Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Salesperson Mentoring on Multi-Faceted Job Satisfaction 2011 Global Sales Science Institute Conference – Milan, Italy Nathaniel Hartmann."— Presentation transcript:
The Effects of Salesperson Mentoring on Multi-Faceted Job Satisfaction 2011 Global Sales Science Institute Conference – Milan, Italy Nathaniel Hartmann (Purdue University) Brian Rutherford (Kennesaw State University) Scott B. Friend (University of Nebraska-Lincoln) G. Alexander Hamwi (Missouri State University)
Order of Presentation Research Motivation Importance of Mentorship & Satisfaction Gap Analysis Literature Review Theoretical Support Mentoring & Job Satisfaction Hypothesis Development Research Method Sample Results Discussion Implications Future Research
Importance of Mentorship Salesperson performance and turnover (Galvin 2001; Wilson et al. 2002) Job satisfaction (Brown and Peterson 1994; Netemeyer et al. 1990; Sager et al. 1988) Mentoring programs (Hegstad and Wentling 2004) Mentoring Job satisfaction within non-sales setting (Collins 1994; Ensher et al. 2001; Fagan and Walter 1982; Underhill 2006) Absenteeism and turnover (Viator 1991) Loyalty and organizational commitment (Colarelli and Bishop 1990; Mendleson et al. 1989) Financial and human resource costs
Gap Analysis Sales context Non-sales literatures suggests relationships (Allen et al. 1997; Chao et al. 1992; Ensher et al. 2001; Underhill 2006) Question generalizability - source (Hawes et al. 2004; Lewin and Sager 2007; Seevers et al. 2007) Global salesperson job satisfaction (Collins 1994; Ensher et al. 2001; Fagan and Walter 1982; Underhill 2006) Fail to capture true complexity of salesperson job satisfaction (Churchill et al. 1974) RQ1: Does mentoring have an impact on the seven facets of job satisfaction within the sales context? RQ2: Does the source of the mentoring relationship have an impact on the seven facets of job satisfaction?
Theoretical Framework Social Exchange Theory (SET) Relationships based on perceived benefits and costs (Emerson 1981) Theoretical framework for mentoring research (Brashear et al. 2006; Brown and Sorrell 1990; Ensher et al. 2001) Benefits received by protégé should lead to greater satisfaction with the relationship (Emerson 1981; Homans 1974) Protégés benefit from a mentoring relationship Receiving career-related support and access to role modeling (Scandura 1992; Scandura and Viator 1994) Emotional support, status, information, goods and services provided by the mentor ( Foa and Foa 1974) Social Learning Theory Learn through observing attitudes, behaviors and outcomes of such behaviors (Bandura 1978) Modeling attitudes and behaviors (Manz and Sims 1981) Associations between mentoring and sales outcome variables: Performance, organizational commitment, intention to leave (Brashear et al. 2006) Explain antecedents of job satisfaction (Mulki et al. 2006; Mulki et al. 2008; Ping 2007)
Mentoring Intense interpersonal relationship developed to enhance the protégé’s career growth (Kram 1985) Supervisors, peers, organizational members, and individuals from other organizations (Kram 1985) Provide protégés with support: Career-related support - career advancement support Mentor sponsorship, coaching, visibility, challenging assignments, protection Psychological support - emotional, mental and social support Role modeling (skill development), counseling, advice, acceptance and friendship Organizational mentors and external mentors Formal mentors - protégé and mentor within sponsoring organization [Organizational Mentoring] Informal mentors –relationship w/out intervention from organization (Chao et al. 1992) [External Mentoring]
Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction - employee retention (Ladik et al. 2002; McNeilly and Goldsmith 1991; Park and Holloway 2003) “All characteristics of the job itself and the work environment which industrial salesmen find rewarding, fulfilling and satisfying, or frustrating and unsatisfying” (Churchill et al. 1974) Multi-faceted salesperson satisfaction: work, pay, promotion, co-workers, company policies, supervisors and customers Table 1 Summary of Existing Salesperson Mentor-Satisfaction Research AuthorsYearResearch Topic Examined Pullins, Fine, and Warren1996Outcomes of gender composition of mentor-protégé in peer relationships Fine and Pullins1998Willingness and ability of salespersons to become peer mentors Pullins and Fine2002Impact of mentoring activities on mentoring job outcomes. Brashear, Bellenger, Boles, and Barksdale 2006 The association between mentoring and mentor types (external mentor, organizational mentor, and managerial mentor) and the outcomes variables performance, organizational commitment and intention to leave
Hypothesis Development Mentoring and job satisfaction - non-sales setting (e.g., Allen et al. 1997; Chao et al. 1992; Ensher et al. 2001) Global job & multi-faceted job satisfaction hypothesized in same direction (Boles et al. 2007; Futrell and Parasuraman 1984; Johnston et al. 1988) H1: Salespeople with mentors will exhibit higher levels of satisfaction with: (a) supervisors, (b) job, (c) company policy, (d) promotion, (e) pay, (f) fellow workers and (g) customers than salespeople without mentors Organizational mentors may provide salespeople clearer expectations of their role resulting in greater job satisfaction when compared to external mentors Role modeling function may result in greater job satisfaction through the influence of social learning effects on skill development (Lankau and Scandura 2002) H2: Salespeople with organizational mentors exhibit higher levels of satisfaction with: (a) supervisors, (b) job, (c) company policy, (d) promotion, (e) pay, (f) fellow workers and (g) customers than salespeople with external mentors
Online panel (n=647) n = 117 (mentor) n = 68 organizational mentors n = 49 external mentor CFA good model fit ( χ² = 378.31, df = 231, p = 0.00, RMSEA = 0.030, SRMR =.026, CFI=1.00) AVE >.50 for all seven facets of job satisfaction (Hair et al. 2010) Reliability - Supervisor (.94), Overall (.95), Policy (.94), Promotion (.77), Fellow Workers (.89), Customer (.88) Sample
Characteristics of the Sample DescriptiveWith Mentor Organizational MentorExternal MentorWithout Mentor N1176849530 Age48.4247.4649.7647.82 Gender (Female %)56.40%63.20%46.90%55.30% Marital Status Single22.40%19.10%27.10%22.50% Married53.40%55.90%50.00%60.00% Divorced14.70% 14.60%11.60% Other9.50%10.30%8.30%5.90% Education No College15.40%22.10%6.10%17.50% Some College33.30%29.40%38.80%32.50% College (undergraduate degree)29.10%32.30%24.50%32.60% College (advanced degree)22.20%16.20%30.60%17.40% Sales Experience (years)8.337.789.110.05 Company Experience (years)7.627.318.059.43
Results Hypothesis Dependent Variable Mentor / No Mentor Adjusted Mean Unadjusted Mean SDFp=Conclusion H1a Supervisors Mentor5.415.421.46 10.24 0.00 Supported No Mentor4.91 1.54 H1b Job Mentor5.59 1.55 20.36 0.00 Supported No Mentor4.92 1.46 H1c Company Policy Mentor5.105.091.56 15.56 0.00 Supported No Mentor4.46 1.60 H1d Promotion Mentor4.57 1.64 17.83 0.00 Supported No Mentor3.93 1.45 H1e Pay Mentor4.694.711.90 4.78 0.02 Supported No Mentor4.29 1.79 H1f Fellow Workers Mentor5.615.621.21 4.26 0.04 Supported No Mentor5.35 1.21 H1g Customers Mentor5.315.301.17 12.58 0.00 Supported No Mentor4.874.881.21
Demonstrate impact of mentoring on protégé job satisfaction in a sales context Mentoring sig. increase in satisfaction Supervisor, Overall Job, Policy, Promotion, Pay, Fellow Workers, Customer Organizational mentors play more important role than external mentors in increasing salesperson job satisfaction Organizational mentors sig. increase in satisfaction Supervisor, Overall Job, Policy, Pay, Fellow Workers
Managerial Implications Organizations should encourage the formation of mentor- protégé relationships within the organization to increase salesperson job satisfaction. Organizational cultures that promote assumptions, values, and artifacts that promote the development of mentoring relationships are more likely to lead to successful mentoring relationships which increase job satisfaction and performance (Hatch 1993; Schein 1985).
Limitations and Future Research Online panel data Sample size Need for additional mentoring research in sales context Confirms importance of mentoring on protégé job satisfaction in sales contexts using a multi-faceted measure Formal vs. informal mentoring within organizations Types of mentor Peer, step-ahead, traditional
Questions or Comments? The Effects of Salesperson Mentoring on Multi-Faceted Job Satisfaction 2011 Global Sales Science Institute Conference – Milan, Italy Nathaniel Hartmann (Purdue University) Brian Rutherford (Kennesaw State University) Scott B. Friend (University of Nebraska-Lincoln) G. Alexander Hamwi (Missouri State University)