Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT OF MALE & FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM By Dr Samina Anjum."— Presentation transcript:
DEVELOPMENT OF MALE & FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM By Dr Samina Anjum
DEVELOPMENT OF GONADS Sex of the embryo is determined genetically at the time of fertilization. Type of gonads present then determines the type of sexual differentiation that occurs in the genital ducts and external genitalia. Gonads do not acquire male or female morphological characteristics until the 7 th week of development.
Gonadal / Genital ridge The gonads (testes and ovaries) are derived from three sources : 1.Mesothelial lining the posterior abdominal wall. 2. Condensation of underlying mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue) 3. Primordial germ cells
Migration of primordial germ cells into developing gonad.
Primordial germ cells Arrive at the beginning of 5 th week
Invade the genital ridges in the 6 th week. Inductive influence
Indifferent Gonads Finger like primitive sex cords appear, grow into underlying mesenchyme, but remained connected to surface epithelium. Consist of: External cortex Internal medull a.
Development of the Testis SRY gene & TDF Primitive sex cords proliferate, penetrate deep into Medulla to form the testis / Medullary cords Towards the hilum, the cords break up into tubules of rete testis. The gonadal cords –looses connection with the surface epithelium when thick fibrous capsule develops, tunica albuginea.
4 th month testis cords become horse shoe shaped and connect with rete testis. Spermatogonia - primordial germ cells Sertoli cells- the surface epithelium. Interstitial cells of Leydig- mesenchyme -Testosterone By 8 th week
Cont…. Testis cords remain solid till puberty. Acquire lumen forming seminiferrous tubules. Once canalized join rete testis which enter ductuli efferentes --- mesonephric duct
Derivatives The testis cords develop into: the seminiferous tubules rete testis. Mesenchyme between the seminiferous tubules provide the interstitial cells of Leydig.
DEVELOPMENT OF OVARY
Degeneration of Primitive/ medullary sex cords Formation of cortical cords, dissociate into irregular cell clusters which occupy the medullary part of the ovary. Later, they disappear & replaced by a vascular stroma that forms the ovarian medulla.
7 th week, surface epithelium proliferate Formation of second generation of cords, cortical cords, which remain close to the surface. 4 th month, cords split into isolated cell clusters, which surrounds PGCs. Formation of oogonia & the follicular cells.
Development of ovaries in absence of TDF
DEVELOPMENT OF GENITAL DUCTS INDIFFERENT STAGE Initially; both male & female embryos have two pairs of genital ducts: Mesonephric (wolffian) ducts Paramesonephric (müllerian) ducts
Paramesonephric ducts arise as a longitudinal invagination of the epithelium on the anterolateral surface of the urogenital ridge. Cranially, the ducts open into the abdominal cavity with a funnel-like structure. Caudally, it first runs lateral to the mesonephric duct, then crosses it ventrally to grow caudomedially.
Close contact with the duct of opposite side. Separated by a septum, later forms the uterine canal. The caudal tip of the combined duct projects into the posterior wall of the urogenital sinus, the paramesonephric or müllerian tubercle. Mesonephric ducts open on each side of urogenital sinus
Development of Male Genital Ducts Ejaculatory duct At 4 th month After descent of testis
GENITAL DUCTS IN THE FEMALES After descent of ovaryEnd of 2 nd month
When the 2 nd part moves mediocaudally, the urogenital ridges come to lie in the transverse plane creating a horizontal fold the broad ligament of the uterus.
DERIVATIVES Fused paramesonephric ducts give rise to: Body of uterus Cervix Upper part of vagina Surrounded by: Mesenchyme ---- Myometrium Peritoneum ---- Parametrium
DEVELOPMENT OF VAGINA Shortly after the solid tip of the paramesonephric duct reaches the urogenital sinus, two solid evaginations grow out from the pelvic part of the sinus. These sinovaginal bulbs proliferate to form a solid vaginal plate.
By the 5 th month, the vaginal outgrowth is entirely canalized. The wing-like expansions of the vagina around the end of the uterus, the vaginal fornices, are of paramesonephric origin.
Vagina has dual origin
REMANENTS OF MESONEPHRIC DUCT Cranial excretory tubules--- epoophoron Cuadal excretory tubules--- paroophoron Persistent portion of mesonephric duct in uterus or vagina--- Gartner’s cyst
UTERINE & VAGINAL DEFECTS
a: NORMAL b: UTERUS BICORNIS c: UTERUS DIDELPHYS WITH DOUBLE VAGINA
DEVELOPMENT OF GLANDS IN MALE GENITAL SYSTEM
Endodermal outgrowths from prostatic urethra Smooth m and stroma derived from surrounding mesenchyme Prostatic utricle is a sac like structure that opens into prostatic urethra, is homologous to vagina The lining of Prostatic utricle is derived from epithelium of urogenital sinus. DEVELOPMENT OF PROSTATE GLAND
DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE GENITAL GLANDS (Outgrowths of urogenital sinus)
Development of External Genitalia Undifferentiated External Genitalia (3 rd to 6 th Week) Male External Genitalia Female External Genitalia
External Genitalia Indifferent stage
Development of Male External Geniatlia 1.The indifferent external genitalia are masculinized by the testosterone. 2. The rapid elongation of genital tubercle into phallus. 3. The phallus pulls the urethral folds forward so that they form the lateral walls of urethral groove. 4. The urethral groove extends along the caudal aspect of the elongated phallus but does not reach the most distal part, the glans. The groove is lined by endodermal epithelium and forms the urethral plate.
Development of Male External Geniatlia
5. At the end of 3 rd month, the two urethral folds close over the uretheral plate, forming the penile urethra. 6. The most distal portion of urethra is formed during the 4 th month, when ectodermal cells from tip of glans penetrate inward and form a short epithelial cord. This cord later forms lumen thus forming external urethtral meatus. 7. The labioscrotal swellings fuse to form the scrotum. 8. The line of fusion form the scrotal septum.
EXTERNAL GENITALIA IN FEMALES Estrogens stimulate the development of external genitalia in females. Genital tubercle ---- Clitoris Urethral folds do not fuse ---- labia minora Genital swellings enlarge ---- labia majora Urogenital groove is open ---- vestibule
DESCENT OF TESTIS Towards the end of 2 nd month urogenital mesentery attaches the testis and mesonephros to the posterior abdominal wall. Thus testis begin as retroperitoneal structures in the posterior abdominal wall With degeneration of Mesonephros the attachment serves as mesentery for the gonads.
Caudally urogenital mesentery becomes ligamentous and forms caudal genital ligament. Also extends from the caudal pole of testis is a mesenchymal condensation, the gubernaculum. Caudal genital ligament and
Two parts of gubernaculum can be seen: Intraabdominal portion: grows prior to descent of testis and terminates in inguinal region Extraabdominal portion: grows as testis begins to descend from inguinal region towards the scrotal swelling. When testis pass through inguinal canal this part contacts the scrotal floor
As the gubernaculum "pulls" the testes into the pelvis and developing inguinal canal, it is preceded by the processus vaginalis, evagination derived from the peritoneum which lies anterior to the testes. Once testis are in scrotum the gubernaculum persist as scrotal ligament.
Formation of inguinal canal The processus vaginalis accompanied by muscular and facial layers of anterior abdominal wall evaginates into scrotal swellings forming inguinal canal. Testis are then covered by a reflected fold of processus vaginalis having parietal and visceral layers. The narrow canal connecting the lumen of the vaginal process with the peritoneal cavity is obliterated at birth.
DESCENT OF TESTIS
INGUINAL HERNIAS & HYDROCELE
Hypospadias Hypospadias most common abnormality (1 in 300) from a failure of male urogenital folds to fuse in various regions and resulting in a proximally displaced urethral meatus. External urethral orifice is on ventral surface of glans or body.
EPISPADIAS 1/30000 male infants Urethra opens on dorsal surface Associated with exostrophy of bladder.