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Supervisory Behavior Continuum

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Presentation on theme: "Supervisory Behavior Continuum"— Presentation transcript:

1 Supervisory Behavior Continuum
R. Martin Reardon’s summary of Chapter 6 Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2009),

2 Purposeful behaviors…
…contribute to the decision being made at the conference or meeting Listening Looks at speaker; nods head to indicate understanding; says “uh-huh” etc. Clarifying “Do you mean that…” “Would you explain…” “I’m confused about…” Encouraging Help the speaker to continue to explain. “Continue on” “Tell me more” Reflecting Summarizes & paraphrases speaker’s words. “So, the issue is…” Presenting S gives own ideas. “This is how I see it…” “What can be done is…” Problem Solving Pressing for a list of possible solutions. “Let’s each write down what could be done…” 7 – 10… Session 6: 21 slides

3 Purposeful behaviors (ii)
Negotiating S moves from possible to probable. “How can we change that to be acceptable to all?” Directing S tells particpant(s) what the choices are (“These are the alternatives. Which will you choose?”) OR what to do “I want you to…” “The policy will be…” Standardizing S sets expected criteria & time. “By next Monday, I want…” Reinforcing S hints at possible consequences Positive: “I know you can do it!” Negative: “If it’s not done on time…” Session 6: 21 slides

4 Continuum of purposeful behaviors
Session 6: 21 slides

5 Who controls the final decision?
Outcome Teacher self-plan Mutual plan Supervisor-suggested plan Supervisor-dictated plan Approach Nondirective Collaborative Directive Informational Directive Control Session 6: 21 slides

6 “Know thyself…” Johari Window Known to S Not known to S Known to T
1. Public self 2. Blind Self Not known to T 3. Private self 4. Unknown self Session 6: 21 slides

7 Why bother to think about myself?
Needed to maximize effectiveness as Supervisor Choice to remain a private person creates an unhelpful distance Examples? Need to be aware of our stance & whether we wish faculty to be so with us Can only improve what we know Inability to face shortcomings can lead to disaster Session 6: 21 slides

8 Cognitive Dissonance Session 6: 21 slides

9 Cognitive Dissonance (ii)
E.G., rd Presidential Debate Kerry: support for partial-birth abortion v membership of Roman Catholic Church Cog.Diss. especially relevant with teachers Conscious of “calling” to be teacher Supporting “cause beyond oneself” Motivated by achieving the greater good Leader proposing changes likely to be proposing dissonant cognitions Strongly held & at least tacit reasons for what they do Session 6: 21 slides

10 Cognitive Dissonance (iii)
Magnitude of Cog. Diss. related to both Number & Importance of dissonant cognitions Dissonance Ratio can be reduced by Removing dissonant cognitions Adding consonant cognitions Reducing importance of dissonant cognitions Increasing importance of consonant cognitions Session 6: 21 slides

11 The (non)listening principal:
Removing dissonant cognitions The faculty are not qualified to judge; they don’t see all the occasions when I listen really well Adding consonant cognitions My secretary says I’m a good listener Reducing importance of dissonant cognitions This survey has to be taken in the context of all the testimonials saying how good a listener I am Increasing importance of consonant cognitions The superintendent thinks I’m a good listener Session 6: 21 slides

12 The habitual smoker…evidence of related health problems (Festinger, 1957)
“I have stopped smoking” Change dissonant cognition to consonant “I don’t believe smoking is bad for my health” Eliminates dissonant cognition “smoking is a health hazard” “I experience a number of positive effects” Adding consonant cognitions “I observe I am more likely to die from a car accident” Reduces the importance of the dissonant cognition “I consider smoking as an important part of my lifestyle” Increases the importance of the consonant cognition Session 6: 21 slides

13 Four paradigms Free-choice paradigm
Any choice is accompanied by awareness of the +ve aspects of choice & -ve aspects of rejected alternative (opportunity cost) Difficult decision will arouse great dissonance INCREASES the motivation to see the chosen alternative as more desirable “spreading of alternatives” Post-decision adjustment of position Portrayed as being entirely consistent Session 6: 21 slides

14 Session 6: 21 slides

15 Four paradigms (ii) Belief-Disconfirmation Paradigm
Relates to behavior when people confronted by information inconsistent with their beliefs Misperceive or misinterpret information Decrease importance of dissonant cognition Reject or refute the information (as above) Seek support from those who agree with original belief Increase the importance of consonant cognition Attempt to persuade others to accept original belief Increase the number of consonant cognitions Session 6: 21 slides

16 Session 6: 21 slides

17 Four paradigms (iii) Effort-Justification Paradigm
“Effort” = having to engage in an unpleasant activity The more unpleasant, the greater the dissonance INCREASES the motivation to see the chosen alternative as more desirable Session 6: 21 slides

18 Session 6: 21 slides

19 Four paradigms (iv) Induced-Compliance Paradigm
Social situations can induce one to say something that is contrary to a prior belief Leads to cognitive dissonance Lessened if one utters dissonant statement under great duress The smaller the reward for saying something one doesn’t believe, the GREATER one’s opinion changes to create consonance Negative incentive effect People paid small amounts speak positively of task Forbidden-toy effect Overly-severe punishment threat engenders greater desire Session 6: 21 slides

20 Session 6: 21 slides

21 Supervisor’s Self-Assessment (p. 100)
Take it yourself When you have the opportunity to involve others…1-2, 2-3, 1-4, 3-4 Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Teacher 1 3 Supervisor (you) 2 4 Session 6: 21 slides

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