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White Collar Crime Includes crimes committed both by and against corporations or businesses. Also incorporates political crimes –ex. Watergate, Iran-Contra.

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Presentation on theme: "White Collar Crime Includes crimes committed both by and against corporations or businesses. Also incorporates political crimes –ex. Watergate, Iran-Contra."— Presentation transcript:

1 White Collar Crime Includes crimes committed both by and against corporations or businesses. Also incorporates political crimes –ex. Watergate, Iran-Contra More difficult to research and prosecute due to partial government complicity –HMOs –Firearm companies –Tobacco –“Just wear sunscreen”

2 Professions and the law Most organized professions control legal aspects of that profession –political action committees –AMA, APA (Psychiatric) and ADHD Also businesses control actions of employees –Complicity in guilt –Threats of employment repercussions –occasional threats of violence Karen Silkwood

3 Medical “Science” Medicaid Fraud –estimated $50-80 billion/year 2.4 million unnecessary surgeries/year approx. 100,000 accidental deaths Medical research –$$$ not empiricism –FenPhen –Hwang Woo-suk Cloning Controversy

4 Crimes at the consumer level “Psst, wanna buy some speakers?” Airline Training schools “God says send in your money” Telemarketing scams Scams that prey on victims of telemarketing scams “You won a prize, call this number” (long distance charges may apply) Keys on the roof Ponzi Schemes (send me your $100 and put your name on this list) Sell junk to your friends Pyramid schemes

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6 Koscot Interplanetary, Inc. and Amway Koscot in the 1970’s was cosmetics company –Glenn Turner –Pay $2000+$5400 for supplies –Earn bonuses for recruiting others Amway –purchase household products from “sponsor” –try to get others whom YOU can sponsor –Actually sold stuff, thus avoided “pyramid” laws Be wary off: –Up-front recruiting costs –Ridiculously priced products –mandatory minimum purchases –exaggerated income claims & rock and roll want adds – No buy-back policy

7 Crimes by Big Business 60% of business have been involved in criminal/civil actions Oil, drug companies, and automobile industry are biggest offenders –very lenient punishments Government involved with Big Business –Reagan and the EPA –HMO Patient’s Bill of Rights –Slush funds –the $73,100 toilet seat Business seek to circumvent government power in order to make more $$$ –Microsoft and Anti-Trust law

8 Safety and Money Companies regularly balance the costs of recalling an unsafe product versus simply paying off lawsuits – “pre-owned”flood vehicles –Firestone & Ford – The “slightly combustible” Ford Pinto –Brown and Williamson Tobacco –The DC-10 Cargo door~~~346 deaths in France –GE covers up engine flaws –Cordis’ pacemakers –Cholesterol inhibitor kills rats 20 million injuries, 30,000 deaths from defective products

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10 Safety and Money Part 2 Killer IUDs (birth control) sold overseas Depo Provera malignant tumor research “NuSalt” salt substitute Pesticides exported to other countries, products imported to US Do you KNOW what goes into hamburger meat? Nestle’s killer baby formula sent to Africa Returned spoiled meat turned into processed food~~~(sold as “Windsor Loins”) Safety laws can be violated by –changing the product name –changing the formula by adding a few inert ingredients –manufacturing outside of the US –import ingredients separately and assemble

11 Environmental Crime Three-Mile Island –faked safety tests Companies circumvent US environmental law through illegal toxic waste dumping –dumping medical wastes in international waters –chemical recombination –companies tend to oppose all environmental legislation claim it will hurt the consumer make token efforts to look good (Miami sugar farmers) argue humans more valuable than nature count on short term goals

12 Environmental Crime Part 2 Hospital disposal of amputated limbs in public trash Exposure to Hepatitis B on the job Allied Chemical defrauds the Army and the EPA Radioactive dumping at sea Mercury run-off in Rhode Island Pig waste spills in Pennsylvania Companies will attempt to avoid links by: –dumping in international waters/ 3rd world countries –using 3rd party dumping companies –showing inspectors to “dummy sites”

13 Crimes against Employees OSHA limits exposure of employees to hazards –Meatpackers work right after surgery –Asbestos welding gloves –building fumes –exposure to arsenic, cyanide=negligent homicide, but fined only $25,000 –Safety measures on machines –Businesses have been fighting new OSHA regulations on grounds it would “hurt consumers” including measures to avoid carpal-tunnel syndrome and tendonitis better ventilation for ALL office buildings better regulation of exposure to neuro and cytotoxins on the job better regulation of exposure to carcinogenic substances

14 Industrial War Crimes Standard Oil sells gasoline to the Nazis through Switzerland post 1941 Swiss banks and the Nazis American Insurance companies and Jewish war dead Ford trucks in WWII Industrial Espionage –IBM has lost billions to French and Japanese –typewriter repair men –television transmitters and phone bugs –French considered to be worst offenders

15 Lenient Punishment Most laws are recent, including fraud, anti-trust, false advertising, etc. Libertarianism and laissez-faire “Trickle-down” economy Less publicity…violators often own stock in media intermingling between business and politics white-collar criminals do not fit stereotypes of criminals corporate law allows for many legal delays….ex. IBM

16 Cyber Crime Crimes committed in the context of computer/internet environment Takes numerous forms: –circumvention of trade law –false advertising –circumvention of pornography laws –solicitation of minors –viruses & trojan horses

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18 Circumventing Trade Laws By use of internationally based web-sites, US trade regulations can, in part, be circumvented. –Particularly laws regarding controlled substances –some products may not be sold in US, but is ok to sell from out of US –some products ok to sell in US, so as do not advertise as “medicine”…ok though in other countries –Germanium~~~cures cancer, AIDS and the common cold, so long as you are not too attached to your kidneys. –GHB recipes

19 False Advertising Caveat Emptor on the internet –selling of false merchandise on EBay –violations of copywrite law File-Sharing Programs –Get-Rich-Quick Schemes –Diet-Plans –“How to get rid of junk ” Some of these seek Credit Card numbers –Will charge you a large fee for useless product –make charge then disappear altogether

20 Circumvention of Pornography Law Porn regulations in US are fairly lenient, nonetheless there ARE some regulations. However, these can be violated through use of international web sites. Depictions of nude children Depictions of children engaged in sexual behavior Bestiality and “bizarre” sex not typically encountered within US porn industry Sites include those in Netherlands, Sweden, Ukraine, Japan and Russia

21 Child Pornography Sites featuring nude children difficult to prosecute Sites involving child porn typically are international However private groups often exchange hardcore child porn –may involve webs of exchange, photos of own children –also engage in marketing child porn literature –primarily a support structure for pedophiles –may legitimize actions of pedophiles Pedophilic support groups –NAMBLA

22 “Innocent Images” 1995 FBI raids 120 homes of AOL users to prosecute child porn ring in US included photographs of individuals aged 2-13 either posed nude or engaged in sex acts probe began because 10-y.o. George Burdynski abducted by suspected pedophile 12 arrested in total attempts to regulate Internet transmission hampered by both international concern and 1st amendment

23 Pedophiles on the Web Pedophiles may search for youth victims on web –MySpace.com Allows them a safe environment –allows pedophiles to be more aggressive –allows for seduction before meeting –may use offers of gifts or money –may use ruse to get child alone Minors themselves less supervised –may lack maturity to deal with sexual overture High risk, as perpetrator would have little previous attachment to victim

24 Cyber Hoaxes Little Girl Dying of Cancer Microsoft will buy you a new computer Bud Frog Virus alert Elfbowling virus alert Your account is about to be disconnected… –gets your password! IM charge chain letter Coca-Cola toilet bowl hoax Gas pump HIV hoax

25 Viruses A virus which disrupts or destroys normal computer functioning –often replicates –some new ones mutate Hackers: –highly intelligent –passive-aggressive –underachievers –find cyber vandalism to be amusing However, others use viruses for the purpose of doing harm

26 Viruses Part 2 Melissa –uses Outlook to send itself to everyone you know--makes look innocent –destroys boot sector, deletes Windows –David Smith Jerusalem –activates every Friday 13th –deletes all files used that day LoveBug –Deletes certain types of files –Linked to Manila

27 Trojan Horses Appears like valid executable file Contains hidden code which does damage –may upload saved passwords, credit card numbers –may display objectionable graphics –may destroy files Web-site links –may lead you to bogus web-sites which provide information to site user that will give them access to your accounts –may appear in junk as potentially interesting (though typically porn or get rich quick) links

28 Protections from viruses and THs Do not open from unknown sources –Certainly do not follow links! –Do not download files! Keep updated virus scans open Be suspicious of language which seems “canned”


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