We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byDakota Darrin
Modified over 2 years ago
The American Class Structure and Growing InequalityChapter 11 The American Class Structure and Growing Inequality
How Many Classes Are There?According to Gilbert, there are six social classes in the United States: Capitalist Class Upper-Middle Class Middle Class Working Class Working Poor Underclass This model of the American class structure is based on qualitative economic distinctions. The emphasis is on the source of income as opposed to the amount of income. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011The Capitalist Class The Capitalist Class has a strong influence on the nature and direction of the economy largely as a result of its investment decisions. The economic resources of members of this class also enables them to operate within the world of politics and the media in ways that reinforce their structural position while at the same time shaping the views of other classes. This class is defined by its dependence on income-producing wealth. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
The Upper-Middle ClassThe Upper-Middle Class is a highly credentialed group. It can be distinguished from the Capitalist Class not only because of lower incomes but because the majority of the income is acquired through salaries and/or professional fees as opposed to income-generating wealth. This class’s ever-increasing purchasing power is making its members more influential with their lifestyle becoming increasingly normative for the whole society. The income gap between the Upper-Middle Class and the non-privileged classes has widened . © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011The Middle Class The changing character of work has largely eliminated traditional differences between blue- and white-collar work. The Middle Class is large and diverse. Though some commentators have argued that the Middle Class is disappearing, Gilbert suggests this is not the case. It is not the Middle Class but rather the middle-income group that is shrinking. This is because of both the declining earnings of many Working-Class positions and the growth of family incomes toward the upper end of the distribution. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011The Working Class The Working Class has traditionally consisted of semiskilled blue-collar laborers. Well-paying jobs for these workers have been declining. Workers in routine white-collar jobs would be considered members of this class. The political influence of this group has declined significantly as the goods-producing industries of the economy, typically with strong union membership, have contracted. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011The Working Poor The Working Poor includes most service workers and the lowest-paid operatives and sales and clerical workers. Members of this social class tend to have less stable job histories, sometimes for reasons beyond their control. They are alienated from political life leading to only marginal involvement in the political process. The lower boundary of this class, defined by commitment to employment, is blurred by the tendency of some individuals to move back and forth across it. This can be termed “oscillating mobility.” © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011The Underclass The Underclass includes low-income households whose members have limited participation in the labor force. Limited and erratic work histories, lack of skills, and incomplete education makes finding full-time employment difficult for members of this class. A large segment of the Underclass consists of single mothers. A significant portion of the Underclass depends on government transfer programs including public assistance, Social Security, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and veterans benefits. Long-term effects of the 1996 welfare reform legislation on this social class are still difficult to determine. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011Growing Inequality Occupational Structure The transition from an industrial to a postindustrial society occurred around 1970. Earnings Since the early 1970’s, wages have more or less stagnated, and the distribution of wages has become increasingly unequal. Wealth Wealth has become increasingly concentrated at the top of the class hierarchy. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
Growing Inequality, cont.Poverty There has been no appreciable reduction in the poverty rate in nearly 40 years. The poor are less likely to be over 65 and more likely to be under 18 than they were in 1960 and are much more likely to live in female-headed families. Income Those at the middle and bottom of the class structure have seen their incomes grow at a much slower rate than during the Age of Shared Prosperity. Those at the top have seen their incomes soar. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
Growing Inequality, cont.Social life Residential neighborhoods are increasingly segregated by class, which has resulted in decreased levels of interclass association. Social Mobility Although intergenerational upward social mobility is still pretty common, it has slowed in the Age of Growing Inequality. Political Power Power has shifted away from the Working Class and Working Poor and toward the privileged class—in particular, the Capitalist Class. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
Why the Age of Growing Inequality? cont.Changes in the economy have been amplified by the decisions of corporations, families, and government. The transition from an industrial to a postindustrial society coincided with the beginning of the Age of Growing Inequality. Wage disparities have widened. Disparities are wider in the postindustrial present than in the industrial past. Advanced education and skills make winners out of those with them. Institutional mechanisms that once constrained the wage differentials have weakened. More competitive domestic and global markets have caused corporations to look for ways to cut labor costs such as downsizing and outsourcing. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
Why the Age of Growing Inequality? cont.Changes in family life have had an impact. Americans are less likely to marry, more likely to divorce, more likely to have children out of wedlock, and, as a result, much more likely to live in female-headed families. More women are employed and their earning have enabled families to overcome the erosion of men’s wages, but the net result of women’s increased employment is greater inequality among families. Public policy in the Age of Growing Inequality has become more responsive to the privileged classes and less sympathetic to other classes. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
Hard Times in the Age of Growing InequalityIn December 2009, nearly one in five workers was unemployed or underemployed. The burden of this has not been evenly distributed among the different social classes. The Working Class and the Working Poor have borne the brunt. The recession has worsened trends we have seen in the Age of Growing Inequality including poverty, wage polarization, income inequality, and a shrinking manufacturing base. The end of the Age of Growing Inequality is nowhere in sight. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011
The American Class Structure. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011 How Many Classes Are There? According to modern historians,
Today’s Schedule – 10/30 Ch. 11 & 12.2 Quiz Finish Daily Show Clip
Chapter 4 Wealth and Income. © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Class and Stratification What is Stratification? Stratification in Historical Perspective Stratification in Modern Western Societies Poverty and Inequality.
Waging Inequality in America By Lawrence Mishel. The Middle Class Income Squeeze: Relentless, Persistent, and Accelerating.
Chapter 11, Section 3. Another way to examine the economic well being of a nation is to measure the number of people who are living in poverty.
Social Welfare Policy Contending with Poverty In America.
Chapter 20 Income Inequality, Poverty, and Discrimination
Chapter 13SectionMain Menu Unemployment What are the different types of unemployment? How are unemployment rates determined? What is full employment?
Types of Unemployment Frictional Unemployment
Reworking the American Dream: Equal Opportunity and Upward Mobility in a Post-Industrial Era.
Class Structure A social class consists of a category of people who share similar opportunities, similar economic and vocational positions, similar lifestyles,
Poverty & Inequality. THE COMPOSITE AMERICAN CLASS STRUCTURE 1.An extremely rich capitalist/corporate managerial class 2.Historically a large and stable.
Chapter 2 Wealth and Poverty U.S. and Global Economic Inequities.
Poverty: Facts, Causes and Consequences Hilary Hoynes University of California, Davis California Symposium on Poverty October 2009.
Lecture Five Poverty and Inequality in the US: The Working Poor.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter 11: Income Inequality and Poverty Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2007 Chapter 13 The Economy In Conflict and Order: Understanding Society, 11 th edition This multimedia product and its contents.
Chapter 8 Section 2 American Class System. Determining Social Class** Reputational Method: individuals are asked to rank other community members based.
Sociology 125 Lecture 14 Poverty & Inequality October 20, 2014.
Economic Stability and Opportunities. Women In Government Women In Government Foundation, Inc. is a national, non-profit, non-partisan organization of.
According to the Census Bureau, individuals, families, or households are living in poverty if their total incomes fall below the designated income levels.
Chapter 8: African Americans Today. Education Disparity in both the quality and quantity of education of African Americans suggests structural racism.
Class, Race, and Families Defining social class Income distribution and economic restructuring Poverty Race, ethnicity, and class Main points on selected.
Unemployment What are the different types of unemployment?
Chapter 13 Economic Challenges
Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter 17 The Distribution of Income.
Chapter 8 The Wage Structure Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Labor Economics, 4 th edition.
Chapter 17 The Distribution of Income McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Income Inequality, Poverty, and Discrimination Chapter 20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sociology 125 Lecture 14 Poverty & Inequality October 13, 2012.
Chapter 13: Economic Challenges Section 3. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 2Chapter 13, Section 3 Objectives 1.Define who is poor, according.
Chapter 21 Income Inequality, Poverty, and Discrimination Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution.
CH 13 “Do Something you Love and You Will Never Work a Day in Your Life”
Chapter 12 Inequalities of Social Class Dimensions of Social Inequality in America Social Class and Life Chances in the United States More Equality?
Trends in the Maine Labor Market
The State of Working America, The labor market recession, which began in October 2000 remains with us. This recession marks the end of the long.
Thinking Critically about Gendered Social Relationships and Social Mobility In gendered social relationships women as a group are disadvantaged – a public.
© SOUTH-WESTERNCONTEMPORARY ECONOMICS: LESSON 3.4 12.1 Students understand common terms & concepts and economics reasoning. Standard Address 1.
Social Class in the United States
Chapter Eight: Social Class in the United States.
THE MODERN AMERICAN DREAM The Role of Social Class in the “Pursuit of Happiness”
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 2 Wealth and Poverty: U.S. and Global Economic Inequalities This multimedia product and its contents are protected.
Chapter 18Copyright ©2009 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1 ECON Designed by Amy McGuire, B-books, Ltd. 18 CHAPTER.
The Economic Base of Cities and Communities Represents the core economic activity on which much of the community’s local economy depends. Even if tied.
Chapter 8 Social Class in the U.S.. Chapter Outline Income and Wealth Differences in the U.S. Classical Perspectives on Social Class Contemporary Sociological.
The Perfect Storm Community Service Council of Greater Tulsa - October 2007.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.