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STEPS TO CIVILIZATION Unit 3 Social Studies 7

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1 STEPS TO CIVILIZATION Unit 3 Social Studies 7
Use your flip booklet to record notes!

2 How did the world you see come to be the way it is?
Look Around You! How did the world you see come to be the way it is?

3 Why are you watching this PowerPoint instead of waiting outside a gopher’s hole, with a spiked club in your hands?

4 The reason we are…. Lies far in the past when early humans
began creating tools to help them make useful and beautiful objects

5 People began farming instead of spending days searching for food

6 They left their caves for the comfort of houses built from reeds, peat, leather, wood and stone

7 They built walls around their settlements and began to live peacefully in settled communities

8 These early changes were the first steps towards civilization and the first steps towards the life we know

9 In this unit, you will examine:
important changes in lives of early humans changes that affected lives of all people who followed them, including you!

10 Early Beginnings Archaeologists found evidence showing at least 6 different species of humans having walked the earth These include first modern humans, the early Homo sapiens sapiens Evidence of Early Humans mapped on pg.44 Ancient Worlds text

Top Title Page: Steps to Civilization, Name Bottom Edges of Each Page: Tools Were Important Tools Teach Us Eras 6 Groups of Early Humans Early Hunters Cro-Magnon Hunters Farming: A Giant Step How Farming Got Started Cities: Another Giant Step Bottom Edge – leave blank Label Your Flip Booklet CAPITALS PRINT NEATLY CENTER

12 Try This Mapping Activity
Pg.44 AW - find title, legend, scale of map What information does each of these items give you? Describe where remains of of ancient humans were located in relation to major rivers. What pattern do you notice?

13 Think for Yourself p.45 Imagine yourself shipwrecked on a deserted island. Your mission is to survive on your wits alone. Your first task is to find food and water. You gather shellfish from the beach and find a stream. What now? Group Activity

14 Development of Humans Earth like deserted island for early humans
Offered materials of nature, nothing else People survived finding ways to use materials to meet needs for food, shelter clothing

15 Tools Were Important Made axes, knives, scrapers and spearheads using hard stone to chip pieces from another stone Various groups of humans created different tools depending on environment

16 Tools Teach Us: What each group’s life was like
How ancient peoples hunted What they hunted (large or small prey)

17 Tools Teach Us: How they cooked their food If they stored their food

18 Lives changed drastically as they learned to make new tools

19 Eras Scientists divided time early humans lived into three eras (periods of time) Eras were based on the materials in tools Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age

20 Scientific Evidence for 6 Groups of Early Humans
According to Theory of Evolution each species of humans developed into the next group Some groups lived on Earth at the same time Scientists do not all agree on names / dates for each group Support differences by analyzing fossil remains Notice how each species used technology to help them survive in their environment

21 Early Humans Australopithecus Homo habilis (handyman)
Homo erectus (upright man) Homo sapiens (Neanderthal) Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon) Homo sapiens sapiens (modern human) STOP. REFLECT. COMPLETE FILL-IN-BLANK REVIEW

22 Teams Australopithecus – Team 5
Homo habilis (handyman) – Team 1 + Devlyn Homo erectus (upright man) – Team 4 Homo sapiens (Neanderthal) - Team 2 Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon) – Team 6 Homo sapiens sapiens (modern human) – Team 3

23 Try This Timeline Activity
Using criteria on Steps to Civilization Handout AW pages 47-49, construct a timeline in chart format Your chart may be produced with a computer or by hand on 11 X 17 paper Your goal is to show changes that took place from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens sapiens. List the changes on your time line Use the Mr. Donn site for information too! Together, let’s review criteria for an excellent timeline

24 Go Deeper with Technology

25 Early Hunters In ancient times, people could not be certain of getting dinner if they stayed in one place People ate wild plants when they were in season Wild animals were eaten when killed with tools of wood and stone. Early hunters followed migrating herds of animals, or travelled to places where they had found food in past years. Hunting was a way of life for early humans. Evidence found at may sites suggests that early humans (starting with Homo erectus) were skillful hunters

26 Pause & Discuss What are the advantages and disadvantages of the hunter-gatherer lifestyles?

27 North American Aboriginal people stampeded herds of bison off cliffs such as the one at Head-Smashed-in-Buffalo-Jump, Alberta.

28 Why do you think this hunting method encouraged people to live in communities?

29 Cro-Magnon Hunters Followed great herds of animals that once travelled across Europe Some lived in caves Others made tents out of skins of animals they caught Could pack up tents easily and bring them as they followed herds of animals Tools were much more efficient than those of earlier people

30 Cro-Magnon Hunters Invented blade tools and made tools from bone to help make clothing and shelters used wood, bone, and plant fibres to make tools Most of these materials rotted, leaving little or no evidence Only stone tools survived

31 Cro-Magnon Hunters Invention of barbed harpoon important to growth of population Hunting became more efficient as hunting tools improved

32 Put Yourself into the Time and Place of a Historical Event
Imagine you are one of a band of early humans who travel together in search of food Work in a group to develop a short skit about your discovery of fire. See criteria on assignment card on next slide

33 Assignment Card You eat roots, fruit, and berries whenver you find them. You eat raw meat because you do not kow about fire. You break animal bones open so you can eat the marrow. Then one day you see fire for the first time. How does the fire start? How does it change your life? What can you do now that you could not do before?

34 Farming: A Giant Step most of time humans fed themselves gathering wild plants / hunting wild animals by 5000 years ago, people had begun farming in almost every part of world

35 Farming marks time when people began to grow plants and raise animals for food
Humans began training animals to be of use to them

36 Switch to farming marks a gigantic change in how people related to the earth and their environment
Instead of simply finding and taking what nature provided, people started to help nature along As farmers, humans started to take control of the production of food

37 A Shift Shift from food gathering to food producing meant people could now be sure of getting enough to eat Dependable source of food allowed people to settle in one place As food became abundant, communities began to flourish Farming was a giant step towards the development of civilization

38 How Farming Got Started
We can only speculate. We weren’t there. Some Theories: Spilled-Grain Hypothesis Watching-the-Animals Hypothesis Moov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis

39 Spilled-Grain Hypothesis
Neolithic women, noticed new grain plants grew when they accidentally spilled grain seeds. They tried scattering seeds on purpose – it worked!

40 Watching-the-Animals Hypothesis
Animals often find plants in places with water / good soil - Hunters saw pattern People stayed at sites, animals became tamer People started weeding / irrigating so plants would grow better Started saving seeds of better plants to plant

41 Moov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis
One season, nomads liked a site so much they stuck around Stayed so long they harvested a crop and then saw it grow to harvest stage again Groups learned to grow a crop from seed to harvest and then move on

42 Remember A hypothesis is a theory or opinion that has not been proven – a kind of educated guess about what the evidence means

43 Activity: On your own, explain why you agree with one of the hypotheses described or propose one of your own. Write down two facts or reasons to justify your hypothesis Spilled-Grain Hypothesis Watching-the-Animals Hypothesis Moov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis

44 PAIR/SHARE ACTIVITY “Why Farming Began”
Using Ancient Worlds pages 56-57, meet with a partner to discuss how the historian argued a hypothesis in the article “Why Farming Began”. Use the questions in the article to guide your discussion. Take turns reading the questions, and responding.

45 Think for Yourself State your own hypothesis about how farming started. How is your hypothesis similar to and different from the one given in the article? Do you think the historian did a good job of supporting a hypothesis? Explain.

46 Cities: Another Giant Step
Looking at how cities developed is like seeing civilization develop development of farming brought people together in communities people stopped farming when farmlands produced more food than was needed some some people developed others skill; moved closer together forming villages sometimes these villages grew into towns, and then cities

47 Ancient Cities of the World
In ancient times, cities homes of royalty and officials who held power Officials controlled surrounding land; decided who could farm Some cities grew around temple or place of worship Communities flourished because people could make a living (e.g, shopkeepers, craftspeople, artists, teachers, priests, and officials)

48 Scientists Love to Discover Ruins of Ancient Cities

49 Scientists want to know more about how ancient people lived and met individual/common needs

50 Note the development (changes) of different early civilizations
Seeing Patterns Note the development (changes) of different early civilizations Nomadic groups travelling People formed settled, organized communities Communities grew into cities Met other groups through trade or warfare Cities developed unique characteristics; solve problems in different ways

51 Charting Change Using picture series on pages 62-63, Ancient Worlds:
Make a 2-column chart. List stages (or changes) you see in column one. In column two, speculate on how each change must have affected people’s lives

52 Pair/Share Your Chart With a partner, discuss how the events described in the chart did or did not contribute to a more civilized life for people

53 In Conclusion You have examined the big steps that led towards civilization. You have seen that tools played a crucial role at every step.

54 Archaeologists found evidence showing at least 6 different species of humans have walked the earth

55 Tools were important and teach us about daily life or early humans

56 Scientists divided time early humans lived into three eras (periods of time) based on tools - Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age

57 Hunting was a way of life for early humans.

58 Farming marks time when people began to grow plants and raise animals for food

59 Looking at how cities developed is like seeing civilization develop ; see a pattern to the changes

60 Remember to support your opinion
In Your Opinion Which was the most important step in getting civilization started: Invention of fire Tools for hunting The beginning of farming Technology for travel or The beginning of cities Remember to support your opinion


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