# Tracy Kammerer. This unit on simple machines was founded on the Michigan Curriculum Framework Science Benchmark. Students participating in this unit will.

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Tracy Kammerer

This unit on simple machines was founded on the Michigan Curriculum Framework Science Benchmark. Students participating in this unit will be able to identify and use all six types of simple machines. The following benchmarks are reflected upon during our conceptual change unit plan. Constructing: Generate questions about the world based on observation. I.1.E.1 Develop solutions to problems through reasoning, observation and investigations. I.1.E.2 Reflecting: Develop an awareness of the need for evidence in making decisions scientifically. II.1.E.1 Show how science concepts can be illustrated through creative expression such as language arts and fine arts. II.1.E.2. Describe ways in which technology is used in everyday life. II.1.E.3. Using: All students will describe how things around us move, explain why things move as they do and demonstrate and explain how we control the motion of objects: Identify and use simple machines and describe how they change effort. IV.3.E.4

What are Simple Machines? Tools that are used to make work easier. They are so simple that they do not appear to be machines at all. There are six simple or basic machines. –Levers, pulleys, inclined planes, screws, wedges and wheel and axles Compound machines have two or more simple machines working together to make work easier. Simple machines help us do work that would be more difficult to do without them.

Look around for some Simple Machines What are some simple machines that you have seen? What are they used for? In what ways can they make our lives and work easier?

These are the Simple Machines that we will be providing information on. Lever Pulley Inclined Plane Screw Wedge Wheel and Axle

Inclined Planes A plane is a flat surface. An inclined plane is a surface that slants An example of an inclined plane is a ramp. A inclined plane makes our life easier because when you are pushing an object along a ramp, you will use less effort than if you were lifting the object straight up.

Levers A lever is a long, stiff bar. The bar rests on a point called the fulcrum. The fulcrum does not move. When force is put on one end of the lever, the other end lifts a load. An example of a lever is a seesaw. This make our lives easier because it reduces the amount of force needed to move a load by spreading it out over a greater distance.

Wheels and Axles A wheel and axle is a rod attached to a wheel. The axle goes through the center of the wheel. The wheel turns when a force turns the axle. The axle turns when a force turns the wheel. An example would be a car. This makes our lives much easier today vs. the horse and buggy days!!!

Gears Gears are pairs of wheels that turn together, making one axle or shaft turn another. A bicycle has gears. The gears make it easier for the bicycle to go up hill.

Pulleys Pulleys are for hoisting things up. A cord wraps around a wheel. As the wheel rotates, the cord moves in either direction. An example of a pulley is on a flagpole. The cord rotates around the pulley and lowers the hooks where you can attach the flag. Then you rotate the cord and the flag raises high on the pole.

Wedge A wedge is a small ramp that can be moved. An axe blade is a wedge. Having an axe makes our lives easier especially when we need wood for our fireplaces

Screws A screw is a cone- shaped machine with a groove that winds round and round it in a spiral. The groove is called a thread. Screws are used by carpenters when building houses.

Fascinating Facts Simple stone axes were made by the first human beings hundreds of thousands of years ago. They tied wedge-shaped pieces of stone to wooden handles. The Great Pyramids of Egypt are nearly 5,000 years old. Every stone was moved by people or animals. That’s not a simple machine. The biggest wheel is The Gigantic Millennium Wheel that was erected in London in the year 2000 to celebrate the millennium. It is 500ft. High.

A few more Simple Machine examples: Cranes are machines that lift heavy objects with a pulley. Old fashioned clocks have gears. An inclined plane is also the slides children play on. A doorknob is a wheel and axle. Pogo sticks have springs. You have to screw on pop bottle tops and hoses. Zippers are a type of wedge. Diving boards have springs.

Fantastic Job!!! You now have some great knowledge about simple machines and the ability to apply this knowledge. Be on the look out for simple machines all around you. Share examples you encounter with your classmates.

Bibliography Welsbacher, Anne. Simple Machines. Bridgestone Books. Capstone Press. 2001. Graphics-www.rcs.k12.va.us/csjh/AFpages2.htmwww.rcs.k12.va.us/csjh/AFpages2.htm Images- http://www.google.comhttp://www.google.com Informational Site- http://www.kidinfo.com/Science/Physics.html http://www.kidinfo.com/Science/Physics.html http://www.library.thinkquest.org/Joo2079f/sub3. htmhttp://www.library.thinkquest.org/Joo2079f/sub3. htm

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