Presentation on theme: "Immediate Past President The Substance Abuse Program Administrators Association Jeff Sims, C-SAPA, C-SI."— Presentation transcript:
Immediate Past President The Substance Abuse Program Administrators Association Jeff Sims, C-SAPA, C-SI
Most aggressive actions occurred since the late 1980’s: - The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 (directed U.S. Secretary of Labor to initiate efforts to address the issue) - President Reagan’s Executive Order 12564, Drug-Free Federal Workplace (made it a condition of employment to refrain from using illegal drugs) - Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (required federal contractors and grantees to have drug-free workplaces) - Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1998 (establish grant programs that assist small businesses in developing drug-free workplaces) - Omnibus Employee Testing Act of 1991 (required transportation industry employers to conduct alcohol and drug testing for employees in “safety sensitive” positions) It created a model for non-regulated employers now follow.
In 2006, estimated 20.4 million Americans were current illicit drug users, which is a rate of 8% among all Americans. No significant changes in recent years. About 57 million people, or more than one-fifth (23.0 %) of the population age 12 and over, participated in binge drinking (having five or more drinks one the same occasion at least once in the past 30 days).
In 2006, of the 17.9 million current illicit drug users age 18 and over, 13.4 million (74.9 percent) were employed. Similarly, among 54.0 million adult binge drinkers, 42.9 million (79.4 percent) were employed. Of the 20.6 million adults classified with substance dependence or abuse, 12.7 million (61.5 percent) were employed full-time. Data provided by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, (2007). Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H- 32, DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4293). Rockville, MD.
While about half of all U.S. workers work for a small and medium sized businesses (those with fewer than 500 employees), and nine in ten employed current illicit drug users. Almost nine in ten workers with alcohol abuse dependences work for small medium employers. However, smaller firms do not perform testing.
More likely to be involved in an accident and file a workers’ compensation claim More likely to quit or get fired More likely to steal from workplace More likely to miss work More likely to be in a confrontation Less productive
Substance abusers are: 3.6 times more likely to be involved in a workplace accident 5 times more likely to file a workers’ compensation claim As many as 50% of all workers’ compensation claims involve substance abuse
80% of those injured in “serious” drug-related accidents at work are not the drug abusing employees… but innocent co-workers and others.
Return On Investment How much does s/a cost per drug user? $7,000 (national average) How many drug users do you have? 17% of workforce (national average) Use their figure How many employees do you have?
Do the Math! 250 employees multiplied by % of drug users in their workplace (5%) multiplied by $7000 equals cost of s/a compare to cost of drug testing (300 tests at $45 per test average)
250 x 5% =13 13 x $7,000 =$91,000 300 ( drug tests/year ) x $45 ( cost per test ) =$13,500 $ 91,000 -13,500 =$ 77,500 SAVINGS!
A comprehensive drug-free workplace program includes: 1. Policy 2. Supervisor training 3. Employee education 4. Employee assistance 5. Drug testing (Alcohol testing)
Employees All employees Safety-sensitive employees All employees under certain circumstances Temps, contract workers, seasonal hires Union workers
Traditionally… pre-employment post-accident reasonable suspicion Random Return to duty Follow up
Marijuana Cocaine Opiates 10/1/2010 w/ separate confirm for heroin Amphetamines 10/1/2010 w/separate confirm for MDMA Phencyclidine (PCP) The primary drugs of abuse
Watch For These Signs Absenteeism “On the job” absenteeism Accidents Difficulty in concentration Confusion Spasmodic job performance Lowered efficiency Physical behaviors Relationship issues at work
Only observable and verifiable facts allowed - not rumors Record all actions and behaviors Include statements or pertinent facts State time, date, location List witnesses
Use documentation to outline job performance issues Avoid being manipulated by accepting excuses Be firm and honest Do not get personally involved Do not become an armchair diagnostician
After any confrontation, a referral system is needed Outpatient services Inpatient services Support groups Testing programs
Return to work contract Explain company’s disciplinary policy Set up specific work goals and criteria Evaluate job performance Follow-up drug and alcohol testing Family issues
Speed things up Slow things down Confuse signals Block signals Combination of the above The brains pleasure centers
Drug: Marijuana, Hashish, Hashish Oil Classification: Hallucinogen Administration: Smoked or swallowed Appearance: Dry crushed leaves (marijuana) Hand-rolled cigarettes (joints) Hard chunks of resin (hashish) Dark viscous liquid (hashish oil) Detection time in urine: _______?
In 2001, over 12 million Americans age 12 and older used marijuana at least once in the month prior to being surveyed. That is more than three quarters (76 percent) of the total number of Americans who used any illicit drug in the past month in 2001. Of the 76 percent, more than half (56 percent) consumed only marijuana; 20 percent used marijuana and another illicit drug; and the remaining 24 percent used an illicit drug or drugs other than marijuana(1). Although marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, among students in the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades nationwide its use remained stable from 1999 through 2001(2). Among 8th graders, however, past year use has decreased, from 18.3 percent in 1996 to 15.4 percent in 2001. Also in 2001, more than half (57.4 percent) of 12th graders believed it was harmful to smoke marijuana regularly and 79.3 percent disapproved of regular marijuana use. Since 1975, 83 percent to 90 percent of every 12th grade class surveyed has found it "fairly easy" or "very easy" to obtain marijuana(3). Data for drug-related hospital emergency department visits in the continental United States recently showed a 15 percent increase in the number of visits to an emergency room that were induced by or related to the use of marijuana from 96,426 in 2000 to 110,512 in 2001. The 12 to 34 age range was involved most frequently in these mentions. For emergency room patients in the 12 to 17 age range, the rate of marijuana mentions increased 23 percent between 1999 and 2001 (from 55 to 68 per 100,000 population) and 126 percent (from 30 to 68 per 100,000 population) since 1994(4).
Sponsored by a’ TEST consultants, inc., and funded by the U.S. Small Business Administration – Paul D. Coverdell Drug-Free Workplace Program –Short term memory loss –Depth perception issues –Dreamy, relaxed feeling –Increased senses of sight, smell, taste, and hearing – leads up to excessive smoking and “munchies” –Hallucinations –Anxiety –Impaired muscle coordination MARIJUANA EFFECTS
Drug: Cocaine Classification: Stimulant, local anesthetic Administration: Snorted, injected, smoked Appearance: White crystalline powder, bitter numbing taste, odorless, from coca plant leaves Clinical Effects: Euphoria, motor and verbal hyperactivity, mood swings, inflated self-esteem Detection Time in Urine: 2-4 days
Cold sweats Coma, convulsions Dilated pupils Nose bleeds Depressed or sad Talkativeness Self-confidence
Length of a rush
Drugs: Morphine, Heroin, Codeine, Oxycodone Hydromorphone Classification: Narcotic analgesic Administration: Swallowed, smoked or injected Appearance: White, brown, or black powder, injectable liquids, tablets, capsules (various sizes and colors) Detection Time in Urine: 3 days
MRO’s may request quantitative values of codeine/morphine 2000 ng/ml or less suggest poppy seeds or RX 2500 ng/ml or above with codeine present rules out poppy seeds, may be a RX, or illegal use of morphine or heroin
Drug: Phencyclidine Classification: Hallucinogen, anesthetic Administration: Smoked, swallowed, or injected Appearance: Pills, capsules, powders Detection Time in Urine: 2 days or 8 days in severe overdose
Psychedelic reaction Hallucinations Combative behavior Symptoms of insanity Catatonic state Reduced work motivation
Euphoria then restlessness Agitation Irritability Extreme paranoia Weight loss Malnutrition Tooth decay
Drug: Ethanol Classification: Psychoactive Administration: Wine, beer, liquor Appearance: Liquid, several colors Detection in Urine: Generally 1 ounce of alcohol is eliminated per hour Note: Urine alcohol testing cannot withstand a court challenge