Presentation on theme: "Bose & Bridges Whaley Sex Segregation in the U.S. Labor Force."— Presentation transcript:
Bose & Bridges Whaley Sex Segregation in the U.S. Labor Force
Types of Segregation On the surface sex segregation in the labor market appears to be changing. Beneath the surface is a more complex picture. Need to study: Occupational Job level Industry level Establishment level segregation
Occupational Segregation Men & Women are concentrated in different occupations 75% female = female dominated Examples: See table 1 & 2 on pg. 200 See table 1 & 2 on pg. 200
Occupational Segregation Continued Occupational re-segregation A shift in concentration—male to female or female to male Most often the shift is from male to female Females enter formally male jobs b/c of: shortage of males Technology that downgrades the work & pay
Examples of Re-segregation Clerical work (turn of the century) Bank tellers Pharmacy (current) Residential real estate
Job Level Segregation Jobs can be segregated within occupations Example: Physician, Dentistry, Law, Professor Physician GP = female dominated Specialist, Surgeons = male dominated Law Partners tend to be men
Industry & Establishment Level Segregation Similar occupations but in different establishments or industries (holds for race & sex) Example: Server Waitresses tend to be concentrated in lower-end restaurants Waiters tend to be concentrated in high-end restaurants Example: Financial Managers Women concentrated in small local bank branches Men concentrated in loan & investment departments of large corporate headquarters
Sex Segregation in Categories of Occupations White Collar A broad Category that includes 3 levels: Executives & Professionals (e.g. doctors) Mid level (nurses, elementary school teachers, librarians) Low Level (clerical, sales, and some service) Women are concentrated in the mid & lower tiers. Women have less autonomy & authority.
Pink Collar Pink collars jobs are semi-professional female dominated occupations that carry: Lower Pay Lower prestige Lower levels of autonomy & authority Men tend not to enter these occupations Men in these occupations they earn higher wages and are promoted faster than women.
Clerical Occupations Era where men dominated, work was prestigious. Re-segregation job level segregation occurred w/in the occupation clerk. Historically: Women filed & typed, men were bookkeepers and cashiers. Bookkeepers and cashiers made higher wages & had more autonomy. Currently: Women dominate as secretaries, typist, receptionist. Men dominate as shipping clerks, purchasing mngrs, accountants, auditors, etc.
Blue-Collar Certain Blue Collar occupations are dominated by men. See table 2 pg. 200 Women are concentrated in less skilled manufacturing/factory work. Do women want physically hard, dangerous, blue collar jobs? Yes, the pay & benefits make it attractive.
Explanations of Sex Segregation Socialization: Women chose female dominated occupations. Only partially supported.
Human Capital Theory: Women have lower levels of education & skill and less commitment to the job. Value family over work. Based on a 1950s understanding of women & family. Women’s educational levels have risen—on par with men. Women are committed to careers.
Human Capital Theory Cont. What does hold about human capital theory (Padavic & Reskin, pg. 218): Women still receive less training than men. But, this is not due to choice. Women are concentrated in jobs that do not offer the same opportunities to train for more skilled jobs. Example: Female financial managers concentrated in local bank branches have little chance to learn about commercial lending.
Structural Theory A response to socialization and human capital theory. Structural features of the labor market sort men and women into different jobs. Social control pressures women & men to take certain jobs (e.g., male nurse stereotype). Gender stereotypes play a key role. Work shapes behavior vs. behavior shapes choice of work. Example: high turn over in female dominated job can result from job dissatisfaction not from family choices.
Consequence of Sex Segregation Wage gap & promotion gap Wage gap has closed in recent years but, this is due to both rising female wages (explains 20% of closing gap) and falling male wages (explains 60% of closing gap)
Promotion Gap Two aspects of promotions: Gap in promotion Gap in promotion Level of authority in job Level of authority in job Promotion gap is closing in some occupations & for some groups of women. Authority gap remains a problem for women.
Promotion Gap Trends in the promotion gap: Female high school graduates (due to feminization of service sector). Female college graduates experience greater promotion gap. Marriage & parenting a preschooler increases men’s chances of being promoted. Marriage & parenting a preschooler increases promotion gap for women.
Trend cont. Most promotions are into slightly higher level positions. This means that women tend to be promoted into position where they: Supervise other women Lack authority to make decisions Men also suffer: Men who place family over promotion suffer professionally. Men with high school or less are the least likely group to be promoted (due to rise of service sector)
Sticky Floor Women & minorities are concentrated in lower level occupations with short job ladders. People tend to be promoted to positions at a slightly higher level. Thus, women tend to be promoted to lower level positions that: carry less authority Authority = power to make decisions about other workers and work. the power to mobilize people, access resources necessary to getting jobs done.
Glass Ceiling Women are underrepresented in top management positions (glass ceiling) in: Management Professions (law and medicine) Military Unions
Authority & the Glass Ceiling The higher the level of authority the less likely women are represented. Thus, exhibit 1 pg. 212 does not capture subtleties of managerial promotions Examples: Women constituted less than 13% of corporate officer slots in Fortune 500 companies. Only 6% of clout positions (CEOs, VPs, etc.) are held by women.
Job Ladders Women are concentrated in occupations and jobs with short occupational ladders. Let’s study Exhibit 2 pg. 217 Establishment segregation explains women’s under representation in top jobs. That is, women are concentrated in establishments that are smaller, with shorter promotion ladders.
Explanations of the Promotion Gap Human Capital A limited explanation Less training is true, but the cause is structural not individual choice. Turn over is also a partial explanation. Companies with rapid turnover yield greater opportunities for previously barred groups to enter.
Social Networks (structural) Homogenous networks (same race, sex, sexual orientation) work against greater integration of workplace. Managerial positions tend to be filled through informal networks. Solutions: Formal mentoring programs Recruitment from outside Establish formal integrated networks
Personnel Practices Stereotypes still govern hiring practices Perceptions of motherhood is still an issue Homosocial reproduction = assumption that people like you will make decisions in the way you do. Solutions Use formal hiring mechanism that restrict bias Develop writen rules and proceedures Litigation can be a motivator Teach managers that complying with laws can help them meet the needs of their diverse consumer base—appeal to the bottomline.