Presentation on theme: "Hardware and Software in the Enterprise"— Presentation transcript:
1Hardware and Software in the Enterprise Chapter 6Hardware and Software in the Enterprise
2Capabilities of computer hardware and computer software. ObjectivesCapabilities of computer hardware and computer software.Major issues in the management of hardware and software assets.
3Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Hardware components of a computer systemFigure 6-1
4Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer SystemBitBinary digitRepresents 0 or 1ByteString of eight bitsStores one number, symbol, character, part of picture
5Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Bits and bytesFigure 6-2
6Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer SystemThe Central Processing Unit (CPU)Arithmetic-Logic Unit: Perform principle logical/mathematical operationsControl Unit (CU): Control and coordinate other parts of computerMachine Cycle: The series of operations required to process a single machine instruction.
7Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The CPU and primary storageFigure 6-3
8Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer SystemPrimary StorageLocated near CPUStores all or part of active software programsStores operating system programsStores data the programs are using
9Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer SystemPrimary StorageComposed of semi-conductorsIntegrated circuits (ICs) made by printed tiny transistors on small silicon chips.RAM (random access memory)Used for short-term, temporary storage.Any randomly chosen location can be accessed in the same amount of time.Memory is lost, when power is off.ROM (read-only memory)Semiconductor memory chips with burn-in program instructions.Store important and frequent use programs.
10Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Computer ProcessingMicroprocessorsSemiconductor chips integrate memory, logic, and control circuits for an entire CPU onto a single chip.Speed depends onNumber of bits processed at one time (word length).Amount of data that can be moved between CPU, primary storage, and other devices (data bus width).Cycle speed (MHz, millions of cycles per second).RISC (reduced instruction set computing) increases speed by embedding frequently used instructions in a CPS.Can execute multiple instructions in a single machine cycle.Used for scientific, workstation computing.
11Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Computer ProcessingParallel processingMultiple CPUs work simultaneously on same problem by breaking down a problem into smaller parts (with a special software).More than one instruction processed at a timeMassively parallel computers: use hundreds, thousands of inexpensive and commonly used processing chips.
12Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Sequential and parallel processingFigure 6-4
13Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output TechnologySecondary Storage TechnologyUsed for relatively long-term storage of data outside CPU.Nonvolatile and retain data even when the power is off.Devices:Magnetic disk: floppies, hard disks, removable disk drives, RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)Optical disk (compact disks, CD, or laser optical disks): CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory, up to 700 MB), CD-RW (CD-ReWrite), DVD (digital video disk or digital versatile disk, 4.7 GB minimum)Magnetic tape (inexpensive, sequential access)
14Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output TechnologyStorage NetworkingEnable firms to manage all storage resources centrally by providing an overall storage plan for all storage devices in the enterprise.Storage networking arrangements:direct-attached storage: storage devices are connected and accessed directly through a server. Access bottleneck is possible.network-attached storage (NAS): RAID with a dedicated server.storage area networks (SAN): dedicated high-speed storage network. SAN creates a large pool of storage that can be shared by multiple servers and users.
15Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure A storage area network (SAN)Figure 6-5
16Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output TechnologyInput and Output DevicesInput devices: Gather data and convert them into electronic form for computer use.Output devices: Display data after they are processed.
17Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output TechnologyInput DevicesKeyboard and mouseTouch screenOptical character recognition (OCR)Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)Pen-based inputDigital scannerAudio inputSensorsRadio-frequency identification (RFID)
18Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output TechnologyOutput DevicesCathode-ray tube (CRT) or video display terminals (VDTs)PrintersAudio output
19Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output TechnologyBatch ProcessingAccumulates and stores transactions in group or batch until time to process themFound primarily in older systems for occasional reportingUse tape storageOnline ProcessingTransactions processed immediatelyUse disk storage
20Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Storage, Input, and Output TechnologyInteractive MultimediaIntegrates sound, video or animation, graphics, text into computer-based application.Foundation of new consumer products and services: e-books, e-newspapers, e-classrooms, video conferencing, imaging design, video/voice mails.Streaming technology: Technology for transferring and processing data as a steady and continuous stream.New compression standards: MP3 (MPEG3), Motion Picture Experts Group, audio layer 3. Compress audio files down to one-tenth or one-twelfth of their original size with virtually no loss in quality.
21Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Classifying ComputersMainframe: Largest computer with massive memory and rapid processing power; handles massive amounts of data and complicated processes; used for large business, scientific, military applications.Midrange computer: Smaller, less expensive minicomputers or servers; used for smaller organizations or managing networks of other computer.Minicomputers: Used in systems for universities, factories, research labs.Servers: Manage internal company networks or Web sites.Server Farm: Large group of servers maintained by a commercial vendor and made available to subscribers for e-commerce and other activities requiring heavy use of servers.
22Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Classifying ComputersPersonal computer: Portable or desktop microcomputer.Workstation: More powerful desktop computer used for computation-intense tasks such as mathematical and graphical processing.Supercomputer: Sophisticated, powerful computer used for tasks requiring rapid, complex calculations; weapons research, weather forecasting.
23Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Computer Networks and Client/Server ComputingDistributed processing: Distribution of processing work among multiple computers.Client/server computing: Splits processing between “clients” and “servers” on network.Centralized processing: Accomplished by one large central computer.
24Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Client/server computingFigure 6-6
25Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Types of client/server computingFigure 6-7
26Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Network Computers and Peer-to-Peer ComputingNetwork computer (NC): Simplified desktop computer, does not store data permanently; minimal memory, storage, and processor power; software and application are downloaded as needed.Peer-to-peer computing: Distributed processing that links computers through Internet or private networks; computers work together without a server or any central controlling authority. (Examples: Kazaa)Grid computing: Applies unused computational resources of many networked computers to solve a large, complex problem. (Examples: DNA project, Bank-One risk analysis)
27Two major types of software: Software program: A series of statements or instructions to the computerCoding, programming, programmer, developer.Two major types of software:System software: Generalized programs that manage the computer’s resources (system programmer)Application software: Programs written for or by users to perform a specific task (application programmer)
29System Software and PC Operating Systems Types of SoftwareSystem Software and PC Operating SystemsOperating system software: Manages the computer system, resources; controls memory, input, output, and task schedulingCapabilities: multi-programming, virtual storage, time-sharing, multi-processingComputer language translation programs: Compiles or interprets source code of high-level language programs (C, FORTRAN, BASIC) into object code - machine language the computer can executeUtility programs: Perform routine, repetitive tasks such as copying, clearing primary storage
30System Software and PC Operating Systems Types of SoftwareSystem Software and PC Operating SystemsOperating System CapabilitiesMultiprogramming: Concurrent use of CPU by multiple programsVirtual storage: Breaks programs into smaller portions to read as neededTime-sharing: Allows many users to share CPU timeMulti-processing: Links two or more CPUs to work in parallel in single computer system
31System Software and PC Operating Systems Types of SoftwareSystem Software and PC Operating SystemsPC Operating SystemsSoftware written for one OS generally cannot run on anotherGraphical User Interface (GUI): Make extensive use of icons, buttons, bars, boxes, and windows to perform input tasks.Become dominant model for user interface for operating systems and applications.
32System Software and PC Operating Systems Types of SoftwareSystem Software and PC Operating SystemsLeading PC Operating SystemsWindows XP (eXPerience) Home / ProfessionalWindows 2000, high performance for network serversWindows Server 2003, server OSWindows 98/ME (priori to Windows XP)Windows CE, for handheld and wireless devicesUnix, reliable, scalable, portable, multi-tasking, multi-processing, multi-user access, networkingLinux, unix OS for PCs, open-source softwareMac OSDOS, 16-bit OS
33Application Programming Languages Types of SoftwareApplication Programming LanguagesMachine language1st generation; binary code; slow and labor intensiveCOperating systems; application softwareC++Object-oriented; application softwareCOBOLBusiness administration; alphanumeric processing; reporting (Common Business Oriented Language)Visual BasicVisual tool; Windows applications
34Application Programming Languages Types of SoftwareApplication Programming LanguagesFORTRANProcessing numeric data; scientific, engineering programsBASICUsed for teachingPascalUsed primarily for teaching programmingAssembly languageSecond generation; close to machine language; system software
35Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools Types of SoftwareProgramming Languages and Contemporary Software ToolsFourth generation languages: Enable end users to develop applications with minimal or no assistance; less proceduralProcedural languages: Require sequence of stepsNonprocedural languages: Specify tasks but not details on sequenceNatural languages: Nonprocedural languages resembling human speechQuery languages: Software tools for providing online answers to information requests
36Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages Types of SoftwareCategories of Fourth-Generation LanguagesPC software toolsGeneral-purpose packagesWordPerfect, Microsoft AccessQuery languageRetrieve data stored in databases or filesSQLReport generatorRetrieve data, more formatting control; Crystal ReportsGraphics languageRetrieve data, graphics formatSAS Graph; Systat
37Categories of Fourth-Generation Languages Types of SoftwareCategories of Fourth-Generation LanguagesApplication generatorPreprogrammed modulesFOCUS, Microsoft FrontPageApplication software packageCommercial software replacing need for custom, in-house softwarePeopleSoft HCM, SAP R/3Very high-level programming languageGenerate code with fewer instructions; productivity tool for programmersAPL, Nomad2
38Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools Types of SoftwareProgramming Languages and Contemporary Software ToolsObject-Oriented ProgrammingCombine data and methods (procedures) into one objectObjects are independent, reusable building blocksBased on concepts of class and inheritance
39Types of SoftwareClass and inheritanceFigure 6-9
40Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools Types of SoftwareProgramming Languages and Contemporary Software ToolsJavaObject-orientedPlatform-independentRobust; handles data, graphics, video, soundCan create “applets”; often used on WebJava applications tend to run slower than “native” programs
41Programming Languages and Contemporary Software Tools Types of SoftwareProgramming Languages and Contemporary Software ToolsHypertext Markup Language (HTML): Page description language; creates Web pages and other hypermedia documents (instructions are called tags)XML (eXtensible Markup Language): Describes data as a web document for programs to use; provides standard format for data exchange (DTD, Document Type Definition; Ex., RosettaNet)XHTML: Reformulates HTML with XML document-type definitions
42Application Software Packages and Productivity Software Types of SoftwareApplication Software Packages and Productivity SoftwareWord processing software: Store data electronically as a computer file; Create, format, print documents, spelling / grammar check, mail mergeMicrosoft Word, WordPerfectDesktop publishing software: Produce professional-quality documents with greater formatting, design capabilities for text, graphics, and photosAdobe PageMaker, QuarkXpressSpreadsheets: Display and store data in grid for calculating numerical data; recalculation, modeling, what-if analysis, break-even analysisMicrosoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3Data management software: Store, manipulate data in lists and databases; query, reportingMicrosoft Access, Oracle, Sybase
43Text and the spell-checking option in Microsoft Word Types of SoftwareText and the spell-checking option in Microsoft WordFigure 6-10
44Types of SoftwareSpreadsheet softwareFigure 6-11
45Data management software Types of SoftwareData management softwareFigure 6-12
46Application Software Packages and Productivity Software Types of SoftwareApplication Software Packages and Productivity SoftwarePresentation graphics: Create professional-quality graphics and multimedia presentationsMicrosoft PowerPoint, Lotus Freelance Graphics, Aldus Persuasion, Paint-Shop-ProIntegrated Software Packages and Suites: Combine two or more applications; easy data transferMicrosoft Office, OpenOffice, StarOfficesoftware: Computer exchange of messages; broadcast, forward, attachmentWeb browsers: Access and display Web, Internet resourcesGroupware: Support activities of workgroups; group writing and commenting, info sharing, e-meeting, scheduling,Microsoft Office (business version), Lotus Notes, LiveLink (OpenText), Groov (peer-to-peer)
47Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business Types of SoftwareSoftware for Enterprise Integration and E-BusinessEnterprise software: Integrates multiple business processesLegacy system: System in place for long timeMiddleware: Software that connects two disparate systems; in-house or vendor solutionEnterprise application integration (EAI) software: Middleware to create hub connecting applications and application clustersWebMethods, Tibco, CrossWorlds, SeeBeyond, BEA, Vitria
48Types of SoftwareEnterprise application integration (EAI) software versus traditional integrationFigure 6-13
49Software for Enterprise Integration and E-Business Types of SoftwareSoftware for Enterprise Integration and E-BusinessWeb services: Universal standards using Internet technology for exchanging data between systemsWeb server: Manages requests for Web pages on computer where they are storedApplication server: Middleware software handling application operations between user and back-end business systems
50A multitiered architecture for e-commerce and e-business Types of SoftwareA multitiered architecture for e-commerce and e-businessFigure 6-14
51Application Integration to the Rescue Types of SoftwareWindow on TechnologyApplication Integration to the RescueHow can enterprise application integration and Web services technology provide value for organizations?What management, organization, and technology issues should be addressed when making the decision about whether to use these technologies?
52Managing Hardware and Software Assets Hardware Technology RequirementsFor Electronic Commerce and the Digital FirmSelection and use of computer hardware and software technology can have a profound impact on business performance.Capacity planning: Process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturatedMax users, future software applications, min response time (Ex. Nasdaq)Scalability: Ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down
53Managing Hardware and Software Assets Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of Technology AssetsIncludes both direct and indirect costsHardware and software acquisitions account for only 20% of TCOTCO for a PC may run to three times original purchase priceHidden costs can make distributed architecture more expensive than centralized mainframesSupport staff, down time, network management
54Managing Hardware and Software Assets Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Cost ComponentsHardware acquisitionSoftware acquisitionInstallationTrainingSupportMaintenanceInfrastructureDowntimeSpace and energy
55Managing Hardware and Software Assets Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service ProvidersStorage service provider (SSP): Provides online access to storage devices and storage area network technologyAvailability, reliability, flexibility, response time.Application service provider (ASP): Delivers applications over networks on subscription basisPayroll, HR, sales force automation, financial management, benefit, tax calculationManagement service provider: Manages applications, systems, security, storage, Web sites, system performance
56Model of an Application Service Provider (ASP) Types of SoftwareModel of an Application Service Provider (ASP)Figure 6-15
57Managing Hardware and Software Assets Rent or Build Decisions: Using Technology Service ProvidersBusiness continuity provider: Defines procedures for recovery from system malfunctions, disaster recoveryUtility computing (on-demand computing, usage-based pricing; IBM): Model in which companies pay only for resources used in a specific time period