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DRUG & ALCOHOL TRAINING FOR SUPERVISORS Prepared by DAVID HELTON PROGRAM ADMINISTRATOR.

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Presentation on theme: "DRUG & ALCOHOL TRAINING FOR SUPERVISORS Prepared by DAVID HELTON PROGRAM ADMINISTRATOR."— Presentation transcript:

1 DRUG & ALCOHOL TRAINING FOR SUPERVISORS Prepared by DAVID HELTON PROGRAM ADMINISTRATOR

2 Purpose of Presentation To provide Training for Supervisors as required by FMCSA To provide Reasonable Suspicion training as required by FMCSA To provide 60 minutes of Substance abuse observation training/discussion. To provide 60 minutes of Alcohol abuse observation training/discussion.

3 Reasonable Suspicion testing (a)An employer shall require a driver to submit to an alcohol test when the employer has reasonable suspicion to believe that the driver has violated prohibitions of subpart (b) of this part concerning alcohol. The employer’s determination that reasonable suspicion exists to require the driver to undergo an alcohol tests must be based on specific contemporaneous ( EXISTING OR CREATED IN THE SAME PERIOD OF TIME ) articulable observations concerning work performance, appearance, behavior, speech or body odors of the driver.

4 Reasonable Suspicion testing (b) An employer shall require a driver to submit to an substance test when the employer has reasonable suspicion to believe that the driver has violated prohibitions of subpart (b) of this part concerning substance abuse. The employer’s determination that reasonable suspicion exists to require the driver to undergo a substance tests must be based on specific contemporaneous, articulable observations concerning the work performance, appearance, behavior, speech or body odors of the driver.

5 Reasonable Suspicion testing The observations may include indications of the chronic and withdrawal effects of controlled substances.

6 Reasonable Suspicion testing (c) The required observations for alcohol and/or controlled substances reasonable suspicion testing shall be made by a supervisor or company official who is trained in accordance with The person who makes the determination that reasonable suspicion exists to conduct an alcohol test shall not conduct the alcohol test of the driver.

7 Reasonable Suspicion testing (d) Alcohol testing is authorized by this section only if the observations required by paragraph (a) of this section are made during, just preceding, or just after the period of the work day that the driver is required to be in compliance with this part. A driver may be directed by the employer to only undergo reasonable suspicion testing while the driver is performing safety –sensitive functions, just before safety sensitive functions, or just after the driver has ceased safety-sensitive functions.

8 Reasonable Suspicion testing (e)(1) If an alcohol test required by this section is not administered within two hours following the determination under paragraph (a) of this section, the employer shall prepare and maintain on file a record stating the reasons the alcohol tests was not promptly administered. If an alcohol test required by this section is not administered within eight hours following the determination under paragraph (a) of this section, the employer shall cease attempts to administer an alcohol test and shall state in the record the reasons for not administering the tests.

9 Reasonable Suspicion testing (2) Notwithstanding the absence of a reasonable suspicion alcohol tests under this section, no driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while the driver is under the influence of or impaired by alcohol, as shown by the behavioral, speech, and performance indicators of alcohol misuse, nor shall an employer permit the driver to perform safety-sensitive functions or continue to perform safety-sensitive functions, Until:

10 Reasonable Suspicion testing (i)An alcohol tests is administered and the drivers Alcohol concentration is less than 0.02 or (ii) Twenty four hours have elapsed following the determination under paragraph (a) of this section that there is reasonable suspicion to believe that the driver has violated the prohibitions this part concerning the use of alcohol.

11 Reasonable Suspicion testing. (3) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, no employer shall take action under this part against a driver solely based on the drivers behavior and appearance, with respect to alcohol use, in the absence of an alcohol tests. This does not prohibit an employer with independent authority of this part from taking action, otherwise consistent with law.

12 Reasonable Suspicion testing (f) A written record shall be made of the observations leading to an alcohol or controlled substances reasonable suspicion test, and signed by the supervisor or company official who made the observations, within 24 hours of the observed behavior or before the results of the alcohol or controlled substances tests are released, whichever is earlier

13 Training for Supervisors Each employer shall ensure that all persons designated to supervise drivers receive at least 60 minutes of training on alcohol misuse and receive 60 minutes of training on controlled substances use.. The training will be used by supervisors to determine whether reasonable suspicion exists to require a driver to undergo testing under The training shall include the physical, behavioral, speech, and performance indicators of controlled substances. Recurrent training is not required

14 Stimulants Amphetamine/Methamphetamine/Cocaine Also known as: Speed, Ice, Crystal, Crank Coke, Crack, Meth-amphetamine. Pharmaceutical Names: Adderall, ( Amphetamine for A.d.d.)

15 Stimulants Ecstasy(MDMA), Eve(MDA) These drugs will screen positive for Amphetamine or Methamphetamine, but will Confirm Negative for Amphetamine or Methamphetamine. USDOT does test for these drugs as of 10/01/2010

16 Meth-amphetamine

17 The Results of Meth Addiction

18 Stimulants Physical Description/Admin.  Coarse Powder  Small White to Clear Crystals  Capsules Various Size & Colors  Tablets Various Size & Colors  Snorted, Injected, Smoked, Swallowed

19 Stimulants Physical Indicators – Clinical Effects Restlessness, body tremors, excitement Euphoria, talkativeness, anxiety Dry mouth Depression, sedation ( post effect) dilated pupils elevated temp, burns on lips & hands Odors of ( cat urine type smell ) dehydration Increased Heart Rate, Tachycardia, Palpations, Arrhythmias

20 Stimulants.. Appearance, Behavior Needle marks on arms Long little finger nail ( typical in South American/Mexican users) Sniffing Redness around nasal area Irritability Agitation Raspy hoarse speech Talkativeness Twitching/jerking motions Swinging of arms Lack of concentration Looking away from the person who is speaking to them. (hiding the pupils.)

21 Stimulants Duration of Effects Cocaine – 5 –90 Minutes Amphetamine 4 – 8 Hours Methamphetamine 12 Hours MDMA, MDA – 4 – 8 Hours

22 Stimulants Detection Times in Urine  Amphetamine/Methamphetamine 1 –2 days in Urine  Cocaine - 2 – 4 days in Urine  MDMA, MDA – 1 day Detection times can increase by frequency of use

23 Depressants – Sedatives - Hypnotics Barbiturates, Amytal, Butisol, Nembutal, Luminal, Seconal, Tuinal, Florinal Also known as Barbs, Downers, Tranqs Benzodiazepines, Ativan, Halcion, Librium, Valium, Xanax, Rohypnol Also known as Bennies, Rophies Methqualone, Quaalude also known as Ludes

24 Depressants Physical Description Administration Tablets Capsules Liquid White Powder Typically Oral, Occasionally injected

25 Depressants - Physical Indicators Clinical Effects Depression, Disorientation Sedation, Sluggish Droopy Eyelids Slowed Slurred Speech Hypnotic Dilated Pupils

26 Depressants - Duration of Effects Barbiturates 1 – 16 Hours Benzodiazepines (tranquilizers) 4 – 8 hours Methaqualone – 14 days

27 Depressants - Detection Times Barbiturates 1 day ( short acting ) in Urine Barbiturates 2 to 3 weeks ( long acting ) in Urine Benzodiazepines 3 days ( short acting ) in Urine Benzodiazepines 4 – 6 weeks ( Chronic Use) in Urine Methaqualone 14 days Detection times can increase by frequency of use

28 Narcotics – Analgesics – Opiates Also Known As.. oSmack oTar oChasing the Dragon oHeroin ochiva

29 Heroin What is heroin? A) Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive opiate drug. Its abuse is more widespread than any other opiate. Heroin is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of certain varieties of poppy plants. It is typically sold as a white or brownish powder or as the black sticky substance known on the streets as "black tar heroin." Although purer heroin is becoming more common, most street heroin is "cut" with other drugs or with substances such as sugar, starch, powdered milk, or quinine. Street heroin can also be cut with strychnine or other poisons. Because heroin abusers do not know the actual strength of the drug or its true contents, they are at risk of overdose or death. Heroin also poses special problems because of the transmission of HIV and other diseases that can occur from sharing needles or other injection equipment.

30 Narcotics – Analgesics – Opiates Pharmaceutical Names.. oHeroin ( no longer a Pharmaceutical name ) oMorphine oCodeine oOxy Cotine oOxycodone oDilaudid oPercodan oVicodin (hydrocodone) oPropoxyphene (Darvon) No longer available oMethadone

31 Narcotics – Analgesics – Opiates Physical Description – Administration White, Brown, or Black Powder Liquids Tablets Capsules Injectable Oral Snorted Smoked

32 Narcotics – Analgesics – Opiates Physical Indicators – Clinical Effects oDroopy Eyelids oDrowsiness oDepressed reflexes oRaspy slow speech oDepression oSedation oPupil size Pinpoint oShallow Breathing, Slowed Heart Rate

33 Narcotics – Analgesics – Opiates Duration of Effects oOpiates 4 – 6 Hours oMethadone Up to 24 hrs oPropoxyphene up to 24 Hours

34 Narcotics – Analgesics – Opiates Detection Times in Urine oOpiates 2 days in Urine oMethadone 3 days in Urine oPropoxyphene 6 hrs to 2 days in Urine Detection times can increase by frequency of use

35 Phencyclidine Also Known As:  PCP  Angel Dust  Sherman  No Pharmaceutical Use  Embalming Fluid (Could be component )  Not Widely used

36 Phencyclidine Physical Description – Administration  Pills  Capsules  White Powder  Oral, Injected, Snorted, Smoked  Sherman cigarette dipped in embalming fluid, dried, then smoked.

37 Phencyclidine Physical Indicators – Clinical Effects  Blank Stare  Incomplete Verbal Response  Confusion  Odor of Chemical type smell  Aggressive Behavior  Elevated Blood Pressure

38 Phencyclidine Duration of Effects:  4 – 6 Hours Detection Times  14 days in Urine

39 LSD – Hallucinogens This is not part of USDOT testing, you would need to request under Non-Dot Test. Also Known as; Acid White Crystalline material Impregnated Sugar Cubes Blotter Paper Gelatin Sheets Causes Dilated Pupils, Visual Illusions, Sensory Cross – Over, Raised Heart Rate Detection Time – 2 –4 Days in Urine ( Specimen is Photo Sensitive)

40 Marijuana – Cannabis - THC Also Known As Dope, Weed, Hemp, Hash, Columbian, Sensemilla Street Slang “420”, or “13”, “Chronic”. Pharmaceutical Names: Marinol

41 Marijuana – Cannabis - THC Physical Description Dry Crusted Leaves, Buds ( Green or Brown) Hand Rolled Cigarettes Hard Chunks of Resin Dark, Viscous Liquid

42 Marijuana

43 Marijuana – Cannabis - THC Administration Smoked Cooked & Eaten in Foods Boiled & Drank as Tea

44 Marijuana – Cannabis – THC  Physical Indicators - Clinical Effects  Redness of eye or Conjunctiva  Odor of Marijuana  Increased Appetite ( munchies)  Disorientation, Agitation ( quick temper)  Increased Heart Rate  Increased Blood Pressure  Photophobia  Paranoia

45 Marijuana – Cannabis - THC Duration of Effects 2 – 3 Hours Impairment can last up to 24 Hours without self Awareness

46 Marijuana – Cannabis - THC Detection Time in Urine Detection time is just a few days up to 2 months. This is based on the individuals Metabolism, Frequency & Quantity of Use. Also the Potency of Marijuana Varies which effects the Absorption Rate. Marijuana is a Fat Bound Metabolite, and this is why detection time is longer.

47 Alcohol (Ethyl) Pharmaceutical Name: Ethanol Detected in Urine up to 12 Hours Clinical Effects: Intoxication Loss of Motor Control Lethargy (fatigue) Aggressive behavior Stupor Alcohol Odor from Breath & Sweat Glands

48 Alcohol (Ethyl) The Rules prohibit a covered employee from performing Safety-Sensitive functions: IF..  A Breath test results indicates an alcohol concentration of or greater. This will Require a completion of a SAP (Substance Abuse Professional Evaluation) before returning to Safety-Sensitive functions: or  If they Refuse an Alcohol test.  When Results are – 0.039, employee must be removed from Safety-Sensitive for 24 Hours and until they receive a test below This is not a violation that requires a SAP (Substance Abuse Professional Evaluation)

49 Alcohol (Ethyl). What is Alcohol ? >Its is a drug > It is a poison (toxin) >It is a food > It is a depressant Acts like Novocain by dulling the nerve endings. Supplies body energy, Slows body functions, can burn, is volatile, has little smell, “loves” water. >It is addictive >It impairs performance

50 Alcohol (Ethyl) Chemically alcohol is made up of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms. There are 3 types of alcohol Methyl or Methanol is derived from products containing cellulose. Not for human consumption Isopropyl Alcohol is generally used as a disinfectant, not for human consumption. Ethyl or Ethanol is derived from fermentation of fruits, vegetables and grains. This is most commonly consumed by humans

51 Alcohol Blood Levels 0.04 % The level at which the American Medical Association determined all people are impaired to some degree. Also USDOT Violation Level 0.05 –0.10 % Signs of impairment become more pronounced 0.08 % Level of presumptive driver impairment in many states % Average DUII arrest % High Level of Impairment % Possible Coma result 0.50% Life Threatening, Death.

52 Alcohol related Accidents

53 Questions and Answers 1)What are the observations that a Supervisor must make before determining reasonable suspicion ? appearance, behavior, speech, body odors, Work Performance, Physical indicators. 2)What type of record must be on file within 24 hours of the observed behavior, and before the any test are released ? Written 3)What is the detection time of Cocaine in Urine ? 2 – 4 days 4)What is Phencyclidine ? PCP, Angel Dust 5)What is the Pharmaceutical use PCP ? No Pharmaceutical Use 6)How long is Alcohol detectable in Urine ? Up to 12 Hours 7)Name 1 drugs that are not tested under USDOT? LSD.

54 Questions and Answers 8) What is 3 Physical Indicators of Marijuana ?  Redness of eye or Conjunctiva  Odor of Marijuana  Increased Appetite ( munchies)  Disorientation, Agitation ( quick temper)  Increased Heart Rate  Increased Blood Pressure  Photophobia  Paranoia

55 Questions and Answers What are 3 types of Alcohol ? >Ethyl or Ethanol > Methyl or Methanol > Isopropyl

56 Questions and Answers What level of Alcohol Intoxication is a USDOT Violation ?  0.04% and higher

57 Recognizing Symptoms The following are a list of performance and behavior problems that are common to substance abuse. However, it is important to remember that these symptoms do not necessarily indicate as substance abuse problem. next slide

58 Recognizing Symptoms PERFORMANCE inconsistent work quality poor concentration lowered productivity increased absenteeism unexplained disappearances from jobsite errors in judgment careless mistakes needless risk taking

59 Recognizing Symptoms BEHAVIOR frequent financial problems avoidance of friends blaming others not looking others in eyes ( looking away to avoid pupil detection) Complaints and ill temper excuses and vaguely defining illnesses deterioration in personal appearances

60 Observing and Documenting Current Indicators Patterns of Performance and Behavior should be documented by a Supervisor and accompanied by indicators of impairment to establish “Reasonable Cause”. This should be brought to the attention of a Human Resource Medical Nurse or Administrator.

61 Documenting Current Indicators __Constricted Pupils __Drowsiness __Dilated Pupils __Order of Alcohol __Scratching __Nasal Secretion __Red or Watery Eyes __Dizziness __Involuntary Eye Movements __in-coordination __Sniffles __Unconsciousness __Excessive Activity __Inability to Verbalize __Nausea or Vomiting __Irritable __Flushed Skin __Argumentative __Sweating __Slurred Speech __Yawning __Bizarre Behavior __Twitching __Violent Behavior

62 Determining Reasonable Cause If you are able to document one or more of the previous indicators, Ask yourself these Questions to establish reasonable cause.  Has some form of impairment been shown in the employees appearance, actions or work performance ?  Does the impairment result from possible drugs or alcohol ?  Are the facts reliable ? Did you witness them personally ?  Are the facts capable of explanation ?  Are the facts capable of documentation ?  Is the impairment current, today, now ? If you can Answer ‘YES’ to all of these questions, then Reasonable Cause is established. Proceed to the Collection Site for testing. Employee Refusal to test is a DOT Violation. Contact your Medical Review Officer.

63 How to Intervene When an employee’s performance begins to deteriorate for whatever reason, the supervisor has a right and responsibility to intervene. IMPORTANT > If substance abuse is suspected, the intervention should only focus on work performance issues. Maintain Control of the conversation. Stick to the facts as they affect work performance. Don’t rely on memory; have all supporting documents and records available. Do not discuss your suspicion of alcohol or drug use with employee. Explain company policy regarding work performance. Offer help in resolving work performance issues. Exception; If you smell alcohol or marijuana, Test employee immediately based on this Body Odor evidence. Always perform DOT Urine testing with a DOT Breath Alcohol Test combined for all Reasonable Cause Testing.

64 Certification  Instructions for SUPERVISOR TRAINING  The Designated Employer Representative(s) (DER) are to review the following workbook for approximately 2 hours.  Quiz given M-F from 12:00pm –3:00pm Pacific Time. When they have finished reading and discussing this workbook, call and I will give them their Quiz over the phone to fully certify them in this class.  After the Quiz is passed, a Certificate will be sent out with additional Information.  Also, Review Employer Responsibilities on the Links If you have any questions please call David (800)


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