Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Some Desirable Features in a Next Generation WIMP Detector  Background rejection as close.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Some Desirable Features in a Next Generation WIMP Detector  Background rejection as close."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Some Desirable Features in a Next Generation WIMP Detector  Background rejection as close to 100% as possible  Large, safe and inexpensive target mass: room temperature operation can go a long way to help there.  Simple target replacement to help ascertain a WIMP signal (e.g. neutron background and WIMP signal do not scale the same way in different target materials).  Simultaneous sensitivity to spin-dependent and -independent neutralino cross sections, maximal on both (fluorine then a must for the first, a heavy nucleus for 2nd).  Lowest possible energy threshold to maximize acceptance of signal.  Excellent neutron background rejection/shielding (the ultimate nemesis).  Sensitivity to tell-tale modulations (annual, recoil direction) An old precept: Attack on both fronts

2 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Enter superheated liquids:  Two ongoing experiments (SIMPLE, PICASSO) exploit Superheated Droplet technique (SDD)  Sexy heavy-liquid targets such as CF 3 Br and CF 3 I hard to introduce in SDDs;  -emitters migrate to droplet boundary  try bulk (=Bubble Chambers, a possibly trickier endeavor). These liquids are safe and non-toxic (used in fire extinguishers).  Total insensitivity to MIPs, yet sensitive to low-E nuclear recoils (tunable dE/dx and E thresholds)  ~$40/kg, room T …a fast path to tonne detectors?

3 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Enter superheated liquids:  Two ongoing experiments (SIMPLE, PICASSO) exploit Superheated Droplet technique (SDD)  Sexy heavy-liquid targets such as CF 3 Br and CF 3 I hard to introduce in SDDs;  -emitters migrate to droplet boundary  try bulk (=Bubble Chambers, a possibly trickier endeavor). These liquids are safe and non-toxic (used in fire extinguishers).  Total insensitivity to MIPs, yet sensitive to low-E nuclear recoils (tunable dE/dx and E thresholds)  ~$40/kg, room T… a fast path to tonne detectors?

4 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Recirculating chiller (-10 degrees) Glass dewar Cameras Safety shield box Superheated CF 3 Br First prototypes: ~20 ml active volume Pressure: psi Temp: -80 to + 40 degrees C Stereo photography of bubbles Three triggers: acoustic, pressure and video Acoustic sensor Quartz pressure vessel Glass dewar with heat-exchange fluid Piston Camera (1 of 2) Propylene glycol buffer liquid prevents evaporation of superheated liquid. 3-way valve

5 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors”

6 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” A Typical Scattering Event with Am-Be Neutron Source (bubble expansion ~1 mm/ms) X CameraY Camera

7 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Can Bubble Chambers be made stable enough?  Old Bubble Chambers radiation-ready for only few ms at a time (coincident with beam spill)  Gas pockets in surface imperfections and motes can act as inhomogeneous nucleation centers.  A BC dedicated to WIMP searches must remain superheated indefinitely, except for radiation-induced events. Low degree of superheat helps, but is not enough.  Recent progress in neutralization of inhomogeneous nucleation sites (from work unrelated to bubble chambers!). E.g. use of liquid “lid”, outgassing in presence of buffer liquid, cleaning techniques and wetting improvement via vapor deposition. P. Reinke, Exp. Heat Transf. 10 (1997) 133

8 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Background Counting Rate at ~ 6 m.w.e. Bonner sphere(s) n flux measurement in LASR underground lab Mean survival time for superheated state varies due to periodic episodes of nucleation on chamber walls, but is usually ~ 10 minutes. Live time (due to long recompression cycle) is already 62%. Counting rate for “real events” is 4/hour (compatible with measured fast neutron flux in the lab). Intrinsic gamma rejection factor (from absence of excess nucleation rate in presence of Y-88  1.3E6  interactions / s) is  1E9 (  14 C not a concern even at the multiton level)

9 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Background Counting Rate at ~ 6 m.w.e. Mean survival time for superheated state varies due to periodic episodes of nucleation on chamber walls, but is usually ~ 10 minutes. Live time (due to long recompression cycle) is already 62%. Counting rate for “real events” is 4/hour (compatible with measured fast neutron flux in the lab). Intrinsic gamma rejection factor (from absence of excess nucleation rate in presence of Y-88  1.3E6  interactions / s) is  1E9 (  14 C not a concern even at the multiton level)

10 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Sensitivity to < 7 keV recoils demonstrated (while having no response to 3mCi  source). In agreement with models. Sensitivity to ~1 keV recoils in progress (Sb-124/Be source) Further studies in progress (efficiency, sharpness of threshold, disentanglement of I and F response). Detector is insensitive to gammas (see previous transparency) yet fully responsive to low-E recoils Lines show Seitz model prediction for top boundary of data point distribution (onset of sensitivity during decompression) CF 3 Br data (CF 3 I in progress and looking good) Well-defined low energy threshold

11 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Sensitivity to < 7 keV recoils demonstrated (while having no response to 3mCi  source). In agreement with models. Sensitivity to ~1 keV recoils in progress (Sb-124/Be source) Further studies in progress (efficiency, sharpness of threshold, disentanglement of I and F response). Well-defined low energy threshold

12 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Fancy: Position Reconstruction Bubble positions can be reconstructed in 3 dimensions by scanning images taken by two cameras offset by 90 degrees. Position resolution is currently 530 microns r.m.s. (approximately 1/4 bubble diameter) Uniform spatial distribution of background events, consistent with background neutrons. 163 background events (1.5 live days) intermediate step in automatic inspection algorithm using NI Vision Development Module (2 kg chamber)

13 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Neutron Background Rejection Potential Multiple simultaneous bubbles are present in ~4% of events in our “background” data set. Neutrons can do this, WIMPs cannot. The response to neutrons and WIMPs interacting mostly via SI is very different for refrigerants containing F only (C 3 F 8 ) and F+I (CF 3 I); more favorable situation than Ge/Si to verify a WIMP signal (generally speaking)

14 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Neutron Background Rejection Potential (bis) Larger chambers are “self-shielding” (innermost fiducial volume will have good rejection of energetic neutrons able to penetrate moderator) This might reduce sensitivity to dreaded high energy “punch through” neutrons down to the ~1 count/tonne/month range  allowing for exhaustive exploration of supersymmetric WIMP models. MCNP-POLIMI simulations

15 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Meet COUPP (2 kg CF 3 I target, installation at 300 m.w.e. (FNAL) Jan. 2005) Central design issue is how to avoid metal contact with superheated liquid. Bellows mechanism compensates pressure inside and outside of inner vessel in present design

16 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Central design issue is how to avoid metal contact with superheated liquid. Bellows mechanism compensates pressure inside and outside of inner vessel in present design Meet COUPP (2 kg CF 3 I target, installation at 300 m.w.e. (FNAL) Jan. 2005)

17 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Central design issue is how to avoid metal contact with superheated liquid. Bellows mechanism compensates pressure inside and outside of inner vessel in present design Meet COUPP (2 kg CF 3 I target, installation at 300 m.w.e. (FNAL) Jan. 2005)

18 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Central design issue is how to avoid metal contact with superheated liquid. Bellows mechanism compensates pressure inside and outside of inner vessel in present design Meet COUPP (2 kg CF 3 I target, installation at 300 m.w.e. (FNAL) Jan. 2005)

19 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” recent NIST study points at excellent CF3I stability during >5 y storage (at up to 100°C !) as long as certain metallic alloys are avoided Central design issue is how to avoid metal contact with superheated liquid. Bellows mechanism compensates pressure inside and outside of inner vessel in present design Meet COUPP (2 kg CF 3 I target, installation at 300 m.w.e. (FNAL) Jan. 2005)

20 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Central design issue is how to avoid metal contact with superheated liquid. Bellows mechanism compensates pressure inside and outside of inner vessel in present design Meet COUPP (2 kg CF 3 I target, installation at 300 m.w.e. (FNAL) Jan. 2005)

21 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Central design issue is how to avoid metal contact with superheated liquid. Bellows mechanism compensates pressure inside and outside of inner vessel in present design Meet COUPP (2 kg CF 3 I target, installation at 300 m.w.e. (FNAL) Jan. 2005)

22 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” COUPP ( Chicago Observatory for Underground Particle Physics ) Where we might be by end of 2004 (take these with a grain of salt) are these projections overly cautious? Better safe than sorry (e.g., alpha backgrounds from Rn emanation from steel - however only few  Bq/m 2 expected if some precautions taken - The inner chamber is a closed system to Rn penetration) ~latest CDMS

23 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” COUPP ( Chicago Observatory for Underground Particle Physics ) Where we might be by end of 2004 (take these with a grain of salt) are these projections overly cautious? Better safe than sorry (e.g., alpha backgrounds from Rn emanation from steel - however only few  Bq/m 2 expected if some precautions taken - The inner chamber is a closed system to Rn penetration) ~latest CDMS

24 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” The near future  2 kg CF 3 I chamber stable and seemingly dominated by environmental neutrons at 6 m.w.e. Still learning some of the interesting peculiarities of this new system. Systematic study of effect of recompression time, decompression speed, “direction” of heating, etc.  Complete studies of CF 3 I and C 3 F 8 response to neutron recoils (down to ~1 keV recoil energy with 124 Sb/Be source)  Idem for sharpness of threshold, efficiency and separation of I vs F recoils.  Installation in FNAL Minos-near gallery (~300 m.w.e.) during Replacement of inner chamber elements with attention paid to Rn release (electron welding of bellows, o-rings). Eventual move to Soudan (~1,800 m.w.e.)  Measure concentration of U,Th in target liquids. At what level will purification be necessary? (1 ppt~1c/kg/d) A bit further in the horizon  Ongoing conceptual design for larger chambers (collaboration with FNAL)  Recently funded by DOE/NNSA to explore applications to low-level neutron detection (Natl. Security, collab. with PNNL)

25 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” The near future  2 kg CF 3 I chamber stable and seemingly dominated by environmental neutrons at 6 m.w.e. Still learning some of the interesting peculiarities of this new system. Systematic study of effect of recompression time, decompression speed, “direction” of heating, etc.  Complete studies of CF 3 I and C 3 F 8 response to neutron recoils (down to ~1 keV recoil energy with 124 Sb/Be source)  Idem for sharpness of threshold, efficiency and separation of I vs F recoils.  Installation in FNAL Minos-near gallery (~300 m.w.e.) during Replacement of inner chamber elements with attention paid to Rn release (electron welding of bellows, o-rings). Eventual move to Soudan (~1,800 m.w.e.)  Measure concentration of U,Th in target liquids. At what level will purification be necessary? (1 ppt~1c/kg/d) A bit further in the horizon  Ongoing conceptual design for larger chambers (collaboration with FNAL)  Recently funded by DOE/NNSA to explore applications to low-level neutron detection (Natl. Security, collab. with PNNL) adapted from C. Chung et al., NIM A301(1991)328

26 Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” UoC Low-Background Detector Group KICP Postdoctoral Fellows: Brian Odom Andrew Sonnenschein Graduate Students: Phil Barbeau Dante Nakazawa Joaquin Vieira Undergraduate Students: Joe Bolte David Miller Julia Rasmussen Kevin O`Sullivan Aza Raskin Waterboy: Juan Collar FNAL Group Mike Crisler Dan Holmgren Robert Plunkett Erik Ramberg


Download ppt "Dec. 9-10, 2004 J.I. CollarKICP “Next Generation DM Detectors” Some Desirable Features in a Next Generation WIMP Detector  Background rejection as close."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google