Presentation on theme: "8 - 0 Second Investment Course – November 2005 Topic Eight: Currency Hedging & Using Derivatives in Portfolio Management."— Presentation transcript:
8 - 0 Second Investment Course – November 2005 Topic Eight: Currency Hedging & Using Derivatives in Portfolio Management
8 - 1 Using Derivatives in Portfolio Management Most “long only” portfolio managers (i.e., non-hedge fund managers) do not use derivative securities as direct investments. Instead, derivative positions are typically used in conjunction with the underlying stock or bond holdings to accomplish two main tasks: “Repackage” the cash flows of the original portfolio to create a more desirable risk-return tradeoff given the manager’s view of future market activity. Transfer some or all of the unwanted risk in the underlying portfolio, either permanently or temporarily. In this context, it is appropriate to think of the derivatives market as an insurance market in which portfolio managers can transfer certain risks (e.g., yield curve exposure, downside equity exposure) to a counterparty in a cost-effective way.
8 - 2 The Cost of “Synthetic” Restructuring With Derivatives
8 - 3 The Hedging Principle (cont.) Consider three alternative methods for hedging the downside risk of holding a long position in a $100 million stock portfolio over the next three months: 1) Short a stock index futures contract expiring in three months. Assume the current contract delivery price (i.e., F 0,T ) is $101 and that there is no front-expense to enter into the futures agreement. This combination creates a synthetic T-bill position. 2) Buy a stock index put option contract expiring in three months with an exercise price (i.e., X) of $100. Assume the current market price of the put option is $ This is known as a protective put position. 3) (i) Buy a stock index put option with an exercise price of $97 and (ii) sell a stock index call option with an exercise price of $108. Assume that both options expire in three months and have a current price of $ This is known as an equity collar position.
Hedging Downside Risk With Futures
8 - 5 The Hedging Principle
Hedging Downside Risk With Futures (cont.)
Hedging Downside Risk With Put Options
Hedging Downside Risk With Put Options (cont.)
Hedging Downside Risk With An Equity Collar
Hedging Downside Risk With An Equity Collar (cont.) Terminal Position Value Collar-Protected Stock Portfolio Terminal Stock Price
Zero-Cost Collar Example: IPSA Index Options
Zero-Cost Collar Example: IPSA Index Options (cont.)
Another Portfolio Restructuring Suppose now that upon further consideration, the portfolio manager holding $100 million in U.S. stocks is no longer concerned about her equity holdings declining appreciably over the next three months. However, her revised view is that they also will not increase in value much, if at all. As a means of increasing her return given this view, suppose she does the following: Sell a stock index call option contract expiring in three months with an exercise price (i.e., X) of $100. Assume the current market price of the at-the-money call option is $ The combination of a long stock holding and a short call option position is known as a covered call position. It is also often referred to as a yield enhancement strategy because the premium received on the sale of the call option can be interpreted as an enhancement to the cash dividends paid by the stocks in the portfolio.
Restructuring With A Covered Call Position
Restructuring With A Covered Call Position (cont.)
Some Thoughts on Currency Hedging and Portfolio Management Question: How much FX exposure should a portfolio manager hedge? Weakening CLP Strengthening CLP
Conceptual Thinking on Currency Hedging in Portfolio Management There are at least three diverse schools of thought on the optimal amount of currency exposure that a portfolio manager should hedge (see A. Golowenko, “How Much to Hedge in a Volatile World,” State Street Global Advisors, 2003): 1. Completely Unhedged: Froot (1993) argues that over the long term, real exchange rates will revert to their means according to the Purchasing Power Parity Theorem, suggesting currency exposure is a zero-sum game. Further, over shorter time frames—when exchange rates can deviate from long-term equilibrium levels—transaction costs make involved with hedging greatly outweigh the potential benefits. Thus, the manager should maintain an unhedged foreign currency position. 2. Fully Hedged: Perold and Schulman (1988) believe that currency exposure does not produce a commensurate level of return for the size of the risk; in fact, they argue that it has a long-term expected return of zero. Thus, since the investor cannot, on average, expect to be adequately rewarded for bearing currency risk, it should be fully hedged out of the portfolio.
Currency Hedging in Portfolio Management (cont.) 3. Partially Hedged: An “optimal” hedge ratio exists, subject to the usual caveats regarding parameter estimation. Black (1989) develops the notion of universal hedging for equity portfolios, based on the idea that there is a net expected benefit from some currency exposure. (This is attributed to Siegel’s Paradox, the empirical relevance of which is questionable in this context.) He demonstrates that this ratio can vary between 30% and 77% depending on a variety of factors. Gardner and Wuilloud (1995) use the concept of investor regret to argue that a position which is 50% currency hedged is an appropriate benchmark for investors who do not possess any particular insights and FX rate movements. A variation of the partial hedging approach is that different asset classes should have different hedging policies. For instance, Black (1989) also suggests that foreign fixed-income portfolios should be fully (i.e., 100%) hedged under the universal hedging scheme. This is partly due to the fact that currency volatility represents a larger percentage of the volatility to a fixed-income position than the volatility of an equity holding.
Hedging the FX Risk in a Global Portfolio: Some Evidence Consider a managed portfolio consisting of five different asset classes: Chilean Stocks (IPSA), Bonds (LVAC Govt), Cash (LVAC MMkt) US Stocks (SPX), Bonds (SBBIG) Monthly returns over two different time periods: September 2000 – September 2005 September 2002 – September 2005 Five different FX hedging strategies (assuming zero hedging transaction costs): #1: Hedge US positions with selected hedge ratio, monthly rebalancing #2: Leave US positions completely unhedged #3: Fully hedge US positions, monthly rebalancing #4: Make monthly hedging decision (i.e., either fully hedged or completely unhedged) on a monthly basis assuming perfect foresight about future FX movements #5: Make monthly hedging decision (i.e., either fully hedged or completely unhedged) on a monthly basis assuming always wrong about future FX movements
Investment Performance for Various Portfolio Strategies: September 2000 – September 2005
Investment Performance for Various Portfolio Strategies: September 2002 – September 2005
Sharpe Ratio Sensitivities for Various Managed Portfolio Hedge Ratios
Currency Hedging and Global Portfolio Management: Final Thoughts Foreign currency fluctuations are a major source of risk that the global portfolio manager must consider. The decision of how much of the portfolio’s FX exposure to hedge is not clear-cut and much has been written on all sides of the issue. It can depend of many factors, including the period over which the investment is held. It is also clear that tactical FX hedging decisions have potential to be a major source of alpha generation for the portfolio manager. Recent evidence (Jorion, 1994) suggests that the FX hedging decision should be optimized jointly with the manager’s basic asset allocation decision. However, this is not always possible or practical. Currency overlay (i.e., the decision of how much to hedge made outside of the portfolio allocation process) is rapidly developing specialty area in global portfolio management.