This work is licensed by 聯合知識庫 for the use of “Course Database of General Education TW” ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and we do not have the authorization right. 8 Wikipedia Rico Shen http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2008TIBE_Day1_Hall1_Opening_TouhWang.jpg 2013/10/28 visited 12 This work is from http://blog.yam.com/munch/article/6676460,but the original source is from 《人間雜誌》 (1985-1989) 40 期 and the magazine had ceased publication. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GEThttp://blog.yam.com/munch/article/6676460

40 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 12 This work is from http://blog.roodo.com/johnnyschannel/archives/16437445.html,but the original source is from 《人間雜誌》 (1985-1989) 20 期 and the magazine had ceased publication. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GEThttp://blog.roodo.com/johnnyschannel/archives/16437445.html 13 This work is from http://trendfoundation.pixnet.net/album/photo/128511992-img006- %E9%99%B3%E6%98%A0%E7%9C%9F%E8%88%87%E3%80%8A%E4%BA%BA%E 9%96%93%E3%80%8B%E9%9B%9C%E8%AA%8C%E7%A4%BE%E5%85%A8%E9% AB%94%E5%90%8C%E4%BB%81-%E5%87%BA%E8%87%AA,but the original source is from 《人間雜誌》 (1985-1989) 39 期,黃淇攝影 and the magazine had ceased publication. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 and 65 by GEThttp://trendfoundation.pixnet.net/album/photo/128511992-img006- %E9%99%B3%E6%98%A0%E7%9C%9F%E8%88%87%E3%80%8A%E4%BA%BA%E 9%96%93%E3%80%8B%E9%9B%9C%E8%AA%8C%E7%A4%BE%E5%85%A8%E9% AB%94%E5%90%8C%E4%BB%81-%E5%87%BA%E8%87%AA 24 In the past you said that society… your new position in the company Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Night Freight Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.) The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926 (p. 110). Bloomington : Indiana University Press 24 I’m not any fucking ‘James.’ I am Chan I- hung. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Night Freight Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.) The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926 (p. 112). Bloomington : Indiana University Press 24 Let’s not quarrel in front of the …kind of rotten life anymore Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Night Freight Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.) The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926 (p. 132). Bloomington : Indiana University Press 26 Let’s play politics with Tokyo... the accounts can be easily dealt with. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1983). Night Freight Joseph S.M. Lau(Eds.) The Unbroken chain : an anthology of Taiwan fiction since 1926 (pp. 103-4). Bloomington : Indiana University Press

41 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 29 The General Rong … manufacturing and business firms... Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 176). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 30 During those years he had …directed by Bertland Yang, a man consumed by lust. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 193). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 31 This vacated office had been …some fleeting scene from a movie. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 173). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 31 Yesterday, right after he had sworn in his … worker was caught. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 190). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 32 it was during these lonely rides, … theme for a documentary... Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 177). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 32 ’Why is it that life then was full of a…he said in a subdued voice Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 191). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

42 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 33 For over ten years, he thought, the …. centered on his work at an office Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 176). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 34 After calling his friends from …machine which he could not comprehend. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 179). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 35 One of his friends said that Olive …workers sure live better than we do. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 179). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 35 Most of them found Olive's … to death just for a bowl of rice. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 179). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 36 Ironically, the meaning of the position of … never been able to complete while in college. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 177). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 37 Rose once said to him that …who’s always playing safe. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 187). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan

43 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 37 The general manager of Taiwan... Kenneth, so young and pale. Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 186). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 38 “White-collar work, hardly … by a ridiculous feeling of security?” Ch'en, Ying-chen.(1986). One Day in the Life of a White-collar Worker Lucien Miller(Eds.) Exiles at home : short stories (p. 178). Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 9 National Taiwan University Richard Rong-bin Chen


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