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Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.1 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Hardware and Software in.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.1 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Hardware and Software in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.1 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Hardware and Software in the Enterprise Chapter 6

2 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.2 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Objectives 1.Capabilities of computer hardware and computer software. 2.Major issues in the management of hardware and software assets.

3 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.3 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Hardware components of a computer system Figure 6-1

4 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.4 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Bit Binary digit Represents 0 or 1 Byte String of eight bits Stores one number, symbol, character, part of picture Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer System

5 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.5 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Bits and bytes Figure 6-2

6 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.6 © 2005 by Prentice Hall The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic-Logic Unit: Perform principle logical/mathematical operations Control Unit (CU): Control and coordinate other parts of computer –Machine Cycle: The series of operations required to process a single machine instruction. Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer System

7 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.7 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The CPU and primary storage Figure 6-3

8 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.8 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Primary Storage Located near CPU Stores all or part of active software programs Stores operating system programs Stores data the programs are using Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer System

9 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.9 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Primary Storage Composed of semi-conductors –Integrated circuits (ICs) made by printed tiny transistors on small silicon chips. RAM (random access memory) –Used for short-term, temporary storage. –Any randomly chosen location can be accessed in the same amount of time. –Memory is lost, when power is off. ROM (read-only memory) –Semiconductor memory chips with burn-in program instructions. –Store important and frequent use programs. Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer System

10 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.10 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Microprocessors Semiconductor chips integrate memory, logic, and control circuits for an entire CPU onto a single chip. Speed depends on –Number of bits processed at one time (word length). –Amount of data that can be moved between CPU, primary storage, and other devices (data bus width). –Cycle speed (MHz, millions of cycles per second). RISC (reduced instruction set computing) increases speed by embedding frequently used instructions in a CPS. –Can execute multiple instructions in a single machine cycle. –Used for scientific, workstation computing. Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Computer Processing

11 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.11 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Parallel processing Multiple CPUs work simultaneously on same problem by breaking down a problem into smaller parts (with a special software). More than one instruction processed at a time Massively parallel computers: use hundreds, thousands of inexpensive and commonly used processing chips. Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Computer Processing

12 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.12 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Sequential and parallel processing Figure 6-4

13 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.13 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Secondary Storage Technology Used for relatively long-term storage of data outside CPU. Nonvolatile and retain data even when the power is off. Devices: –Magnetic disk: floppies, hard disks, removable disk drives, RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) –Optical disk (compact disks, CD, or laser optical disks): CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory, up to 700 MB), CD-RW (CD- ReWrite), DVD (digital video disk or digital versatile disk, 4.7 GB minimum) –Magnetic tape (inexpensive, sequential access) Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output Technology

14 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.14 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Storage Networking Enable firms to manage all storage resources centrally by providing an overall storage plan for all storage devices in the enterprise. Storage networking arrangements: –direct-attached storage: storage devices are connected and accessed directly through a server. Access bottleneck is possible. –network-attached storage (NAS): RAID with a dedicated server. –storage area networks (SAN): dedicated high-speed storage network. SAN creates a large pool of storage that can be shared by multiple servers and users. Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output Technology

15 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.15 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure A storage area network (SAN) Figure 6-5

16 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.16 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Input and Output Devices Input devices: Gather data and convert them into electronic form for computer use. Output devices: Display data after they are processed. Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output Technology

17 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.17 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Input Devices Keyboard and mouse Touch screen Optical character recognition (OCR) Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) Pen-based input Digital scanner Audio input Sensors Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output Technology

18 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.18 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Output Devices Cathode-ray tube (CRT) or video display terminals (VDTs) Printers Audio output Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output Technology

19 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.19 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Batch Processing Accumulates and stores transactions in group or batch until time to process them Found primarily in older systems for occasional reporting Use tape storage Online Processing Transactions processed immediately Use disk storage Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output Technology

20 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.20 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Interactive Multimedia Integrates sound, video or animation, graphics, text into computer- based application. Foundation of new consumer products and services: e-books, e- newspapers, e-classrooms, video conferencing, imaging design, video/voice mails. Streaming technology: Technology for transferring and processing data as a steady and continuous stream. New compression standards: MP3 (MPEG3), Motion Picture Experts Group, audio layer 3. Compress audio files down to one-tenth or one- twelfth of their original size with virtually no loss in quality. Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output Technology

21 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.21 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Mainframe: Largest computer with massive memory and rapid processing power; handles massive amounts of data and complicated processes; used for large business, scientific, military applications. Midrange computer: Smaller, less expensive minicomputers or servers; used for smaller organizations or managing networks of other computer. –Minicomputers: Used in systems for universities, factories, research labs. –Servers: Manage internal company networks or Web sites. Server Farm: Large group of servers maintained by a commercial vendor and made available to subscribers for e-commerce and other activities requiring heavy use of servers. Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Classifying Computers

22 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.22 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Personal computer: Portable or desktop microcomputer. Workstation: More powerful desktop computer used for computation-intense tasks such as mathematical and graphical processing. Supercomputer: Sophisticated, powerful computer used for tasks requiring rapid, complex calculations; weapons research, weather forecasting. Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Classifying Computers

23 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.23 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Distributed processing: Distribution of processing work among multiple computers. –Client/server computing: Splits processing between “clients” and “servers” on network. Centralized processing: Accomplished by one large central computer. Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Computer Networks and Client/Server Computing

24 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.24 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Client/server computing Figure 6-6

25 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.25 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Types of client/server computing Figure 6-7

26 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.26 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Network computer (NC): Simplified desktop computer, does not store data permanently; minimal memory, storage, and processor power; software and application are downloaded as needed. Peer-to-peer computing: Distributed processing that links computers through Internet or private networks; computers work together without a server or any central controlling authority. (Examples: Kazaa) –Grid computing: Applies unused computational resources of many networked computers to solve a large, complex problem. (Examples: DNA project, Bank-One risk analysis) Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Network Computers and Peer-to-Peer Computing

27 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.27 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Software program: A series of statements or instructions to the computer –Coding, programming, programmer, developer. Two major types of software: –System software: Generalized programs that manage the computer’s resources (system programmer) –Application software: Programs written for or by users to perform a specific task (application programmer) Types of Software

28 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.28 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software The major types of software Figure 6-8

29 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.29 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Operating system software: Manages the computer system, resources; controls memory, input, output, and task scheduling –Capabilities: multi-programming, virtual storage, time-sharing, multi-processing Computer language translation programs: Compiles or interprets source code of high-level language programs (C, FORTRAN, BASIC) into object code - machine language the computer can execute Utility programs: Perform routine, repetitive tasks such as copying, clearing primary storage Types of Software System Software and PC Operating Systems

30 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.30 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Operating System Capabilities Multiprogramming: Concurrent use of CPU by multiple programs Virtual storage: Breaks programs into smaller portions to read as needed Time-sharing: Allows many users to share CPU time Multi-processing: Links two or more CPUs to work in parallel in single computer system Types of Software System Software and PC Operating Systems

31 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.31 © 2005 by Prentice Hall PC Operating Systems Software written for one OS generally cannot run on another Graphical User Interface (GUI): Make extensive use of icons, buttons, bars, boxes, and windows to perform input tasks. –Become dominant model for user interface for operating systems and applications. Types of Software System Software and PC Operating Systems

32 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.32 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Leading PC Operating Systems Windows XP (eXPerience) Home / Professional Windows 2000, high performance for network servers Windows Server 2003, server OS Windows 98/ME (priori to Windows XP) Windows CE, for handheld and wireless devices Unix, reliable, scalable, portable, multi-tasking, multi-processing, multi-user access, networking Linux, unix OS for PCs, open-source software Mac OS DOS, 16-bit OS Types of Software System Software and PC Operating Systems

33 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.33 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Application Programming Languages Machine language 1 st generation; binary code; slow and labor intensive COperating systems; application software C++Object-oriented; application software COBOLBusiness administration; alphanumeric processing; reporting (Common Business Oriented Language) Visual BasicVisual tool; Windows applications

34 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.34 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Application Programming Languages FORTRANProcessing numeric data; scientific, engineering programs BASICUsed for teaching PascalUsed primarily for teaching programming Assembly language Second generation; close to machine language; system software

35 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.35 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Fourth generation languages: Enable end users to develop applications with minimal or no assistance; less procedural Procedural languages: Require sequence of steps Nonprocedural languages: Specify tasks but not details on sequence –Natural languages: Nonprocedural languages resembling human speech Query languages: Software tools for providing online answers to information requests Types of Software Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

36 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.36 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages PC software toolsGeneral-purpose packages WordPerfect, Microsoft Access Query languageRetrieve data stored in databases or files SQL Report generatorRetrieve data, more formatting control; Crystal Reports Graphics languageRetrieve data, graphics format SAS Graph; Systat

37 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.37 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages Application generatorPreprogrammed modules FOCUS, Microsoft FrontPage Application software package Commercial software replacing need for custom, in-house software PeopleSoft HCM, SAP R/3 Very high-level programming language Generate code with fewer instructions; productivity tool for programmers APL, Nomad2

38 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.38 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Object-Oriented Programming Combine data and methods (procedures) into one object Objects are independent, reusable building blocks Based on concepts of class and inheritance Types of Software Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

39 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.39 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Class and inheritance Figure 6-9

40 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.40 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Java Object-oriented Platform-independent Robust; handles data, graphics, video, sound Can create “applets”; often used on Web Java applications tend to run slower than “native” programs Types of Software Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

41 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.41 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): Page description language; creates Web pages and other hypermedia documents (instructions are called tags) XML (eXtensible Markup Language): Describes data as a web document for programs to use; provides standard format for data exchange (DTD, Document Type Definition; Ex., RosettaNet) XHTML: Reformulates HTML with XML document-type definitions Types of Software Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools

42 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.42 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Word processing software: Store data electronically as a computer file; Create, format, print documents, spelling / grammar check, mail merge –Microsoft Word, WordPerfect Desktop publishing software: Produce professional-quality documents with greater formatting, design capabilities for text, graphics, and photos –Adobe PageMaker, QuarkXpress Spreadsheets: Display and store data in grid for calculating numerical data; recalculation, modeling, what-if analysis, break-even analysis –Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3 Data management software: Store, manipulate data in lists and databases; query, reporting –Microsoft Access, Oracle, Sybase Types of Software Application Software Packages and Productivity Software

43 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.43 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Text and the spell-checking option in Microsoft Word Figure 6-10

44 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.44 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Spreadsheet software Figure 6-11

45 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.45 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Data management software Figure 6-12

46 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.46 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Presentation graphics: Create professional-quality graphics and multimedia presentations –Microsoft PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics, Aldus Persuasion, Paint-Shop-Pro Integrated Software Packages and Suites: Combine two or more applications; easy data transfer –Microsoft Office, OpenOffice, StarOffice E-mail software: Computer exchange of messages; broadcast, forward, attachment Web browsers: Access and display Web, Internet resources Groupware: Support activities of workgroups; group writing and commenting, info sharing, e-meeting, scheduling, e-mail –Microsoft Office (business version), Lotus Notes, LiveLink (OpenText), Groov (peer-to-peer) Types of Software Application Software Packages and Productivity Software

47 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.47 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Enterprise software: Integrates multiple business processes Legacy system: System in place for long time Middleware: Software that connects two disparate systems; in-house or vendor solution Enterprise application integration (EAI) software: Middleware to create hub connecting applications and application clusters –WebMethods, Tibco, CrossWorlds, SeeBeyond, BEA, Vitria Types of Software Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business

48 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.48 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Enterprise application integration (EAI) software versus traditional integration Figure 6-13

49 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.49 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Web services: Universal standards using Internet technology for exchanging data between systems Web server: Manages requests for Web pages on computer where they are stored Application server: Middleware software handling application operations between user and back-end business systems Types of Software Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business

50 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.50 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software A multitiered architecture for e-commerce and e-business Figure 6-14

51 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.51 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Application Integration to the Rescue How can enterprise application integration and Web services technology provide value for organizations? What management, organization, and technology issues should be addressed when making the decision about whether to use these technologies? Types of Software Window on Technology

52 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.52 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Selection and use of computer hardware and software technology can have a profound impact on business performance. Capacity planning: Process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated –Max users, future software applications, min response time (Ex. Nasdaq) Scalability: Ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down Managing Hardware and Software Assets Hardware Technology Requirements For Electronic Commerce and the Digital Firm

53 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.53 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Includes both direct and indirect costs Hardware and software acquisitions account for only 20% of TCO TCO for a PC may run to three times original purchase price Hidden costs can make distributed architecture more expensive than centralized mainframes –Support staff, down time, network management Managing Hardware and Software Assets Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of Technology Assets

54 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.54 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Hardware acquisition Software acquisition Installation Training Support Maintenance Infrastructure Downtime Space and energy Managing Hardware and Software Assets Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Cost Components

55 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.55 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Storage service provider (SSP): Provides online access to storage devices and storage area network technology –Availability, reliability, flexibility, response time. Application service provider (ASP): Delivers applications over networks on subscription basis –Payroll, HR, sales force automation, financial management, benefit, tax calculation Management service provider: Manages applications, systems, security, storage, Web sites, system performance Managing Hardware and Software Assets Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers

56 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.56 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Types of Software Model of an Application Service Provider (ASP) Figure 6-15

57 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 6 Hardware and Software in the Enterprise 6.57 © 2005 by Prentice Hall Business continuity provider: Defines procedures for recovery from system malfunctions, disaster recovery Utility computing (on-demand computing, usage- based pricing; IBM): Model in which companies pay only for resources used in a specific time period Managing Hardware and Software Assets Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service Providers


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