Check Fraud Forgery Counterfeiting Altering Checks –(Payees, Amount, washing) Forged Endorsements Paperhanging Kiting Checks Theft by checks Beating the bank Return item schemes Nigerian scams (419)
Maker Name Account Owner Check Number Memo Line MICR Bank Route Number (Bank’s Account Number) Account Owner’s Account # Check Number Signature Line Parts of a check Payee Line Numeric Amount Legal Written Amount
Check Fraud - Forgery What is forgery? (Forged Maker) –A forgery is when a good check is stolen from the true owner and the owner of the accounts signature is forged (Faked)
Forged Maker is when the signature line is completed by some one other than the account owners.
Check Fraud - Counterfeiting What is a counterfeit check? –Counterfeiting can either mean wholly fabricating a check --using readily available desktop publishing equipment consisting of a personal computer, scanner, sophisticated software and high-grade laser printer -- or simply duplicating a check with advanced color photocopiers.
Check Fraud - Counterfeiting Counterfeit checks can be determined by –Check stock (color and style of check) –Wrong maker information –No perforations on the check –Check Numbers –Printing on check
Check Fraud Altered Checks What is an Altered check? –An altered check is a “good check” in which some piece of the information on the check has been changed.
Check Fraud Altered Checks What is an Altered Payee check? –An altered check is a “good check” in which the payee on the check has been changed. –A payee could be added –A payee may be deleted –The true payee could have been removed and another name placed in the payee line.
Check Fraud – Altered check What is an Altered amount check? –An altered amount check is a “good check” in which the amount on the check has been changed.
Check Fraud – Altered Check What is a washed altered check? –A washed altered check is a “good check” in which a chemical has been used to remove the writing from the check and new information has been entered into on the check.
Check Fraud Altered Checks How to determine an altered check? –Different ink –Different writing (Slant, pressure…) –Paper “feels weird” –Addition is apparent –Chemical agents
Check Fraud – Forged Endorsement What is a forged endorsement fraud? –Forged endorsement fraud is when a “good check” is deposited / cashed by someone other than the intended payee.
An endorsement is the back of a check where the intended payee is suppose to sign.
Check Fraud - Paperhanging What is paperhanging? –Paperhanging is when someone writes checks off a closed account.
Check Fraud – Kiting Checks Check Kiting is opening accounts at two or more institutions and using "the float time" of available funds to create fraudulent balances. This fraud has become easier in recent years due to new regulations requiring banks to make funds available sooner, combined with increasingly competitive banking practices.
Signs of bad checks The check lacks perforations. The check number is either missing or does not change. The check number is low (like 101 up to 400) on personal checks or (like 1001 up to 1500) on business checks. (90% of bad checks are written on accounts less than one year old.) The type of font used to print the customer's name looks visibly different from the font used to print the address. Additions to the check (i.e. phone numbers) have been written by hand. The customer's address is missing.
Signs of bad checks The address of the bank is missing. There are stains or discolorations on the check possibly caused by erasures or alterations. The numbers printed along the bottoms of the check (called Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, or MICR, coding) is shiny. Real magnetic ink is dull and non glossy in appearance. The MICR encoding at the bottom of the check does not match the check number. The MICR numbers are missing. Check is torn up and taped back together.
Signs of bad checks The MICR coding does not match the bank district and the routing symbol in the upper right-hand corner of the check. The name of the payee appears to have been printed by a typewriter. Most payroll, expenses, and dividend checks are printed via computer. The word VOID appears across the check. Notations appear in the memo section listing "load," "payroll," or "dividends." Most legitimate companies have separate accounts for these functions, eliminating a need for such notations. The check lacks an authorized signature.
Check Fraud – Theft by Check Theft by check is committed when an individual receives product or services from a “bad check”. A “bad check” is defined as a check that is not paid by the financial institution. (the bank)
Check Fraud – Beating the Bank What is beating the bank? –Beating the bank is a term used when someone tries to use the float on a check in order to get cash or services on funds that are excepted on an account.
Check Fraud – Return item schemes What is a return item scheme? –A return item scheme is when an account holder deposits one or more “bad checks” and removes the funds from their account prior to the checks being returned.
Check Fraud – Nigerian Scams What is Nigerian Scams? –A Nigerian scam is an email, mail, or fax request from someone in Nigeria or other country that offers extraordinary amount of money for very little work. The victims of this scam never make money and many victims are out several thousands of dollars. –(also called a 419 for the section of Nigerian Law being broken)
Credit Card Fraud What is a stolen credit card? –A stolen credit card is when a legitimate credit card is stolen from the legitimate owner of the card and used by the unapproved party.
Credit Card Fraud What is a Counterfeited credit card? –A counterfeit credit card is when some one completely makes a new credit card with the victim’s information but another person’s name on the front of the card.
Credit card fraud What is a duplicated credit card? –A duplicated credit card is a when the victim’s information from a legitimate card is lifted by some means, and that information is used to make unauthorized purchases.
ID Theft Fraud What is ID theft? –ID theft is when someone’s personal information, identity, is used without their permission to commit fraud. Check fraud Credit card fraud
ID theft fraud Checking account ID theft fraud –A criminal opens a checking account using the victim’s personal information and commits bank fraud therefore tarnishing the victims name and keeping themselves out of the loop.
ID theft fraud Credit card ID theft fraud –A criminal uses a victim’s personnal information to open a credit card in the victim’s name. The criminal maxes out the credit card, and do not make payments. This in turn messes up the victims credit.
Credit card fraud What is a Phishing scams? –Phishing scams are emails that appear to be from a legitimate source in which when you connect to the web link on the email, you are transferred to a criminal web site and they ask for your personal information.
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Other Fraud Online banking fraud –A criminal accesses a victim’s computer via the internet and gains complete access to all information on their computer.
Other Fraud ACH fraud –ACH fraud is when a criminal uses a victim’s personal account to make electronic payment to some other account or bank. Wire Fraud –Wire fraud is when a criminal uses a victim’s personal accounts to make a wire transfer to another bank.