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Institutionalized Subordination Tucson, Arizona, 1850s-1940s.

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Presentation on theme: "Institutionalized Subordination Tucson, Arizona, 1850s-1940s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institutionalized Subordination Tucson, Arizona, 1850s-1940s

2 Institutionalized Subordination Institutionalized Subordination: “Subordination woven into the everyday fabric of society. Institutionalized Subordination: “Subordination woven into the everyday fabric of society. Subordination is ‘institutional’ in the sense that it is entrenched within and perpetuated by formal organizations such as schools, political parties, labor unions, businesses, and city, state and national governments.” Subordination is ‘institutional’ in the sense that it is entrenched within and perpetuated by formal organizations such as schools, political parties, labor unions, businesses, and city, state and national governments.” It also operates on other levels as well, encoded in racial and ethnic stereotypes, in mass media, latent or overt in most personal transactions between members of dominant and subordinate groups. It also operates on other levels as well, encoded in racial and ethnic stereotypes, in mass media, latent or overt in most personal transactions between members of dominant and subordinate groups.

3 Demographic factors High percentage of WSMs High percentage of WSMs No family constraints, Access to capital No family constraints, Access to capital Explains Anglo early domination of the Arizona economy--ranching, railroads, agriculture Explains Anglo early domination of the Arizona economy--ranching, railroads, agriculture Mexicans: family and collectively oriented, lack access to capital Mexicans: family and collectively oriented, lack access to capital

4 Economic Transformation Railroad, mining and land/cattledevelopment Railroad, mining and land/cattledevelopment Economic Pecking order, Occupational Stratification in the occupational structure Economic Pecking order, Occupational Stratification in the occupational structure Differential wage scales/dual wages Differential wage scales/dual wages White collar v. blue collar occupational history, Mexicans decline in white, increase in blue collar occupations from White collar v. blue collar occupational history, Mexicans decline in white, increase in blue collar occupations from Proximity to Mexico: surplus labor Proximity to Mexico: surplus labor

5 Economic Transformation “Reserve Labor” and unionization “Reserve Labor” and unionization Downward mobility patterns, Downward mobility patterns, Blue collar pattern increases. Blue collar pattern increases. Occupational stasis: frozen in low socioeconomic positions during the 20th century. Occupational stasis: frozen in low socioeconomic positions during the 20th century. Stasis worsens through course of the 20th century. Stasis worsens through course of the 20th century.

6 Residence Patterns Ethnic Enclavement: patterns of Mexican and Anglo racial separation in housing Ethnic Enclavement: patterns of Mexican and Anglo racial separation in housing Geographic dualism: final outcome of ethnic enclavement, dual, separate areas Geographic dualism: final outcome of ethnic enclavement, dual, separate areas Economic factors: wages, occupations, capital Economic factors: wages, occupations, capital Real Estate practices: perpetuate racial duality. Real Estate practices: perpetuate racial duality.

7 Educational Subordination Attitudes: Mexicans lack culture of progress, unable to progress through education Attitudes: Mexicans lack culture of progress, unable to progress through education “Americanization” programs: eradicate Mexican values and culture- to de- Mexicanize the Mexican children “Americanization” programs: eradicate Mexican values and culture- to de- Mexicanize the Mexican children Tracking: ranking according to test scores Tracking: ranking according to test scores Racial discrimination and segregation- inferior facilities and funding sources Racial discrimination and segregation- inferior facilities and funding sources

8 Mexican Response Mutualistas: self-help collective organizations Mutualistas: self-help collective organizations Unions: formation of Mexican unions Unions: formation of Mexican unions Newspapers: traditional and Mexican owned Newspapers: traditional and Mexican owned Traditional party activism:Democratic and Republican, Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Traditional party activism:Democratic and Republican, Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Liga Protectora Latina: immigrant societies, early civil rights Liga Protectora Latina: immigrant societies, early civil rights Alianza Hispanoamericana: political orgs. Alianza Hispanoamericana: political orgs.


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