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Conversations Regarding Supervisee-Centred Supervision

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1 Conversations Regarding Supervisee-Centred Supervision
Pam Santon MSW RSW Registered Marriage and Family Therapist Registered Sex Therapist Approved Supervisor AAMFT

2 My Objectives for Our Conversation
To underline the importance of supporting supervisee’s in their support of clients through competency-based supervisory practices To review basics of Supervisory processes To emphasize the need for Reflective Practice in promoting the change process of clients To increase comfort with ‘Person of the Therapist’ methods of Supervision in promotion of the professional development of supervisees To allow reflection of supervisory practices

3 Positioning You in the Conversation Reflective Exercise #1
How many people in the room are currently supervisors? Please take 5 minutes and talk to 3-4 of your neighbours about the following: How does your program currently provide supervision? Who gets supervision and when? Who supervises who? What is it like for supervisors? What is it like for supervisees? As you consider your current supervision system, what is working well? How do you know? And what do you think needs change? How do you know? Ask for themes- a 1.5 hour presentation won’t speak to all the issues but look at the resources in the room. How many are new supervisors- less than 2 years? 3-10years? More than 10 years?How many work in a social service agency? Institution? Academic setting? Other?

4 Positioning Myself in the Conversation
My own experience of receiving supervision, or not receiving it Clinical Director-ASYR : from 4 staff to 4 teams Supervisor in private practice since 1996 including the supervision of: - Individual therapists or a group of therapists working towards Clinical Membership or Approved Supervisor Status with AAMFT Social Workers in the Ministry of Long-term Care and a Family Health Team Peer Support Counsellors in the Ministries of Labour and Natural Resources Students in a 4th Year Practicum Course in Family Relations and Human Development Very proud of my profession for recognizing the significance of supervision in our field. I have had I’ve had six official clinical supervisors in my career. The very first was a 37 year old woman who died two year into our relationship from breast cancer. When we told that news on the morning of her death I cried. My new supervisor told me later that that was very unprofessional. I knew in that moment, that my new supervisor was never going to compare with my first. He hadn’t for one moment considered me as a person separate to my professional role as a medical psychiatric social worker. He wasn’t curious at all as to why I might have taken the news that emotionally, what personal history I might have brought to that moment when we were told that a young, very kind and compassionate young woman had died. If he had, I would have told him of the many young clients I had had that year as a novice social worker, who had also died of cancer much too soon. I would have also have told him that my mother had cancer when I was 15 and wasn’t expected to live but because of a new trial surgery, had. I would have also told him that a year later, my 43 year old father had died of cancer and left my 6 year old sister, my young mother and myself alone in a new country with no family to speak of. I would have told him all that but he didn’t ask. He taught me the absolute paramount importance of reflective person of the therapist, use of self in supervision for those who are in the caring profession. He did not reflect on his own issues or those of his supervisees, preferring an expert, directive, teacher stance which has its purpose but needs to be balanced with curiosity, understanding and acceptance that we all come with our stories. I would like to dedicate our conversation to my first supervisor Gaye who taught me that reflection and honouring the Person of the Therapist are the most important tools of supervision.

5 The Tricky Terrain of Supervision in the Field of Addictions

6 Specific Challenges in the Work of Addiction
Clients presentation: Poly-addictions including Process Addictions, Co-occurring Mental Health issues, Trauma histories Visitor and Complainant Status of many clients and frequent no shows Family Dynamics of client system and their feelings of powerlessness Difficulties of clients with labelling and managing feelings which often results in slow pacing of the work and frequent relapse Polarized Models of Interventions Large caseloads and waiting lists Marginalization of the clients and their issues; and, therefore the field and those who work in it: under-serviced, underpaid

7 Supervising in the Addiction Field
High caseload numbers and long waiting lists to manage Staff presenting complicated client issues and the isomorphic pattern of powerlessness across the levels of the system Sometimes less than satisfied, stressed-out staff experiencing compassion fatigue, vicarious trauma and/or burnout Responsibility for vacation and sick leave coverage Own caseload to serve to manage Managers, Executive Directors and Boards to appease Etcetera

8 Why ‘Supervisee-Centred’ Supervision
Frontline Staff as the Backbone of the agency! The Therapist’s Toolbox Reading

9 The Risk of Empathy “After all, it's our gift for empathy that draws us to our work. And yet, empathy at full throttle--felt and projected 100 percent with our bodies, hearts, and minds--has its risks.” Babette Rothschild UNDERSTANDING THE KEYS TO VICARIOUS TRAUMA

10 ‘Boundaries Lost’ The Burnout Syndrome
physical and emotional exhaustion as clinicians develop negative self-concept, negative job attitudes, and loss of concern for clients (Pines & Maslach, 1978). physical symptoms like fatigue, gastrointestinal irritations, insomnia, and hypertension (Farber, 1990) emotional symptoms including despair (Kestnbaum, 1984), boredom and cynicism (Friedman, 1985), withdrawal, and depression (Jayaratne & Chess, 1983). interpersonal problems, both in the workplace as well as with family and friends (Kahill, 1988).

11 Risk Factors Unrealistic therapeutic expectations
Allowing personal issues to interfere in professional practice (loss of boundaries) Working with clients with particularly severe or traumatic issues Working in a community agency Being new to the field Being male

Supervisors as ‘Back Braces’ ‘Strengthening the Core Muscles’ Stomach Muscles

13 Myths of Individual Coping, Realities of Organizational Policy Kyle Killian 2007
“Stop blaming the victim for lack of life balance” - Agencies to take responsibility for burnout by: Better distribution of caseloads to ensure lower numbers of trauma clients per counsellor Reduced caseloads and more reflective supervision Better policies to give frontline staff an increased sense of control, efficacy & support Clearly defined teams (Borrill 2000) Participation in political advocacy In a shout out to agency administrators and supervisors, I suggest that organi- zations take on the task of figuring out ways of distributing workload so that traumatic exposure of any one worker can be limited. In addition, organiza- tions could institute policy changes to help make the workplace a space where therapists feel a sense of collegiality and support, and where they feel they have a sense of control (e.g., having some say about administrative policies, expe- riencing a degree of predictability in their workload, etc.). Borrill et al. (2000) reported that individuals in the help- ing professions who worked in clearly defined teams were found to suffer less psychological strain, had great job sat- isfaction, and reported greater organi- zational commitment. Since social sup- port is an important ingredient in our fight against compassion fatigue, then forging connections to broader com- munity movements, like participating in political advocacy for trauma survi- vors, might help to us resist the debili- tating effects of alienation, isolation, helplessness, and cynicism. To combat compassion fatigue and burnout, agency In conclusion, we want to protect therapists from compassion fatigue, enhance their resilience, and help pro- fessionals deliver quality mental health interventions, but to achieve these goals, we may need to shift paradigms, mov- ing our focus away from individualis- tic efforts at education and toward a more systemic approach of advocacy for healthier working conditions. Put in narrative terms, bureaucracy, paper- work, workaholism, the court system, etc., are allies to the externalized prob- lem of compassion fatigue.

14 Role of Supervisor’s in the Prevention of Burnout Rosenberg, T. Pace M
Role of Supervisor’s in the Prevention of Burnout Rosenberg, T. Pace M., PhD 2010 In-service training on burnout Setting expectations about self-care Limit-setting around client numbers and administrative duties Prioritizing supervision, peer meetings and support groups Modeling self-care, case consultation and self awareness Including person of the Therapist issues in supervision including: unresolved FOO issues, therapist’s need to be liked, over-involvement & feeling personally responsible for client-change

15 General Functions of Supervision The Role of Supervision in Social Work (An Irish Study 2010 Jeanne Marie Hughes MSW) Prevent stress and burnout in a profession dedicated to paying attention to someone else’s needs (Hawkins and Shohet 2006) Contains or manages anxiety and helps to cope with the demands that the work entails (Brearer 1995) Supports reflective practice on the use of discretion and judgment (Gould and Baldwin 2004) Educates, supports and manages (Kadushin 1992, Morrison 2003) Teaches, guides, counsels and directs (Page/Wosket 1994) Facilitates learning, provides an opportunity to plan and evaluate work, supports workers and promotes good standards of practice and protection of the public (McGuiness 1993) Look at international take on supervision

16 ‘Great Supervisors’ Non-judgmental and accepting of the supervisee’s inexperience and mistakes Accessible and Available regularly for conversations (weekly) (answer questions, offer advice and provide feedback) Collaborative as well as directive Trusting of their abilities and potential Trustworthy and respectful of their information and learning process Giving of their expertise and experience Modeling of professional practices, boundaries and conduct Culturally sensitive and Informed According to 4th Undergraduate Students new to the field of social services and education:

17 Great Supervisor’s Build Resiliency in Supervisees
By building trusting, safe relationships By being present and modeling positive communication skills By being open and receptive to mistakes in themselves and others By modeling self care By being reflective and mindful in their interactions with supervisees

18 Components of Quality Supervision
Individual Supervision: 1.5 hours bi-weekly (.5 administration, 1.0 clinical) Individual Training per learning Goals Group/Team Supervision Specific Training as a Team/Agency Peer Consultation- Formal and Informal Professional Consultation Supervision of Supervision Employee Assistance Program Are you driving a cadillac? , How close are you to purcahsing the cadillac? Take a minute to reflect on your agenc’s model- what components are sound, what are missing?

19 According to the Literature
Addiction Counselling Competencies (98) The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice, TAP (Technical Assistance Publication) 21 US Dept. of Health and Human Services, SA and MH Services Administration, Centre for Substance Abuse Treatment 2008 Clinical Supervision Handbook A Guide for Clinical Supervisors for Addiction and Mental Health, CAMH, 2008 Clinical Supervision and Professional Development of the Substance Abuse Counsellor TIP ( Treatment Improvement Protocol) 52, US Dept. of Health and Human Services, SA and MH Services Administration, Centre for Substance Abuse Treatment 2009 Competencies for Substance Abuse Treatment Clinical Supervisor TAP 21-A US Dept. of Health and Human Services, SA and MH Services Administration, Centre for Substance Abuse Treatment 2008

20 The ‘Yin and Yang’ of Supervision
Roles, Stages, Power, Relationship, Parallel Process, Reflective Practice

21 Structuring Supervision The Yin/Yang Continuum (Jay Reeve- www
Structuring Supervision The Yin/Yang Continuum (Jay Reeve- Supervisory Practices Technique- Based Process- Based ______________________________________________ - New to the field Focus on clinical or position Experience - Crisis management Parallel Process - Manualized treatment Development of Anxiety producing own therapeutic style situations (ethical, SI/HI, policies etc) In the yang mode, the supervisor and trainee approach psychotherapy supervision as a matter for technical instruction, in which the supervisor instructs the trainee in the technique of psychotherapy. Yang... Technique-based Supervision On one end of the spectrum lies the pole of absolute structure. Let's call this pole the yang of supervisory technique. In the yang mode, the supervisor and trainee approach psychotherapy supervision as a matter for technical instruction, in which the supervisor instructs the trainee in the technique of psychotherapy. Supervision in this mode is dominated by a didactic approach, wherein the teacher instructs students in techniques and interventions. This may include instruction in the use of manualized treatments, specific techniques and theoretical points, assigned readings, and what to say and not say in therapy. The aim is to instruct the trainee in specific ways of doing therapy, and for the trainee to demonstrate increasing proficiency in this technique, as evaluated by the supervisor. In the yin mode, the supervisor engages the trainee in an examination of the process of psychotherapy. At the other pole lies what we might call the yin of supervision. In the yin mode, the supervisor engages the trainee in an examination of the process of psychotherapy. Supervision at this end of the spectrum is non-directive: the student is encouraged to express feelings about, and associations to, the clinical material. This may include frequent commentary on the parallel process that occurs in the supervisory relationship, as well as explorations into the student's state of mind and emotional reaction to both the therapy and the supervision. The aim is for the supervisee to explore, as broadly as possible, the experience of doing psychotherapy, and verbalize any of the unconscious conflicts or anxieties that impede their development.

Above all else, FLEXIBILITY and RESPONSIVENESS: In Taoist philosophy, truth does not lie in one pole or the other, in yin or in yang. Instead, the task of the sage is to provide what is lacking for balance and integration.. When they think they know the answers People are difficult to guide When they know that they don't know People can find their own way Tao Te Ching (S. Mitchell, trans.), Harper Perennial; 1991.

23 The Many Hats of the Supervisor
General Supervisors wears many many hats . Coach- offering suggestions for how to proceed with a client, and offering specific positive and critical feedback about the supervisee’s clinical work. 2. Teacher-teaching about general clinical skills, theories, possible client concerns, systemic concepts; providing readings or other resources to learn about clinical issues or interventions; discussing the broad impact of gender, culture, and socioeconomic status on people’s lives; helping supervisees understand principles of assessment and diagnosis. 3. Administrator- assisting a supervisee with his or her clinical documentation, or to resolve an ethical dilemma; evaluation of supervisee performance, based on the standards of practice accepted in the field. Common factors- 2 continuums Collaborative Relationship Continuum Directive Worthen and McNeill (1996) studied supervision events deemed good by both supervisor and supervisee, and concluded: The most pivotal and crucial component of good supervision experiences that was clearly evident in every case studied was the quality of the supervisory relationship This relationship can range between a collaborative, symmetrical arrangement, to a more directive, complimentary one (Bascue & Yalof, 1991; Kaiser, 1992; Long et al., 1996; Sprenkle & Wilkie, 1996). _________________________________________________ Idiosyncratic Specificity Continuum General Whitman and Jacobs (1998)- the supervisor has a responsibility not only to individual supervisees, but also to the profession, or field as a whole. On the one hand, the supervisor is attending to a very idiosyncratic level. The specific needs of individual supervisees and clients while on the other hand, the supervisor must also attend to more general or nomothetic standards (a broad, generalizable body of knowledge) while also helping them conceptualize individual cases and plan specific intervention strategies Mentor- working on self-of-the-therapist issues that are related to clinical functioning, suggesting personal therapy when warranted, helping supervisees recognize personal strengths and limitations, nurturing professional and career development and working on the supervisory relationship. Idiosyncratic Directive Collaborative

24 Isomorphism and Parallel Process in Supervision
Origins in the psychoanalytic concepts of transference and counter transference Transference occurs when the counselor recreates the presenting problem and emotions of the therapeutic relationship within the supervisory relationship Counter-transference occurs when the supervisor responds to the counselor in the same manner that the counselor responds to the client. Thus, the supervisory interaction replays, or is parallel with, the counseling interaction. Powerlessness of the client is replicated in supervision when supervisee presents powerlessness to supervisor Supervisor has an opportunity to identify the parallel process and impact the outcome for empowering the clinician which in turn can empower the client through their relationship.

25 Conversations about Parallel Process
Can increase self awareness and professional growth Easier for the more experienced counsellor because of their confidence in their knowledge and methods of intervention Can cross the line into therapy so supervisee permission is always required Supervisor should always pay attention to how the therapeutic relationship and client issues are presented by the counselor in the supervisory session and use the awareness as an intervention in facilitating growth in the counselor, thereby helping the client More advanced and experienced counselors, on the other hand, have developed a capacity to understand and absorb self knowledge gained through transference and counter transference reactions in their therapeutic relationships (Loganbill et al., 1982; McNeill & Worthen, 1989; Stoltenberg & Delworth, 1987). Advanced counselors are less defensive with regard to their issues and identity becoming the focus in supervision and, therefore, are more inclined to discuss how these issues are affecting the therapeutic relationship. They have developed therapeutic skills and techniques and have the capacity to address more advanced and conceptual issues such as parallel process.Even though advanced counselors are more interested in discussing the transference and counter transference issues, however, supervisors can overemphasize the parallel process to a point that is exhausting for the counselor (McNeill & Worthen, 1989). Therefore, how and when the parallel process interventions are used is important to their success in facilitating growth and self-awareness in the counselor. Supervisors must exhibit caution, as there is a proclivity to cross the line from a supervisory relationship to a therapeutic relationship when parallel process issues are discussed.

26 What Works in Therapy: Project MATCH and the Alliance Babor, T. F
What Works in Therapy: Project MATCH and the Alliance Babor, T.F., & DelBoca, F.K. (eds.) (2003). United Kingdom: Cambridge, 113.Treatment Matching in Alcoholism Treatment The largest study ever conducted on the treatment of problem drinking: Three different treatment approaches studied (CBT, 12 Three different treatment approaches studied (CBT, 12- -step, step, and Motivational Interviewing) Difference in outcome between approaches.. The client rating of the therapeutic alliance was the best predictor of: Treatment participation; Drinking behavior during treatment; Drinking at 12- month follow up

27 The Clinical Responsibility of the Supervisor
Therefore…. Anything the supervisor can do to reinforce the therapeutic alliance will improve outcome. Sound clinical supervision, including reflective practice on ‘use of self’ and the person of therapist, needs to be a priority for every clinical setting.

28 Supervision Chain of Impact

29 The Supervisory Relationship
The relationship is the key to successful supervision (Pritchard 1995). Trust is central to the supervisory relationship. Supervision cannot proceed in a climate of mistrust. Supervisor and supervisee must work to establish a trusting climate Supervisor must be diligent to avoid using information learned in the supervisory process against the supervisee (Munson 2002)

30 Power in Supervision: Recommendations for Supervisors and Supervisees Murphy, M. 2005
The results of this study highlight that positive uses of power can enhance the supervisory relationship. “it is imperative for supervisors to model appropriate uses of power for supervisees, so that they will appropriately use power with their clients. - empowerment in the supervisory relationship isomorphically results with empowerment in the therapeutic relationship” Open Discussions of power include a) using the term Power in discussions b) talking about power at the first supervision session, and c) revisiting power as a discussion topic throughout the supervisory relationship.

31 Why Be Reflective? To Improve the quality of services
To avoid clinical responses that can lead to unintended and negative consequences in sessions To replenishes counsellor reserves. To Avoid robotic practice, decisions, interventions. To builds confidence and creativity. To Strengthen: practice…service…advocacy…administration To foster empowerment, thoughtfulness, respect.

32 Objectives of Reflective Supervision Modelling Empowering Relationships
Supervisor and clinician form a trusting relationship Establish consistent, predictable meetings and times Ask questions that encourage details about the emerging relationship and the supervisee’s reactions Listen, emotionally present, teach/guide, nurture/support To Integrate emotion and reason To foster the reflective process to be internalized by the supervisee To explore the parallel process and to allow time for personal reflection To attend to how reactions to the content affect the process

33 Use of Self Model ‘Use of Self’ and ‘Person of the Therapists’
is a process through which therapists and counsellors learn how to use their personal emotional and cognitive reactions and knowledge of self in order to: inform conceptualizations of their clients struggles create a therapeutic relationship that is collaborative and conducive to corrective relating with the aim of overcoming difficulties and facilitating personal growth.

34 Examples of ‘Use of Self’ in Supervision
1) Feeling stuck around a separated couple and wanting them to reconcile. 2) Feeling powerless with a supervisee who wasn’t setting clear boundaries with a client Being triangulated in FOO because of cutoffs in own family between siblings Inaction on the part of the E.D. to establish a policy around domestic violence

35 3) Anger at a client for frequent calls between sessions.
4)Dislike of a client for crying repeatedly in sessions. Fear of client taking action on professional ethics Feeling powerless with emotional pain Withdrawal as a protective move

36 How Personal Can Supervision/Training Get? Aponte 2004
1. Supervisees present their personal histories and information about their life circumstances 2. Although supervisors may inquire about what they believe is relevant, Supervisees are free to reveal only what they wish to reveal 3. Supervisees and fellow team/group members are bound by confidentiality for all personal information revealed in the context of supervision. 4. Supervisors and supervisees are not to assume a treatment contract (with all that implies) under the guise of supervision 5. Supervisees may pursue personal treatment outside the context of supervision, and Supervisors may assist in this pursuit as appropriate.

37 ‘To Thy Own Self Be True’- Building or Revisiting Your Philosophy of Supervision Beginning with ‘The Self’ of the Supervisor: Modelling Authenticity

38 Have a Supervisory Road Map: A Philosophy of Supervision
A template for conducting supervision sessions. A roadmap of your principles, knowledge and behaviours as they relate to supervision. Build a dynamic ‘Philosophy of Supervision’ that clarifies your values, insights and beliefs in this moment and review and update annually. What is your destination from a values and beliefs perspective? (activating,compelling, driving, energetic, enterprising,lively, potent, productive, progressive, strenuous, vitalizing)

39 Components of a Philosophy of Supervision
Influence Isomorphism Change and Components of Supervision Developmental Stages of Supervision Gender issues Accountability Ethical Issues Self of the Supervisor Models- What models of therapy, change and supervision influence your approach Isomorphism- in what ways is your model of counselling/therapy similar to your model of supervision, in what ways is it different Change and Components- What do you attempt to do in the supervision you provide? What does this tell you about your theory of supervision? Developmental Stages of Supervision- What dev. Stages do you conceptualize, To what degree do they impact your approach, How is what you do different in each of these stages Gender Issues- how do feminist values impact your supervision What gender issues should you be aware of, In what ways does the gender of your supervisees influence In what ways do you change your approach in supervision to fit the culture or unique background of your supervisees I.e. Winnie Accountability- Supervision Contract- how do you involve the supervisee How do you reliably evaluate, provide feedback and receive feedback What are the important ethical and legal issues of supervision How do you deal with confidentiality, informed consent, videotaping, live observation, professional boundaries

40 Using a ‘Collage’ to define Your Philosophy of Supervision
“I suggest that (Supervisees) avoid reifying human predicaments into symptoms…. All of this is mostly a matter of cleaning out enough psychological "debris" so that supervisees can sit comfortably, listen carefully, and think creatively. When I supervise, I give example after example of interventions that challenge clients' suppositions and help them explore new terrain. Then I hope for the best. Perhaps Marsha Linehan, the inventor of Dialectical Behavior Therapy, put it best when she advised new students to stop trying to act like therapists: "If they would act like themselves, they would be better off All you are trying to be is simply one human being trying to help another human being. That's all this is." Unfortunately, the(diagnostic) category obscures that fact.”Jay Efran, Ph.D., Temple University.

41 Supervisee-Centred Supervision Robert Taibbi: Clinical Director and Supervisor for 30 years “The administrative stuff plays second fiddle to your real job though: helping the supervisee--from scared beginners to confident (sometimes overconfident) pros to burned-out timeservers--figure out what they need and how to weave together their strengths, skills, and personalities into a unique and personal clinical style. Obviously, you need good supervisory skills, but you must apply those skills in creative ways at different times with different staff because one size definitely doesn't fit all in this work. It's the relationship between supervisor and supervisee (rather than a set of skills, per se) that's the key to helping him or her learn what it really means to be a therapist and practice therapy.” Reading from The Therapist Toolbox

42 Using a ‘Collage’ to define Your Philosophy of Supervision
“I suggest that (Supervisees) avoid reifying human predicaments into symptoms…. All of this is mostly a matter of cleaning out enough psychological "debris" so that supervisees can sit comfortably, listen carefully, and think creatively. When I supervise, I give example after example of interventions that challenge clients' suppositions and help them explore new terrain. Then I hope for the best. Perhaps Marsha Linehan, the inventor of Dialectical Behavior Therapy, put it best when she advised new students to stop trying to act like therapists: "If they would act like themselves, they would be better off All you are trying to be is simply one human being trying to help another human being. That's all this is." Unfortunately, the(diagnostic) category obscures that fact.”Jay Efran, Ph.D., Temple University.

43 My Personal Supervision Philosophy
Collaborative- power to as opposed to power-over Accountable to the client system and the agency Reflective in that the supervisee needs to be centred and grounded in their ‘use of self’ Necessary- frontline staff as the backbone of the service Developing of the Unique Talents of the ‘professional part’ of the clinician Informed by client feedback and the literature Empowering of ‘the Person’ of the Clinician Strength-based- building on talents and abilities Mistake Friendly- aware that we learn through trial and error The one that has given me the most difficulty is strength-based- sometimes has gotten in my way of holding staff accountable! Candies

44 Exercise #2 ‘The Person’ of the Supervisor
In groups of 3 or 4, identify the following: The major models of therapy, counselling or change process that you value. A life experience that you have had that informs your experience of supervision. b) 2-3 Personal Strengths you bring to your Supervisory Role c) 5- 8 adjectives that best describe your values in regard to your supervisory practices.

45 The Methods and Tools of the ‘Yang’ of Supervision

46 Methods and Tools of Reflective, ‘Use of Self’, ‘The Person of’ Supervision
CONTENT Learning Contract* Feedback Forms* Evaluation Tools* Genogram* Cultural Genogram* Professional Genograms* PROCESS Mindfulness Self Supervision Reflective Conversations Supervision of Supervision Outside Supervision, Consultation and Training

47 Mindfulness and Supervision
Mindfulness is intentionally being aware of what really is in the current moment Jon Kabat-Zinn The aim of supervision of clinical work ought to be supervision of the therapist’s own self-supervision. As Confucius said, Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach him to fish and you feed him for a hundred years (O’Hanlon & Wilk, 1987).

48 Benefits of Mindful Practice Mindfulness and Supervision AAMFT Supervision Bulletin 2010
Reduces anxiety and increases calm demeanor Increases ability to be present and in the moment Reduces internal ‘chatter’ and negative self talk Increases self reflection and boundary setting Allows easier transitioning between clients or supervisees Increases clients/supervisee’s experience of being heard, validated and responded to

49 Goal: to increase therapeutic presence
Regular practice of mindfulness meditation with MFT supervisees resulted in significant improvement of in-session skills Increased patience Increased ability to attend to the client’s experience Increased ability to attend to one’s own experience Reduced reactivity and judgment Better handling of challenges

50 Methods of Mindfulness Meditation: Practices that bring the clinician’s awareness fully into the present without judging or evaluating that experience Meditation Body Awareness: Body Scan- what is your body telling you Body Movement: dance, walk Journaling Art

51 Discuss the alternatives
The Reflective Supervisory Conversation (Leonardo daVinci Institute, The Netherlands 2008) Discuss the alternatives Co-construct new ideas Explain your point of view Process is lead by supervisor Discover supervisee‘s point of view Clarify Reception Active Listening Observation

52 Prompting Phrases for Reflecting Practice
“I’m wondering…” “Can we explore for a moment…” “What are your thoughts on…” “How would you approach…” “What are the possibilities you see in…” “How will your strengths…” “Can you tell me (a little more) about…” “How would you describe…” “What would happen if you tried…” “How do you understand/Can you help me understand…” “If you viewed this from ________’s perspective, what would you see…” “What do you need from me today to feel supported…”

Chronicle families and major elements of their histories over a minimum of three generations(McGoldrick&Gerson,1985) Provide graphic annals of families membership, characteristics, and interpersonal relationships Reflect the transmission of family patterns from generation to generation (Kuehl, 1995) and provide a provisional blueprint for change (Lieberman, 1979, p. 57).

54 Reflective Exercise #3 The Cultural Genogram Constantine 2003
In your small groups, discuss the demographic variables you use to identify yourself culturally including SES, race, ethnicity, religion, gender/sexual identity, education etc. What worldviews (e.g., values, assumptions, and biases) do you bring to supervision based on your cultural identities? What struggles and challenges have you faced working with supervisees who were from different cultures than your own?

55 Cultural Awareness Continuum in Supervision Cross,1989
Cultural Destructiveness- superiority of dominant culture and inferiority of other cultures; active discrimination Cultural Incapacity- Separate but equal treatment- passive discrimination Cultural Blindness- Sees all cultures and people as alike and equal; discrimination by ignoring culture Cultural Openness (Sensitivity)- Basic understanding & appreciation of importance sociocultural factors in work with minority populations Cultural Competence- Capacity to work with more complex issues and cultural nuances Cultural Proficiency- Highest capacity for work with minority populations; a commitment to excellence and proactive effort

56 Culturally Responsive Supervision
Inclusive of the multiple awareness of self and other Multi-cultural competence as a stated mutual goal of supervision Strong working alliance in supervisory dyad supports trust and respect vital for risk-taking, development of self-awareness and multicultural sensitivity Self awareness is a prerequisite for multi cultural competency (Richardson&Molinaro 1996)

57 Teaching Multicultural Competence
Encourage - acceptance and respect for cultural differences in supervisor/ therapist/client relationships - adaptation of supervisory/therapeutic approaches to fit socio-cultural contexts - self-awareness regarding the impact of values, attitudes, biases and cultural differences  acquisition of cultural knowledge and sensitivity a multicultural experience in the world provision of services to accommodate diversity in culture and socioeconomic status reflection on beliefs and behaviors related to age, gender, ethnicity, power, religion/spirit uality, context, etc.

58 Seek factual knowledge when faced with new cultural situations
Develop an open and sensitive working alliance with your supervisee Practice Mindful awareness and teach it Be aware that matching of supervisor and supervisee personal characteristics does not seem to be crucial in the creation of meaningful relationships Recognize that the ability of the supervisor to discuss similarities and differences seems to be the critical dimension

59 The Professional Genogram Magnuson (2000)
to examine influences of professional mentors, authors, and theorists. parallel the family genogram structure feature a chronology of direct professional mentors, influential theorists and philosophies above participant symbols lines can be added to illustrate relationships between the persons, philosophies, and entities that are symbolized provides a forum for examining assumptions that inform the person-of the-professional

60 Reflective Exercise #4 With 3-4 other participants discuss what methods of Reflective Clinical Supervisory practice you are currently using and find helpful. What other method or tool will you try next week?

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