Presentation on theme: "STEPS TO CIVILIZATION Unit 3 Social Studies 7"— Presentation transcript:
1 STEPS TO CIVILIZATION Unit 3 Social Studies 7 Use your flip booklet to record notes!
2 How did the world you see come to be the way it is? Look Around You!How did the world you see come to be the way it is?
3 Why are you watching this PowerPoint instead of waiting outside a gopher’s hole, with a spiked club in your hands?
4 The reason we are…. Lies far in the past when early humans began creating tools to help them makeuseful and beautiful objects
5 People began farming instead of spending days searching for food
6 They left their caves for the comfort of houses built from reeds, peat, leather, wood and stone
7 They built walls around their settlements and began to live peacefully in settled communities
8 These early changes were the first steps towards civilization and the first steps towards the life we know
9 In this unit, you will examine: important changes in lives of early humanschanges that affected lives of all people who followed them, including you!
10 Early BeginningsArchaeologists found evidence showing at least 6 different species of humans having walked the earthThese include first modern humans, the early Homo sapiens sapiensEvidence of Early Humans mapped on pg.44 Ancient Worlds text
11 Label Your Flip Booklet CAPITALS PRINT NEATLY CENTER Top Title Page:Steps to Civilization, NameBottom Edges of Each Page:Tools Were ImportantTools Teach UsEras6 Groups of Early HumansEarly HuntersCro-Magnon HuntersFarming: A Giant StepHow Farming Got StartedCities: Another Giant StepBottom Edge – leave blankLabel Your Flip Booklet CAPITALS PRINT NEATLY CENTER
12 Try This Mapping Activity Pg.44 AW - find title, legend, scale of mapWhat information does each of these items give you?Describe where remains of of ancient humans were located in relation to major rivers. What pattern do you notice?
13 Think for Yourself p.45Imagine yourself shipwrecked on a deserted island. Your mission is to survive on your wits alone. Your first task is to find food and water. You gather shellfish from the beach and find a stream. What now?Group Activity
14 Development of Humans Earth like deserted island for early humans Offered materials of nature, nothing elsePeople survived finding ways to use materials to meet needs for food, shelter clothing
15 Tools Were ImportantMade axes, knives, scrapers and spearheads using hard stone to chip pieces from another stoneVarious groups of humans created different tools depending on environment
16 Tools Teach Us: What each group’s life was like How ancient peoples huntedWhat they hunted (large or small prey)
17 Tools Teach Us:How they cooked their foodIf they stored their food
18 Lives changed drastically as they learned to make new tools
19 ErasScientists divided time early humans lived into three eras (periods of time)Eras were based on the materials in toolsStone AgeBronze AgeIron Age
20 Scientific Evidence for 6 Groups of Early Humans According to Theory of Evolution each species of humans developed into the next groupSome groups lived on Earth at the same timeScientists do not all agree on names / dates for each groupSupport differences by analyzing fossil remainsNotice how each species used technology to help them survive in their environment
21 Early Humans Australopithecus Homo habilis (handyman) Homo erectus (upright man)Homo sapiens (Neanderthal)Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon)Homo sapiens sapiens (modern human)STOP. REFLECT. COMPLETE FILL-IN-BLANK REVIEW
22 Teams Australopithecus – Team 5 Homo habilis (handyman) – Team 1 + DevlynHomo erectus (upright man) – Team 4Homo sapiens (Neanderthal) - Team 2Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon) – Team 6Homo sapiens sapiens (modern human) – Team 3
23 Try This Timeline Activity Using criteria on Steps to Civilization Handout AW pages 47-49, construct a timeline in chart formatYour chart may be produced with a computer or by hand on 11 X 17 paperYour goal is to show changes that took place from Australopithecus to Homo sapiens sapiens. List the changes on your time lineUse the Mr. Donn site for information too!Together, let’s review criteria for an excellent timeline
25 Early HuntersIn ancient times, people could not be certain of getting dinner if they stayed in one placePeople ate wild plants when they were in seasonWild animals were eaten when killed with tools of wood and stone.Early hunters followed migrating herds of animals, or travelled to places where they had found food in past years.Hunting was a way of life for early humans. Evidence found at may sites suggests that early humans (starting with Homo erectus) were skillful hunters
26 Pause & DiscussWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of the hunter-gatherer lifestyles?
27 North American Aboriginal people stampeded herds of bison off cliffs such as the one at Head-Smashed-in-Buffalo-Jump, Alberta.
28 Why do you think this hunting method encouraged people to live in communities?
29 Cro-Magnon HuntersFollowed great herds of animals that once travelled across EuropeSome lived in cavesOthers made tents out of skins of animals they caughtCould pack up tents easily and bring them as they followed herds of animalsTools were much more efficient than those of earlier people
30 Cro-Magnon HuntersInvented blade tools and made tools from bone to help make clothing and sheltersused wood, bone, and plant fibres to make toolsMost of these materials rotted, leaving little or no evidenceOnly stone tools survived
31 Cro-Magnon HuntersInvention of barbed harpoon important to growth of populationHunting became more efficient as hunting tools improved
32 Put Yourself into the Time and Place of a Historical Event Imagine you are one of a band of early humans who travel together in search of foodWork in a group to develop a short skit about your discovery of fire.See criteria on assignment card on next slide
33 Assignment CardYou eat roots, fruit, and berries whenver you find them.You eat raw meat because you do not kow about fire.You break animal bones open so you can eat the marrow.Then one day you see fire for the first time.How does the fire start? How does it change your life? What can you do now that you could not do before?
34 Farming: A Giant Stepmost of time humans fed themselves gathering wild plants / hunting wild animalsby 5000 years ago, people had begun farming in almost every part of world
35 Farming marks time when people began to grow plants and raise animals for food Humans began training animals to be of use to them
36 Switch to farming marks a gigantic change in how people related to the earth and their environment Instead of simply finding and taking what nature provided, people started to help nature alongAs farmers, humans started to take control of the production of food
37 A ShiftShift from food gathering to food producing meant people could now be sure of getting enough to eatDependable source of food allowed people to settle in one placeAs food became abundant, communities began to flourishFarming was a giant step towards the development of civilization
38 How Farming Got Started We can only speculate. We weren’t there.Some Theories:Spilled-Grain HypothesisWatching-the-Animals HypothesisMoov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis
39 Spilled-Grain Hypothesis Neolithic women, noticed new grain plants grew when they accidentally spilled grain seeds. They tried scattering seeds on purpose – it worked!
40 Watching-the-Animals Hypothesis Animals often find plants in places with water / good soil - Hunters saw patternPeople stayed at sites, animals became tamerPeople started weeding / irrigating so plants would grow betterStarted saving seeds of better plants to plant
41 Moov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis One season, nomads liked a site so much they stuck aroundStayed so long they harvested a crop and then saw it grow to harvest stage againGroups learned to grow a crop from seed to harvest and then move on
42 RememberA hypothesis is a theory or opinion that has not been proven – a kind of educated guess about what the evidence means
43 Activity:On your own, explain why you agree with one of the hypotheses described or propose one of your own. Write down two facts or reasons to justify your hypothesisSpilled-Grain HypothesisWatching-the-Animals HypothesisMoov’en-and-Groov’en Hypothesis
44 PAIR/SHARE ACTIVITY “Why Farming Began” Using Ancient Worlds pages 56-57, meet with a partner to discuss how the historian argued a hypothesis in the article “Why Farming Began”. Use the questions in the article to guide your discussion. Take turns reading the questions, and responding.
45 Think for YourselfState your own hypothesis about how farming started.How is your hypothesis similar to and different from the one given in the article?Do you think the historian did a good job of supporting a hypothesis? Explain.
46 Cities: Another Giant Step Looking at how cities developed is like seeing civilization developdevelopment of farming brought people together in communitiespeople stopped farming when farmlands produced more food than was needed somesome people developed others skill; moved closer together forming villagessometimes these villages grew into towns, and then cities
47 Ancient Cities of the World In ancient times, cities homes of royalty and officials who held powerOfficials controlled surrounding land; decided who could farmSome cities grew around temple or place of worshipCommunities flourished because people could make a living (e.g, shopkeepers, craftspeople, artists, teachers, priests, and officials)
48 Scientists Love to Discover Ruins of Ancient Cities
49 Scientists want to know more about how ancient people lived and met individual/common needs
50 Note the development (changes) of different early civilizations Seeing PatternsNote the development (changes) of different early civilizationsNomadic groups travellingPeople formed settled, organized communitiesCommunities grew into citiesMet other groups through trade or warfareCities developed unique characteristics; solve problems in different ways
51 Charting Change Using picture series on pages 62-63, Ancient Worlds: Make a 2-column chart. List stages (or changes) you see in column one.In column two, speculate on how each change must have affected people’s lives
52 Pair/Share Your ChartWith a partner, discuss how the events described in the chart did or did not contribute to a more civilized life for people
53 In ConclusionYou have examined the big steps that led towards civilization.You have seen that tools played a crucial role at every step.
54 Archaeologists found evidence showing at least 6 different species of humans have walked the earth
55 Tools were important and teach us about daily life or early humans
56 Scientists divided time early humans lived into three eras (periods of time) based on tools - Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age
58 Farming marks time when people began to grow plants and raise animals for food
59 Looking at how cities developed is like seeing civilization develop ; see a pattern to the changes
60 Remember to support your opinion In Your OpinionWhich was the most important step in getting civilization started:Invention of fireTools for huntingThe beginning of farmingTechnology for travel orThe beginning of citiesRemember to support your opinion