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1920s: The New Era U.S. History II. The Election of 1920 Republican candidate Warren G. Harding promised a “return to normalcy” End of progressivism on.

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Presentation on theme: "1920s: The New Era U.S. History II. The Election of 1920 Republican candidate Warren G. Harding promised a “return to normalcy” End of progressivism on."— Presentation transcript:

1 1920s: The New Era U.S. History II

2 The Election of 1920 Republican candidate Warren G. Harding promised a “return to normalcy” End of progressivism on national level, but continued on state & local level –Many states passed old age pensions & workers’ compensation laws

3 Consumer Economy Consumer goods like automobiles led economy, rather than producer goods like steel –Ford Model T = $300; Chevrolet = $700 –Average blue-collar salary $1,300 –Average white-collar salary $2,300 Modern marketing techniques created demand to meet supply –$4.3 billion spent on advertising in 1929 –Bruce Barton’s The Man Nobody Knows described Jesus as a salesman

4 Radio Advertising KDKA Pittsburgh was first commercial station in stations by 1922 Networks created for nationwide advertising –National Broadcasting Corp. (1926) –Columbia Broadcasting System (1927) By 1929, Americans spending $50 million/year on radios

5 Women as Consumers Women still seen as homemakers, but now consumers rather than producers Ads targeted women Employed married women increased by 30% to 3.1 million, but still only 12% of total Marriage seen as romantic companionship, & divorce rate rose

6 Entertainment Culture Entertainment grew as leisure time & purchasing power increased Amount spent increased from $2.5 billion in 1919 to $4.3 billion in 1929 Fads like mini golf swept the nation 100 million moviegoers a week by 1930 –Total population = 120 million –60 million a week = average church attendance

7 The Harlem Renaissance Black actors –Charles Gilpin –Paul Robeson Black authors –Langston Hughes –Countee Cullen –Claude McKay Black jazz musicians –Duke Ellington –Count Basie Duke Ellington

8 Darwin’s Challenge to Christianity Literal interpretation of Genesis 1-2 Divine creation (argument from design) Human souls Original sin Social Darwinism –Herbert Spencer – sociology –Francis Galton - eugenics

9 3 Responses to Challenges: Hostility – Fundamentalism –The Fundamentals reasserted basic Protestant doctrine –Premillenial dispensationalism taught that world would get worse, not better, before Jesus’ return –Holiness movement emphasized personal purity & devotion –Pentecostal movement featured ecstatic worship & spiritual gifts Azuza St. Revival (Los Angeles, ) –Pope Pius IX’s Syllabus of Errors insisted on papal infallibility & the immaculate conception of Mary

10 3 Responses (cont.) Capitulation – Modernism –The Social Gospel focused on political & economic reform –Federal Council of Churches founded in 1908 Compromise – Evangelicalism (Neo-Orthodoxy) –Salvation Army combined evangelism & aid to poor –Pope Leo XIII’s Rerum Novarum (1891) called on Catholics to work to ameliorate poverty & combat injustice

11 The Scopes Trial (1925) Attracted celebrity lawyers: –Clarence Darrow for the defense –William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution Scopes found guilty, but overturned on technicality


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