2 Introduction Purpose of the Course Why study supervision? Continue your ongoing career developmentElevate the level of productivity improvement awareness among construction supervisorsWhy study supervision?Prepare to become a supervisorLearn to walk the new line between craft worker and supervisorLearn about more opportunities in your industry
3 Introduction to STP Supervisory Training Program Courses Unit 1: Leadership and MotivationUnit 2: CommunicationUnit 3: Planning and SchedulingUnit 4: Contract DocumentsUnit 5: Improving Productivity and Managing Project CostsUnit 6: Risk Management and Problem Solving
4 How This Course is Organized Session BreakdownDollars and Sense of People and ConstructionThe Role of the Construction SupervisorHelping People Perform BetterMotivationLeading OthersYou Get What You ExpectPositive FeedbackTraining and Orienting Crew MembersTeams and Team BuildingLeadership Skills in Action
5 Purpose of the Course Add to your ongoing career development Increase your awareness of different leadership stylesIncrease your awareness of the motivational factors you can control and the motivational factors workers can control
6 Dollars and Sense of People and Construction Learning Goals for Session 1Value of effective supervision of workersLearning ObjectivesExplain the importance of people to the success of the organization.Identify factors associated with poor supervision practices.List causes of high personnel turnover.Identify costs associated with training new workers.List causes of communication breakdowns and their costs to a project.Describe how low trust, poor teamwork, and lack of cooperation cost money.
7 Costs Associated With Turnover High rate of accidentsSlow rate of learning new tasks, jobs, and skillsLow trust and communication breakdownPoor teamwork and cooperation
8 Causes of Turnover Reasons for turnover might include Poor initial job match with the individualFalse role expectationsNot fitting in with the crew or work cultureThe job conflicts with outside interestsInformation overloadPoor training, slow skill developmentNot enough information or untimely feedback
9 Low Trust and Communication Breakdown This tends to prevent or inhibit accurate and timely exchange of information.
10 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentHow might you do some things differently to help improve profits?Select one specific concept from this session that you believe you can improve this week.
12 Role of the Construction Supervisor Learning GoalsRole of the construction supervisor as a leader, communicator and motivatorLearning ObjectivesExplain the factors of supervisory leadership that motivate workers.Describe communication mechanisms that motivate workers.Describe how to assign work and delegate duties in order to improve crew performance.Define processes for leading others to perform quality work.Explain how company cultural values that improve on-site performance.
13 Supervisory Leadership Model Effective leadershipMotivationEffective communicationPlanningOrganizingDecision makingKnowledge of constructionProblem solving
14 Work Assigner and Delegator Does some of the things a supervisor normally does.Involves others in new and more challenging projects that are not part of regular work assignments.
15 Factors Contributing to Substandard Work People work below standard for several reasons:Not enough informationPoor trainingNeed for retrainingFalse expectations about the jobWork environment is inhibiting performancePressure from outside the jobPoor attitudePoor work habits
16 Company Culture Examples of company cultures include: People as the source of our strengthProducts as the end result of our efforts (“We are about cars.”)Profits as a necessary mean and measure of our successBasic honesty and integrityAll people are importantPeople working together achieve more
17 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentWrite down the work role you are having the most trouble with.
19 Helping People Perform Better Learning GoalsRole of the construction supervisor as a motivatorLearning ObjectivesDefine the four basic assumptions that form the basis for a worker’s performance.List and use various supervisory leadership tools that will improve worker performance.Describe how to set specific and measurable goals for your work crew.Identify the positive and negative aspects of using competition as a motivational tool.
20 Workers’ Performance Assumptions about people People are motivated. Most people want to be the best they can be.Most people like to receive positive feedback.People want to be respected and feel empowered.
21 The Performance Equation Performance = Motivation x Ability x ExpectationsA supervisor can:Communicate respect for the individualSet goalsProvide feedbackEncourage competitionDeliver timely training and informationEstablish self-responsibility and controlSet positive expectations
22 Encouraging Competition Between crew members and crewsWith outside competitorsTo improve self-development
23 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentSet one job goal you will accomplish in the upcoming week.Evaluate how well you accomplished your goal.
25 Motivation Learning Goals Learning Objectives Motivational strategies that will improve the performance of your crewsLearning ObjectivesIdentify three general motivation strategies.List specific items that motivate most workers.Identify various personality types.Describe various strategies that capitalize on personality traits.
26 General Motivational Strategies ForceUse coercive power.Not the best way to motivate people.EnticementHave some reward power.Internal MotivationComes from within a person.The same concepts will not internally motivate everyone.An effective supervisor can determine what internally motivates each crew member.
27 Recognizing Personality Types The Take-Charge typeReadily accepts challenges, is creative, accepts authority, solves problems, etc.The Cooperative typeCooperates with everyone and focuses on getting the job doneThe Happy-Go-Lucky typeEnthusiastic, friendly, perpetually optimisticThe Steady-Eddie typeShows up every day, does the job, performs at a high level
28 Internal Motivational Techniques Capitalize on strengthsAddress weaknessesDon’t overextend strengthsJob enlargement and enrichment
29 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentIdentify one person with whom you have had some motivational problems on the job. Analyze that person using the information from this session.
31 Leading Others Learning Goals Learning Objectives Different leadership styles can be applied to various situations.Learning ObjectivesDescribe consistent supervisory skills.Identify core values.Explain the need for long- and short-term goals.Describe best practices for corrective discipline.Explain requirements for implementing company policies.Identify effective leadership styles for different situations.
32 Providing Consistency Core valuesBonding agents that hold the culture togetherLong-term goalsHelp to provide consistencyCorrective disciplineConsistent, fair, and progressive disciplineCompany policiesGuidelines that allow the company to operate
33 Leadership Styles Tell Sell Supervisor makes the decision and then tells the crew members what they should do.Useful for situations in which the follower has high motivation and willingness but is weak in ability.SellSupervisor decides on a course of action and then communicates the benefits of the approach to the followers.Works well if you have a motivated employee with ability who needs some confidence or convincing.
34 Leadership Styles (continued) ConsultSupervisor gets input from his or her crew members before he or she (the supervisor) makes a decision about what option or action to implement.Used when a crewmember has moderate ability to do the job and is moderately or highly motivated.JoinSupervisor makes the decision with the crew.Used when the individual or group has high ability and knowledge about the job at hand.
35 Leadership Styles (continued) DelegateCrew member is given broad discretion and freedom to go ahead and get the job done.Works well when you have highly motivated crew members who have a great deal of experience and ability to get a job or project completed.
36 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentEmploy a different leadership style for each day of the upcoming week.
38 You Get What You Expect Learning Goals Learning Objectives Develop awareness about how your actions create reactions in others and develop positive expectations.Learning ObjectivesIdentify desired supervisory characteristics and behaviors.Identify how workers respond to supervisors’ behaviors.Describe how to show respect for your crew and have positive assumptions about them.Identify how to develop activities that will help workers set positive expectations.
39 How Workers Respond to Your Behavior Did your worst leader’s behavior affect your behavior at work?Did your best leader’s behavior affect your behavior at work?
40 Setting Expectations The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 1. Supervisor does not respect people and has negative assumptions about peopleThis leads to...2. Leading and supervising people in a negative styleWhich leads to...3. People responding to the supervisor’s leadership in a negative way4. Lower performance, which reinforces the supervisor’s negative assumptions about people
41 Theories X and Y Theory X Inherent dislike for work Must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatenedTypical person prefers to be directed, avoids responsibility, has little ambition, and wants security above all
42 Theories X and Y (continued) Theory YPhysical and mental effort in work is naturalWill exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectivesCommitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with achievementTypical person learns -- under proper conditions -- not to accept but to seek responsibilityHigh degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problemsIntellectual potential of the average person far exceeds use
43 Putting the Theories to Work To create a positive work climate for your crew:Set clear goals and expectations that are realistic, but reasonably high.Provide the training and information people will need to reach these expectations.Give positive feedback to reinforce the progress people are making.Give constructive criticism to help people improve.Provide a positive non-verbal climate that reinforces your belief in your crew’s capabilities and their ability to reach the expectations you have set.
44 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentIdentify something you are doing that might be interfering with your working relationships.
46 Positive Feedback Learning Goals Learning Objectives Apply various positive feedback principles to various jobsite situations.Learning ObjectivesExplain the importance of feedback and its effect on workers.Define the principles of communicating positive feedback.Describe positive feedback that will encourage workers to improve performance.Apply positive feedback principles to actual jobsite situations.
47 Positive Feedback Our own experiences We are conditioned to look for problems and correct them.We should also be able to spot people who are doing good work.Positive feedback reinforces good work practices.
48 Benefits of Giving Positive Feedback Crew members begin to understand the specific things that make up good performance.People will tend to repeat the things they are rewarded for.Good feedback helps create a positive culture and open up positive communication.
49 Applying Positive Feedback Principles These seven principles should be followed when giving positive feedbackGive positive feedback for improvement and good work.Be sure to give it often.Communicate positive feedback quickly.Some positive feedback should be specific.Don’t overstate or understate positive reinforcement communication.Keep your positive feedback natural.Try to personalize some of your positive feedback.
50 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentWrite down one instance of positive feedback on your job and one instance of negative feedback.
52 Training and Orienting Crew Members Learning GoalsDiscuss how techniques and ideas form the foundations for effective training and orienting.Learning ObjectivesIdentify content for orientation activities for new workers.Describe the process associated with on-the-job trainingWrite training outlines to guide trainers who help workers learn new tasks.Explain why proven training techniques must be applied during training sessions.Describe how to evaluate training activities others conduct.
53 Orientation for New Workers Improve the new worker’s attitude toward the job.Improve quality.Reduce waste, re-work and mistakes.Help reduce turnover.Reduce accidents.
54 Assessing the Training Needs Is there a need for training?What is the readiness level of the trainee?Is the training timely?Is there a balance between cost-efficiency and training effectiveness?
55 Plan How to Best Deliver the Training Create a basic outlineOrganize the training session.Think through the training session.Planning improves learning.Planning saves time in the long run.Create a step-by-step training outlineList the steps of training.List the key points of the training.
56 Effectively Deliver the Training Describe the job in a logical and orderly fashion.Demonstrate the job.Have the trainee try out the job and have him explain what he is doing.Let the trainee try out the job on her own.Check back frequently to see how he is doing.
57 Using a Training Checklist These 14 steps in the training checklist can help you evaluate your training effectivenessWere the safety, quality and quantity expectations about the job made clear to the trainee?Was the purpose and importance of the job explained?Was the trainee put at ease?Was the trainee reassured?Did the supervisor use the first name of the trainee?Did the supervisor explain any unusual terms?Was the training session logical and step by step?
58 Using a Training Checklist (continued) Were key points covered and emphasized?Was the trainee asked to explain the process as he or she was trying it out?Was the trainee given any positive reinforcement or praise?Did the supervisor correct errors in a constructive and patient manner?Was the trainee encouraged to ask questions?Did the supervisor use any questions or feedback techniques to check how much the trainee understands the task or job?Did the trainer motivate the person to want to learn the job or task?
59 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentIf your company has a training/orientation program in place, compare the ideas presented in this course to your training/orientation program
61 Teams and Team Building Learning GoalsDiscuss different types of teams and which team type is the best fit for various situations.Learning ObjectivesDefine characteristics of good teams and bad teams.Identify the different types of teams and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each.Describe the different stages of team development.Explain the supervisory skills needed in each of the four stages of team development to enable the team to develop and function.
62 Why Teamwork Is Important Develops trustPoor relationships are the number one cause of turnoverHelps with cross-trainingTeams can take on some of the supervisor’s workFrees up the supervisor to do more planning, coaching, etc.
63 Team Types Natural Work Team Integrated into the work situation; is an ongoing team situation.High level of information exchange and problem solving occurs within the normal flow of the work situation.The supervisor uses a range of leadership styles to develop the team.The supervisor facilitates communication among team members.
64 Team Types (continued) Natural Work Team (continued)Supervisor facilitates communication, seeks ideas, asks key questions, helps the crew analyze the situation, summarizes needed actions and delegates needed actions.Advantages of the natural work teamDisadvantages of the natural work team
65 Team Types (continued) Self-Directed TeamCrew members take on even more responsibility.Team members do some of the things a crew supervisor would normally do.Team members work together to achieve even more.Crew members know when to take actions that resolve problems and capitalize on opportunities
66 Team Types (continued) Self-Directed Team (continued)Team has more knowledge of the management functions.Supervisor’s role is to coach and advise as needed.Advantages of the Self-Directed TeamDisadvantages of the Self-Directed Team
67 Team Types (continued) Task TeamCross-functional team that meets to solve specific problems.Formed to work on a specific project.Once that project has been resolved, the Task Team is disbanded.Advantages of task teamsDisadvantages of task teams
68 Team Types (continued) Quality CircleGroup of 3 to12 people from a department who meet a few hours per week to identify and analyze work-related problems, then develop possible solutionsAdvantages of the quality circleDisadvantages of the quality circle
69 Phases of Team Development Phase One – Start-upTeam members are positive.Team members are willing to get along.Phase Two – Conflict and UncertaintyTeam improves ability to work together.However, the morale of the team begins to decline.Crew members begin to question value of teamwork.Cliques may form.
70 Phases of Team Development (continued) Phase Three – ProductiveThe team has resolved major differences.The team has a more realistic understanding of its function.Phase Four – High PerformingTeam is truly self-directedAble to work through barriers and problemsHas a clear understanding of its purposeWilling to take on new challenges
71 Using on the Job What You Learned Today Jobsite AssignmentIdentify what type of team you are part of, describe the team and why you believe it is the type you have identified.Identify the stage of development your team is in.
73 Leadership Skills in Action Learning GoalsRecognize the value of effective supervision to both the contractor and to workers.Learning ObjectivesIdentify company practices that could hinder productivity.Analyze work situations and recommend supervisory practices that improve productivity.
74 Review of Sessions Each group will review two sessions. You will have 10 minutes to prepare your presentations.You will have four minutes to present each session review:1 minute to reinforce key points2 minutes to tell how you plan to apply — on-the-job — the ideas and skills from this session1 minute for other participants to tell how they plan to apply — on-the-job — these ideas and skills.
75 Closing Activities Registration and Evaluation Action Plan Register course completion for the STP and databaseProvide feedbackAction PlanHow you will apply what you have learned?Award Certificates
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