4Project Implementation Over 1 semester (Diploma), 2 semester (Degree)Selection of FYP Title and SupervisorProject ProposalProject Implementation (rest of semester)To utilise semester break
5Implementation Issues: A lot of assignments, lab reports, mini-projects, site visits, quizzes and tests during semester;Project Title not clear;Project has >2 Objectives;Supervisor not contactable;Delays due to:Broken Equipment,Strong Demand for Equipment,Missing Chemicals,Limited Access to Research Journals,Limited / no access to Company Data (Confidentiality),Lab not open after working hours;Be SMART get early START!
7Important Dates (FYP 1) Week 1-14: Progress & Logbook (30%) Consultation with Supervisor at least once a week<Week 5: Submission of JHA & RA FormWeek 5-12: Proposal Presentation (35%)Exact Date to be announced by Section FYP Coordinator.<Week 15: Submission of Project Proposal Report (35%)
8Important Dates (FYP 2) Week 1-14: Progress & Logbook (20%) Consultation with Supervisor at least once a weekWeek 14: Submission Final Draft to Supervisor and 2nd Examiner for MarkingSubmission on Date of Presentation, some Supervisor may required earlier.Week 15: Project Presentation (30%)Exact Date to be announced by departmental FYP Coordinator;<Week 18: Submission of Hardcopy corrected Thesis, CD, Poster, Clearance Form, and Library Form to Supervisor (50%)Get Signature of Supervisor before printing the Hardcopy of corrected ThesisFailure to submit signed Thesis to SV on Time will result in 30 % Mark Deduction.
9Important Dates (FYP Diploma) Week 1-14: Progress & Logbook (20%)Consultation with Supervisor at least once a week<Week 5: Submission of Proposal<Week 5: Submission of JHA & RA FormWeek 14: Submission Final Draft to Supervisor and 2nd Examiner for MarkingSubmission on Date of Presentation, some Supervisor may required earlier.Week 15: Project Presentation (30%)Exact Date to be announced by departmental FYP Coordinator;<Week 18: Submission of Hardcopy corrected Thesis, CD, Clearance Form, and Library Form to Supervisor (50%)Get Signature of Supervisor before printing the Hardcopy of corrected ThesisFailure to submit signed Thesis to SV on Time will result in 30 % Mark Deduction.
15Proposal First step in implementing a research project; Indicator of your understanding of the research project;Outlines the feasibility/viability of the research project.
16Proposal Components Title Problem Statement Background Study ObjectivesMethodology
17Proposal Title Represents what you actually plan to do Sometimes useful to use catchy phrases or direct statement to make your title more interestingImportant when your proposal is being evaluated for some competition - funding, prize, scholarshipBe creative but most important, be precise and accurate
18Example of Title Selection “Measure O2, nitrite, nitrate, pH in Merbok area, use data and apply in mathematical model 5555 and use model to assess/predict ecosystem behaviour”
19Possible TitlesTitle 1: Water quality and mathematical model in environmental studies.Title 2: Fluctuation of O2, nitrite, nitrate and pH in Merbok estuarine area and application of data in mathematical modelling for ecosystem prediction and assessment.Title 3: Monthly fluctuation of crucial water parameters in the Merbok estuarine area and its application in bio-modelling
20Exercise Modify following Titles so that they fulfill aforementioned Criteria: Pollution Prevention Practices – A Case Study;Properties of Biocomposites;Food Contamination MonitoringFermentation of Sugar for Downstream ApplicationsOptimisation of Distillation Process
21Exercise (Solution)All titles are too general, we need to narrow down the topic.How?:1. Take each keyword and ask yourself what
22Proposal: Problem Statement A hypothesis?A hunch?Can be general / broad in nature.
23Examples of Hypotheses Leaving yoghurt outside the fridge for 2 days will make it look green and turn sour.Presence of H2S in the car exhaust will reduce the catalytic conversion efficiency of Carbon Monoxide to Carbon Dioxide.Saccharomyces cerevisae fermentation activity is inhibited at a certain ethanol concentration.
24Proposal ObjectivesThese are statements qualifying what you wish to achieve in the project in relation to your problem statement.Can use specific phrases such as ‘to measure’, `to compare’, ‘to assay’, ‘to isolate’, ‘to determine’ etc.Very closely related to the actual experiments you are planning to do.
25Proposal Objectives: Example Hypothesis 1:To determine the organo-leptic properties of natural yoghurt at 4 and 25°C over a 5 day period;To monitor the total microbial concentration of natural yoghurt at 4 and 25°C over a 5 day period;To carry out a statistical analysis to test the validity of the hypothesis;
26Proposal Objectives: Example Hypothesis 2:To measure the car exhaust gas concentration of H2S, CO and CO2 before and after the catalyst;To carry out a statistical analysis to test the validity of the hypothesis;
27Proposal Objectives: Example Hypothesis 3:To monitor the fermentation activity of S. cerevisae in defined growth medium at 25°C in the presence of various ethanol concentrations;To carry out a statistical analysis to test the validity of the hypothesis;
28Methods & MaterialsDescribe precisely how the experiments are to be done.Proper citations – record author(s), year, journal title, volume, page numbers.Are the experiments ‘DO-ABLE’ here in our laboratories? Discuss with your supervisor!List chemical requirements and place order early!
29Everyday Example Preparation of D.I.Y. Cake: Ingredients (Chemicals) 3 eggs150 g sugar300 g flour125 g butter50 mL milk3 tbsp. oil½ tsp Vanilla essence1 pack Custard powderChicken?Duck?Ostrich?Turtle?
30Everyday Example Preparation of D.I.Y. Cake: Ingredients (Chemicals) 3 medium-sized chicken eggs150 g fine-grained white sugar300 g self-raising sieved wheat flour125 g salted butter50 mL full-cream cow milk3 tbl refined sunflower oil½ tsp Vanilla essence50 g Custard powder (Vanilla flavour)
31Everyday Example Preparation of D.I.Y. Cake: Cooking Ware (Materials) BowlWhiskerTablespoonGrease paperSpring formSieveOven
32Everyday Example Preparation of D.I.Y. Cake: Procedure (Methods) Take 3 egg yolk and manually mix with 150 g of sugar;Add 125 g of butter (room-temperature) to the egg yolk – sugar mix and homogenise manually;Add the sieved flour and form a dough;…
34PROJECT PLANNING & EXECUTION Prepare a time-line for the project – Gantt chart - must take into account holidays, exams, writing-up, submission dates.Very little time..so preparation must be meticulous – there may not be time for repeat experiments.Experiments must be so designed such that results can be presented either graphically or tabulated and amenable for statistical analyses.
35Example Gantt Chart W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 … Proposal writing Ordering chemicalsExperiment 1Submit Chapter 1 to SupervisorHari Raya
36DocumentationAll experimental procedures, raw and processed data are to be recorded in a hard-cover LABORATORY BOOK.The lab book is the property of your lab and is to be left with supervisor after completion of project!All raw data must be processed as soon as possible (e.g. transfer to Excel).
37Documentation (cont’d) Thesis writing should start on Day 10 of project – thesis writing is both laborious and time consuming!Format of theses – similar to past yearsCompleted sections can be submitted to supervisor for corrections / comments as and when they are ready; do not leave it to the last day!Remember to BACKUP your work (pen drive, CD)!
39Data Presentation & Discussion Purpose: Generate new Knowledge and enhance our UnderstandingSource:
40Data Presentation & Discussion Data can be qualitative or quantitative;Qualitative data:Is subjective, rich, and in-depth informationnormally presented in the form of words;derived from 1) interviews and 2) other sources - observations, life histories and journals (paper review) and documents of all kinds including newspapers.Example: Taste (sweet, sour, bitter, salty)
42Information Information = Arranged, organised Data. Time [s] Temp. [K] Conc. 1[mg/L]Conc. 2Conc. 329810.71.3102991.10.82022.51.5304534086750161517Information = Arranged, organised Data.
43KnowledgeTime [min]Temp. [K]Average Conc.[mg/L]StDev29810.3102991.00.152020.53044075016Knowledge = Processed Information;Average and standard deviation were calculated from arranged data;
44Knowledge (cont’d)Concentration of ... increases exponentially at 298K;Reaction is first order;Rate constant, k = mg/(L·min).
45Understanding Understanding = Ability to explain Knowledge; Example: The increase in microbial concentration is first order because microorganisms produce daughter cells every 10 min.
46Wisdom Wisdom = Apply Knowledge the right Way. Example (The Right Way):Fermenter operator understands that ethanol concentration of 15 % kills the yeast culture. Hence ethanol concentration is monitored and controlled to remain <15 %.Example (The Unethical Way):Colleague has a grudge against of fermenter operator and decides to sabotage. Colleague also understands toxic effect of ethanol and decides to turn off monitoring system so that ethanol concentration spirals out of control and inhibits yeast culture.
47Presentation of Information TableLine graphBar chartPie chartFigure from software/instrument usedPlease take Note!Whatever diagram you use, an associated commentary is essential.Do not leave it to the reader (especially supervisor and internal examiner) to work out what the diagram shows.
48Presentation of Information TableMake comparisons between quantities which are totals and/or have sub-divisions, at the same point in timeShow data that is time series, nominal or ordinal
49Presentation of Information Table (Example)Source: K. Openshaw / Biomass and Bioenergy 19 (2000) 1-15.
50Presentation of Information Line GraphSource: As. J. Energy Env. 2009, 10(04),
51Presentation of Information Line GraphSource: Agricultural Wastes 4 (1982)
52Presentation of Information Bar chartMake comparisons between quantities which are totals and/or have sub-divisions, at the same point in timeShow data that is time series, nominal or ordinalBar charts are inappropriate for large data sets with many bars and numerical data.
53Presentation of Information Bar chart (Example)Source: M. Franz et al. / Carbon 38 (2000) 1807 –1819
54Presentation of Information Bar chart (Example)Source: Renewable Energy World, Vol. 14(4), p. 8.
55Presentation of Information Bar chart (Example)Source: Renewable Energy World, Vol. 14(4), p. 47.
56Presentation of Information Pie chartshow the percentage parts of the whole; they are the circular version of a percentage component bar chart;highlight a particular component using an exploded or dynamic pie chart, where a slice of the pie is extracted.
57Presentation of Information Pie chart (Example)Figure 3. Breakdown of residential electricity consumption in Malaysia. Refrigerators and air con’s top the list followed by washing machines, fans, rice cooker, irons etc.Source: Energy Policy, Vol. 35(2), pp. 1050–1063.
59Research Ethics DO NOT CHEAT! Present the data you obtained experimentally and not what you think it should be!DO NOT PLAGIARIZE!‘Cut-n-paste’ is not an acceptable practice!If you have to use certain phrases from a particular source, credit must be given to original author(s)