Presentation on theme: "Supervising the Music Therapy Intern"— Presentation transcript:
1Supervising the Music Therapy Intern AMTAAssociation Internship Approval Committee
2Overview of the CMTECMTE requirements – must attend entire session and complete post-test to receive certificateOutline of CMTEWhat is Supervision? Ethics of SupervisionSupervision TechniquesStages of InternshipAdditional things to consider
3AIAC Representatives Great Lakes – Kay Luedtke-Smith Mid-Atlantic – Teri McManusNew England – Eve MontagueSoutheastern – Lauren DiMaioSouthwestern – Christine NeugebauerMidwestern – Gina HackerWestern – Andrea ScheveNational Office – Jane CreaganChair – Mary Jane Landaker
4SituationsPlease write down specific questions or situations that you have experienced or feel that you may experiencePass notes to AIAC representatives during breaks or during the CMTEWe may or may not address all of your situations, but we will try to talk about each of the situations that you present to us…Before switching to the next slide, ask group members to share why they are taking course/planning on being an ID.Highlight possible reasons:commitment to the future of MT as a professionnoble cause/satisfyingrecognition from othersno paymore workfree CMTE credits for attending CMTE and for training future MTs
5-The AMTA National Roster Internship Guidelines What is Supervision?“Supervision includes, but is not limited to, formal and informal observation and interaction in the areas of: direct patient contact, evaluation and documentation, treatment planning, supervision, participation in interdisciplinary didactic sessions, team involvement, participation in training sessions, and staff relationships.”-The AMTA National Roster Internship GuidelinesThe intent of the guidelines is to assure that….Ask group:Why is supervision necessary?
6Supervision:A distinct professional activity in which education and training aimed at developing science-informed [evidence-based] practice are facilitated through a collaborative interpersonal process.Falender & Shafranske (2004)Ask group:What do you look for in a supervisor?
7Elements of Supervision Acquisition of knowledge & skills by:InstructionModelingMutual problem-solving“Tell me and I forget; show me and I remember; involve me and I understand.” Unknown
8Supervisory Relationships Forinash (2001) states that the focus of the supervision relationship is “to address the complexities involved in helping supervisees in their ongoing (and never-ending) development as competent and compassionate professionals.”Mollon (in Malchiodi & Riley 1996) observes that “the aim of supervision is to facilitate the trainee’s capacity to think about the process of therapy.”
9Supervision helps interns to: Understand their clientsDevelop a capacity for self-awareness and reflectionsUnderstand theory and practical application of therapy to diverse settings
10Supervision ideas….. A dynamic process Unique for each individual Both members have to decide the direction of the experiencePersonal growth is a common by-productSupervisor MUST convey a positive attitude about the professionDemonstrate awareness of the diversity of settings and philosophies in MTUnderstanding the “power” of being a supervisor - perfection or executioner
11Supervision can be used to discuss… Feelings and reactions to clients in & out of the MT settingSelf-reflection as an aspect of supervision from the beginning of the processImportance of understanding issues of culture, gender, violence and abuse, and family roles in supervisionUniqueness of music therapy role itselfMaintaining the boundary between supervision and therapy – not psychotherapy opportunity
12*Group supervision vs. Individual supervision Types of SupervisionConsultant/MentorClinician/Administrator/ManagerInstructor/Educator/TeacherPeer/SupporterConsultant/Evaluator*Group supervision vs. Individual supervision
13Same Track Parallel Track Rotation Multi-Supervisor Models of SupervisionSame TrackParallel TrackRotationMulti-SupervisorGive examples of each –your program and style should help you determine how you will structure your program. May need to consider facility requirements. Please note that as your program evolves you may change the structure!
15Two primary categories addressing students and supervision: AMTA Code of EthicsTwo primary categories addressing students and supervision:3.0 Relationships with Clients/Students/Research Subjects11.0 Education (Teaching, Supervision, Administration)Emphasize that supervision & clinical training is significantly covered in the AMTA Code of Ethics…encourage participants to read this over routinely.
16Ethical Considerations We recommend that supervisors read the section entitled “Ethical Issues in Supervision” by Cheryl Dileo in Music Therapy Supervision edited by Michele Forinash.Another good resource for MTs to supplement this section
17Overview of Ethical Considerations Supervisory Relationship & Process(informed consent, transference)Multiple Roles as Supervisor(teacher, administrator, evaluator, etc)ConfidentialityCompetence/Skills of Supervisor(AMTA Advanced Competencies)These are some topics that will be covered during the CMTE training
18Supervisory Relationship & Process Establish expectations at the beginning…review informed consentRecognize that transference/counter-transference is common and can be positive or negativeMaintain objectivity and avoid value/judgment statements: Be fair1 Openly discuss the supervision process with interns (handout on preparing intern for supervision)2 Working through these common reactions of transference can increase the effectiveness of supervision as well as contribute to the professional and personal development of the supervisee.3 Especially important when you are supervising more than one intern simultaneously
19Supervisors are legally responsible for their supervisees Supervisors are legally responsible for their supervisees. They have responsibility to meet the training needs of the student/intern but primary accountability is to the clientsRubin, in Malchiodi & Riley, 1996Remember that we also have accountability to our clients that they will receive quality care
20Supervisor Roles & Boundaries Educator/teacherAdministrator/ManagerSupporterEvaluatorSometimes these roles can overlap or become blurred when dual relationships surface and professional boundaries are crossed
21Supervisor, not to be confused with… FriendTherapistCo-worker (interns are not “free labor”)Colleague (that comes after the internship is completed)As supervisors, we need to continuously keep ourselves in check in keeping our relationship a professional one.
22The Slippery Slope of Dual Relationships Be aware that as a supervisor, you are in a “power” position…Importance of understanding issues of culture, gender, violence and abuse, and family roles in supervisionMaintaining the boundary between supervision and therapy - not psychotherapy opportunitySometimes dual relationships happen gradually or the supervisor is in denial or rationalizes the dual relationship (e.g. example of having the intern babysit your children)
23Supervision is not a time for the supervisor to “dump” on the intern about his/her own stressors
24Discussing Personal Issues in Supervision Feiner (in Forinash, 2001) - Personal issues should be addressed only when:Issues interfere with the intern’s understanding or treatment of clientsIssues interfere with the intern’s relationship with the supervisor, interfering with the learning processIssues interfere with the intern’s relationship with staff on-siteJust as we need to be careful about self-disclosure with our clients, we need to keep it in check with our interns as wellThere needs to be a balance. On the one hand, we want our interns to be open and honest in sharing their thoughts/feelings/reactions to their clients. However, we need to be cognizant as to when this information borders on a deeply personal level.- It’s okay to have interns seek outside therapy when necessary – talk to intern and Academic faculty if this requirement needs to be added to the internship agreement
25Is supervision confidential? ConfidentialityIs supervision confidential?Encourage group discussion in response to this question.
26From AMTA Code of Ethics: The MT protects the confidentiality of information obtained in the course of practice, supervision, teaching, and/or research.Supervision is confidential to an extent…remember to discuss confidentiality with your interns at the first supervision session
27Supervisor Competence AMTA Advanced Competencies (2007) has 18 items under Clinical Supervision including…2.14 Evaluate the effects of one’s own personality and supervisory style on the supervisee and the supervisory process.2.16 Demonstrate understanding of the ethical issues, problems, and procedures involved in the supervision of students and professionals.2.17 Recognize limitations as a supervisor and seek consultation when appropriate. Since 2007, AMTA has now adopted competencies specific to music therapy supervision.These are some that are related to the topic of ethics.Everyone in this room, including those of us presenting, need to continuously improve our competence as supervisors. This CMTE course is only the beginning and is really the tip of the iceberg.
28Do…Keep documentation of supervision sessions & activities (be specific)Choose competent interns that are appropriate for your client populationRead & co-sign all clinical documentationBe available for your internRead books and articles on supervisionAttend supervision workshops/sessions at conferences (MT and related disciplines)Consult with other supervising music therapistsWays to keep ethical in your supervisory role…
29Self-Care for the Supervisor Balance & pacingBe aware of the preliminary signs of burnoutGive self permission to take a break from supervising (it’s not a marathon)Network with other MT supervisors(JOIN THE LISTSERV!!!)Cannot emphasize this point enough.We need to know when it’s time to take a break from supervising…if you are an internship director and have other supervising MTs on site, you have an ethical responsibility to look for the warning signs of your supervisors.
30National Roster Internship Listserv Please send an to the address below to join:
3215 minutes Do not be late Thank you Break15 minutesDo not be lateThank you
33Establishing and Maintaining the Supervision Dialogue Key concepts to minimize the need for confrontation as a means of communicationThe skills that support open and productive communication are easily recognizable as common sense. The basic counseling training music therapists receive in academic programs, together with the experience of being mentored, usually serves the intern supervisor well. However, as previously discussed in this training, the supervisor-intern relationship is not a therapy relationship, you are not their professor, and your intern is not yet an employee. The authors of the communication book, Crucial Conversations, provide some useful guideposts that can help the supervisor establish and maintain healthy dialogue with supervisees who will soon to become your colleagues.
34The Foundation for Dialogue Know what you wantKnow what you want for your internKnow what you want for the relationshipMake it safe to dialogueMake sure your behavior matches what you wantKnow what you wantOverall, what do you want out of the experience of having an intern as part of your professional music therapy practice? In a given situation or issue, what do you really want to have happen as a result of discussing the situation or issue with your intern?Know what you want for your internWhat do you want your intern to take away from the internship experience at your site? In a given discussion, what do you want your intern to learn, feel, or think at the end of your discussion?Know what you want for the relationshipEvery conversation you have with your intern, from the interview forward, characterizes the quality and course of development for your relationship. Where do you want this journey to go, regardless of the particular personality or talents of a given individual?Make it safe to dialogueIt is not uncommon for a supervisor to find out at the exit interview that an event or issue that occurred during a 6-month internship experience was troubling or frustrating for the intern. It may come out as highly dissatisfied ratings on some portion of the site evaluation. How come the intern never came forward before the end? Was there something in your supervision style that inhibited the intern from coming forward?Make sure your behavior matches what you wantUnder the normal stresses and strains of any music therapy work environment, a supervisor’s response/reaction to intern behavior can be counterproductive to what you really want for yourself, the intern, and the relationship. If a conversation or supervision session has gone badly, did a secondary motive derail your words, actions, or best intentions? Why did you loose your cool?
35Holding in mind what you want for yourself, the intern and relationship helps diminish secondary motives that are dialogue killers:Trying to save faceWithdrawing to avoid embarrassment or confrontationSimply trying to winNeeding to be rightWanting to punishHolding in mind what you want for yourself, the intern, and the relationship helps diminish secondary motives that are dialogue killers. You may be able to recall or imagine instances where a supervisor might act or speak with these motives that pop up in the heat of the moment:Trying to save faceWithdrawing to avoid embarrassment or confrontationSimply trying to winNeeding to be rightWanting to punishAny of these secondary motives can produce words (sarcasm, exaggeration, threats, name-calling) or behaviors (including body language) that can shut down the open line of communication between intern and supervisor. These are also defense behaviors that the supervisor may observe in the intern. They are signs that the environment has become hostile to honest dialogue.
36Make it safe to dialogue Establish mutual purposeMaintain mutual respectUse contrasting statementsAcknowledge contributions to a common pool of meaningSo knowing what you want to avoid saying and doing, how do you make it safe for you and your intern to say what really needs to be said?Establish mutual purposeThis is where the competencies and internship agreements can really serve to provide solid common ground. This is not judging the person. All music therapists are expected to meet these competency requirements.Maintain mutual respectNo matter how different an intern appears to be from you (either as you are now, or as you believe you were when you were an intern) there remains a kinship to be found in the shared decision to become music therapists. Authentic sympathy and empathy can emerge from focusing on the kinship instead of dwelling on the differences.Use contrasting statementsReturning to your reflections on what you want, try using contrasting statements to open up the dialogue. Example: “I don’t want you to think I objected to your choice of rap music for today’s TME in group, and I want to support you in meeting your competency requirement in keyboard accompaniment. Let’s see if we can brainstorm on ways to make this type of intervention even more effective.”Acknowledge contributions to a common pool of meaningOnce a dialogue has been established, be sure to acknowledge and consider what an intern comes up with as suggestions, observations, and feedback on you in your efforts to supervise.
37Your path to action should reflect what you really want Pursuing a secondary motive may lead you down a false action path and close down dialogueThis can damage the relationship and you still don’t have what you really want – for yourself or the internThe next exchange on a given issue may end up as a full-blown confrontation.Your path to action should reflect what you really want.Pursuing a secondary motive may lead you down a false action path (including your choice of words and body language) and close down dialogue.This can damage the relationship and you still don’t have what you really want - for yourself or the internThe next exchange on a given issue may end up as a full-blown confrontation.
38The common pool of meaning The common pool of meaning should be a resource that you and your intern can contribute to and draw from throughout the internship experience. Forcing ideas into the pool violates safety and makes dialogue into an argument.The internship agreement and the objectives stated in the 3-month and 6-month evaluation forms provide concrete common purpose. The intern probably stated what he/she really wanted out of the internship experience sometime during the application or interview process. Contributions to this resource should be made in an atmosphere of mutual purpose, mutual respect, and trust.
39Resources Crucial Conversations Crucial Confrontations Influencer All by Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, McMillan and SwitzlerAlso:The ideas for this discussion have been drawn from the book, Crucial Conversations. The authors, Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, McMillan and Switzler, have authored two companion books that are also very useful: Crucial Confrontations and Influencer. Additional resources can be found at their website:
40Racial & Cultural Identity Development Part of Multicultural ConsiderationsD. W. Sue and Stanley Sue suggest that competency in multicultural counseling can be informed by an appreciation of racial and cultural identity development.
41Definitions Cross-Cultural – different cultural identities Multi-Cultural – pluralistic cultural perspectiveEnculturation – learning what it takes to fit in with one’s groupAcculturation – culture learning that takes place as a result of contact between two or more culturally distinct groupsOften the terms used in these discussions are used interchangeably. For clarity, we can work with the following definitions:Cross-Cultural - The relationship that exists between groups or individuals with distinctly different cultural identities.Multicultural - A pluralistic cultural perspective; arguably, the perspective Americans hold in the United States.Enculturation - One becomes enculturated by learning what it takes to fit in with one’s group.Acculturation - The culture learning that takes place as a result of contact between two or more culturally distinct groups. Generally, this learning is primarily undertaken by the minority group in order to gain acceptance by the dominant culture, and to enjoy the benefits enjoyed by those individuals fully identified with the dominant culture.
42Acculturation Curve Where are you? Where is your intern? Is mixed race or mixed ethnicity a factor?Make no assumptionsInquire, explore, and be curiousIn the United States, everyone can find a position on an acculturation continuum, or curved line. On one extreme are individuals who relate exclusively to a racial, ethnic, or cultural subgroup separate from the dominant and other minority cultures. On the other extreme are those individuals who view themselves wholly as members of the dominant culture. They may have a foreign country or culture of origin and value their own unique backgrounds, along with those of the dominant and minority cultures. As we consider multicultural issues in our presentation today, it could be useful to ask yourself:Where are you on the acculturation curve?Where is your intern?Where are your clients:Is mixed race or mixed ethnicity a factor?It is wholly possible that a white, Anglo-Saxon music therapist, with a family tree reaching back to the Mayflower, has a position on this curve more close than distant to that held by a second or third-generation, Asian-American with a comparable college education. You can’t tell by looking at obvious differences.Be sensitive and aware, but make no assumptionsInquire, explore, and be curious about those who appear different from you based on race, ethnicity or culture.
44Earning the right and respect to lead Model the WayCommitment:Find your voice by clarifying your personal valuesSet the example by aligning actions with shared valuesEarning the right and respect to leadModel the Waylead from what you believewords and deeds must be consistentactions demonstrate commitment to beliefsspending time, working side by side, sharing stories that made values come alive, asking questions to get others thinkingabout earning the right and respect to lead
45Inspire a Shared Vision Commitment:Envision the future by imagining exciting and ennobling possibilitiesEnlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirationsLeadership is a dialogue, not a monologueInspire a Shared Visionconfident in abilities to make things happenmust know constituents and must speak their languageleadership is a dialogue, not a monologueforge unity of purpose through enthusiasm, action, and stories
46Challenge the Process Commitment: Leaders are Learners Search for opportunities by seeking innovative ways to change, grow, and improveExperiment and take risks by constantly generating small wins and learning from mistakesLeaders are LearnersChallenge the Processsearch for opportunities to innovate, grow and improverecognition of good ideasrecognizing potential risks and approaching change through incremental steps and small winspay attention to capacity of constituents to take control of challenging situations – if they don’t feels safe, they won’t take risksleaders learn by leading – learn best in the face of obstaclesleaders are learners – learn from failures and successes
47Leadership is a Team Effort Enable Others to ActCommitment:Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trustStrengthen others by sharing power and discretionLeadership is a Team EffortEnable Others to Actleadership is a team effortfoster collaboration, build trustleaders make it possible for others to do good work – sense of personal power and ownershipwork to make people feel strong, capable, and committed“what do you think”leadership founded on trust and confidence produces relationships where people take risks, make changes, keep the vision alive
48Encourage the Heart Commitment: “What do you think?” Recognize contributions by showing appreciation for individual excellenceCelebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community“What do you think?”Encourage the Heartgenuine acts of caring lift spirits and draw people forwarddramatic gestures to simple actionsspending time, recognizing, celebratingcelebrations and rituals, when authentic, build a strong sense of collective identity and community spirit
49Supervisor Responsibilities Accountability to the clientTraining needs of the internTimely address of concernsClarityConsistent and inclusive communication (includes policies and procedures)CommitmentCOMPETENCIES INCLUDE:Active listeningAssertive communication and behaviorHandling conflict – varietyRecognizing and effectively using powerNegotiationProblem solvingTeamworkShort and long term planningEffective networking
50Interventions Verbal discussion Set structured time lines Suggestions HomeworkTeachingCoachingModelingobservationRole playMusic tasksReceptive techniquesCOMPETENCIES INCLUDE:Active listeningAssertive communication and behaviorHandling conflict – varietyRecognizing and effectively using powerNegotiationProblem solvingTeamworkShort and long term planningEffective networking
52TEAM Defining TEAM Relationship between one or more entities Relationship that links stakeholdersResults from the relationships of the whole are greater than the individuals separatelyRelationships exist within a bounded structure(Longoria, 2005).* do a quick group definition of team and then scroll the bullets.
53Type-Watching One strategy for building a TEAM Extrovert - Introvert Sensing – IntuitionThinking – FeelingJudging - PerceivingMyers-Briggs Type Indicator16 typesONE method of gathering information on team*handout for consideration
54How does supervision change by stage? Stages of InternshipHow does supervisionchange by stage?54
55Orientation Stage: first 3 weeks Interns: What do you need?Supervisors: What do you provide as a result?55
56Learning Stage: Months 2-3 Interns: What do you need?Supervisors: What do you provide as a result?56
57Development Stage: month 4 Interns: What do you need?Supervisors: What do you provide as a result?57
58Maturation Stage: Month 5 Interns: What do you need?Supervisors: What do you provide as a result?58
59Entry Level Professional Stage: Month 6 Interns: What do you need?Supervisors: What do you provide as a result?59
6015 minutes Do not be late. Thank you. Break15 minutesDo not be late.Thank you.
62Administrative & Managerial Tasks of Supervision
63Time Management is KeyHow many of us try to help interns learn this skill…we need to role model this as well.
64Intern Recruitment Regularly update internship fact sheet Present at regional and national conferencesNetwork with academic facultyGuest lecture for MT classesAMTA annual internship fairPost internship information on facility website if possibleWays to increase the volume of applicants to your site
65Interview and Audition Process The Screening Process Would you take a job sight unseen?On-site interviews and auditionsInvolve others - both MTs and non-MT staffObserve the prospective intern with staff and clientSensitivity to student financial needsID must be aware of the bigger picture and the needs of your team.
66Organized Record-Keeping Intern fileapplication materials, interview notesInternship agreementinternship plan, goalsprojects, observation forms, exchanges with academic advisor, etcSupervision logdates, time, brief summary of sessionClinical case loadTrack intern’s clinical experienceOwn statistical data collectionOrganization will improve your ability to supervise.Here are some ways to maintain good record-keeping
67Clinical Management Matching interns to supervising MTs Clinical case load assignmentsObserving interns & timely feedbackScheduling supervision sessions, outside observations, educational opportunities…Preparing for supervisionIntern evaluation & program evaluationAs a supervisor, you also have to apply some clinical administrative tasks such as…
68Program EvaluationEncourage honest and constructive feedback from intern – w/ discussionSelf-evaluate your own program after each intern: what went well, what to change/improve, etc.Make a list of items to add/remove/change before you forget!!Effective program evaluation will only improve the quality of your internshipDon’t be stagnant…keep improving and making changes each year.
69Internship Agreements NOT a legal contract or agreementDifferent from facility affiliation agreements – these are between legal departments of school and hosting facility – each one is different
70Internship Agreements - 2 Agreements are supposed to be initiated by the academic facultyThis is not always the caseHave your own ideas about what you need to know about an intern - ASKMany forms and formatsAs ID, you are able to amend the form PRIOR to the intern’s start date – Send back to academic faculty for re-approvalFeel free to ask for an agreement from an academic faculty member
71A written internship agreement will also be made between the student, internship supervisor, and the academic faculty to describe the student’s level of performance at the initiation of the internship and the expected student’s level of performance in demonstrating the required exit-level competencies at the conclusion of the internship.The internship agreement may also include other pertinent information, such as the length of the internship; the student’s work schedule; the supervision plan; role and responsibilities of each party; and health, liability, and insurance issues.
72The content and format of each internship agreement may vary according to the situation and parties involved. This internship agreement is required for both the university affiliated and AMTA national roster internship programs.These individualized training plans and internship agreements are separate and distinct from any affiliation agreements or other legal documents that delineate the terms of the relationship between the university and the clinical training site(s).
73AMTA CompetenciesFoundation of all Music Therapy Education Programs – INCLUDING internships!AMTA Professional CompetenciesAMTA Standards of Education and Clinical Training“4) Internship programs shall be designed according to competency objectives delineated by the Association, and in relation to the competency objectives addressed by affiliate academic institutions.” (From the AMTA Standards of Education and Clinical Training)Ask participants to read the Standards of Education and Clinical Training after the CMTE to find out how AMTA words requirements – important elements will be covered during this sectionAsk participants to get out AMTA Competencies – indicate that the competencies are the essential aspects of music therapy practice – VERY important to know when providing supervision to learners
745) The academic institution and internship program shall evaluate students of its programs according to the competency requirements established by AMTA, and shall use the evaluation in determining each student’s readiness for graduation.These competencies are the basis of internship agreements and should provide an outline for internship learning
75Tenets of Competency-Based Training All members of the training team are aware of what is expectedSkills are clearly defined – not always the case with the AMTA CompetenciesFormat is PASS/FAIL or YES/NO – can they do it?Clear expectations of how interns WILL be evaluated – what are you looking for? How will you know that the intern has achieved the skill? WRITE it down!!
76AMTA Competencies LONG document Competencies are open to interpretation – skills are not defined as competencies – each ID has to define skills under each competencyInterpret each competency in skill-based terms to provide you with a framework for how to evaluate each skill
77Competency PracticeCompetency 1.1 – Recognize standard works in the literatureWhat are standard works?What would a professor use to evaluate this competency?Is the professor’s definition the same as yours?How will interns demonstrate this skill to you? How will you evaluate?Do you even want to take time to evaluate this skill?Competency 1.1 – an example of a confusing competence – use as example to demonstrate difficulty with communication with interns and academicians
78Competency Practice - 2You need to let interns know how you will be evaluating them at the beginning of the internshipThis means thinking about the skills that you want to see and writing them downCompetency-based education/training requires this pre-warning so interns know what they need to do to pass
79Competency Tips Review your definitions periodically Ask your interns and fellow therapists to define the competencies as wellList the skills that you need interns to have BEFORE you interview prospective students – they need to know that you want someone who knows specific techniques BEFORE applying!
80More Competency TipsAsk faculty members about specific skills rather than general competency ratings – you are more likely to get the information that you want!Use the same skill sets throughout the internship to illustrate gains in knowledgeIf you will not be addressing a competency – TELL all about it – it’s okay!
82Musical DevelopmentPlaying, practicing, improvising on own instrument to nourish musical self, build rapport/team-buildingPlaying, practicing, improvising on non-primary instrument to develop music skills, let go of perfection.Becoming more comfortable with different musical styles/increasing repertoireEncourage use of main instrument as well as “weaker” instruments in sessionsFocus on a specific music competency (e.g., improvisation)These are possible ways to use music in supervision as a means to promote the musical development in the internPossible questions to ask participantsHow much time/week do you think interns should spend on musical development?Do think that interns should use time outside of scheduled hours for practicing?
83Self-Awareness & Insight Improvise musically certain aspects of self or the client: improvising feelings, sensations, and perceptions to gain insight/when “stuck” with a clientCreate a musical portrait of client via improvisation for insight/ideasRole-play musical interactions with intern in role of client and supervisor as role of intern (then switch)Team-building with departmental staffThese are some ways to use music to assist the intern in developing self-awareness & insight
84Session AnalysisAudio recording musical interactions in client sessions: analyzing the music (client alone, therapist alone, together)Actively listening to audio recordings of sessions to be more sensitive to clients’ needs/responsesSome models of music therapy use musical analysis to analyze sessions – even if you are not of this theoretical orientation, you can still apply this technique as a way for interns to understand their clients’ musical responses