Presentation on theme: "310 Asian Humanities 1 September 2011 Southeast Asia and Early Maritime Trade."— Presentation transcript:
310 Asian Humanities 1 September 2011 Southeast Asia and Early Maritime Trade
Regional map Oc-eo or Funan 1st - 7thc.s, present-day Vietnam Srivijaya Champa Srivijaya th c.s Rose to prominence after the decline of Funan, maintained close relations with Java’s Sailendras. Srivijaya th c.s Rose to prominence after the decline of Funan, maintained close relations with Java’s Sailendras. Champa 7-15th c.s Chenla Chenla 7-12th c. Predecessor of Angkorian empires Sailendras 8-9th c.s Early Empires in Southeast Asia
Regional map Srivijaya Champa Chinese Tributary System “Vassal states” were allowed to trade with China, sending missions to China. In return they received: Protection Status & regional recognition Prized Chinese goods Chinese Tributary System “Vassal states” were allowed to trade with China, sending missions to China. In return they received: Protection Status & regional recognition Prized Chinese goods Chenla Sailendras 8-9th c.s Early Empires in Southeast Asia
Srivijaya, Sumatra 7-14 th centuries SRIVIJAYA map
I-ching Trade items based on recent 9-10th c. shipwreck excavations -- an Arab dhow Chinese ceramics, mirrors -- Thai pottery -- Metal ingots of bronze, tin, lead and silver -- Indonesian gold jewelry, bronze religious items -- Arab glass, iron pots -- Cooking ware The Belitung shipwreck was undertaken by a for-profit, professional salvage company -- good or bad?
Srivijaya, Sumatra 7-14 th centuries I-ching I-Ching The 7th c. traveling monk I-Ching described a monastery with 1,000 monks, and Srivijaya as an important center for learning.
A 10th century Arab traveler, al-Mas’udi wrote, “One finds here the kingdom of the Maharaja, the king of the islands, who commands an empire without limits and with innumerable troops. The fastest vehicle [ship] could not in two years make the tour of the islands, which are under his domination. The lands of this king produce all kinds of spices and aromatics, and no other sovereign in the world extracts as much wealth from his country.” -- Quoted in Geoffrey Wade, “An Early Age of Commerce in Southeast Asia, CE.” Other impressions
Om! Success!...All of you, as many of you are – sons of kings, chiefs, army commanders, confidants of the king, judges, surveors of groups of workmen, surveyors of low castes, cutlers, … clerks, sculptors, naval captains, merchants, ….And you – washermen of the king and slaves of the king – all of you will be killed by the curse of this imprecation; if you are not faithful to me, you will be killed by the curse … However, if you are submissive, faithful and straight to me and do not commit these crimes, an immaculate tantra will be my recompense. You will not be swallowed with your children and wives …. Eternal peace will be the fruit produced by this curse which is drunk by you. A Local inscription: Telaga Batu Telaga Batu
Chola dynasty 200 BCE CE A modern-day Shiva lingam Shiva lingam in the Chola temple Brihadeeswarar -- a tribute to the king and Shiva Shiva lingam
Nalanda Buddhist center for learning, 5 c. - 12th c. (destroyed by Muslim Turks). Located in Bihar, India Accommodated 10,000 students, 1,500 teachers Included: A vast library, classrooms, dormitories, temples, gardens, meditation halls Subjects: religion, meditation, philosophy, literature, sciences
Contributions: primarily within the court cultures -- Architecture (temples and palace layout) -- Literature (Ramayana, Mahabharata) -- Alphabets, scripts (all S.E.A. scripts based on Indic ones) -- Philosophy & religion -- Concepts of governance, social structure -- Sciences: astronomy, mathematics -- Priests, travelers INDIANIZATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA
A thalassocracy or trading entrepôt, th centuries Controlled passageway through the Strait of Malacca. Served as a safe, well-managed port for outside and regional visitors. Gained China’s sponsorship (Chinese tributary system); sent 20 trade missions between Gathered for trade resources of neighboring islands and Sumatra: forest resins, sandalwood, spices, medicinal herbs, etc. Decline likely due to regional competition; attacked in 10th c. by Cholas (India). Summing up Srivijaya: Trade
Supported a Buddhist center for learning with as many as 1,000 scholars. Patron of Nalanda (Buddhist) University in N. India (Bihar region) Ruler demanded loyalty of his subjects, used a naga stone for loyalty oath Chinese, Arab, India and regional visitors all speak of the awesome reach of Srivijaya. * A predecessor of other maritime centers, notably Melaka and Singapore. Summing up Srivijaya: Culture
Malacca, 14 th c. Singapore, 19 th c. Java 9 th - 15 th c. Srivijaya 7-14 c. Srivijaya and succesors Srivijya successors
*The image above, from London’s Victoria and Albert Museum, is a painting donated by Rudyard Kipling in 1917, part of a collection gathered by his father when he was head of the Lahore School of art. See V&A’s page on Hinduism and searchable art collection: shttp://www.vam.ac.uk/page/h/hinduism/ s Coming up: Section 2 - Ramayana Worlds WK 3. GODS AND PHILOSOPHY: HINDUISM Readings due: T/Sept. 6: Ramayana, Intro i-xii; Intro (2); pps Th/Sept. 8: Ramayana, pps Class Sessions: T/Sept. 6: The Hindu Pantheon Th/Sept. 8: Culture Transmission in Literature: The Ramayana As you read the opening sections, don’t expect a “straight-forward,” Western narrative: Narayan is trying to capture that sense of traditional story-telling, which we’ll be discussing next week.
*The image above, from London’s Victoria and Albert Museum, is a painting donated by Rudyard Kipling in 1917, part of a collection gathered by his father when he was head of the Lahore School of art. See V&A’s page on Hinduism and searchable art collection: shttp://www.vam.ac.uk/page/h/hinduism/ s Over to you-- Introductions The Name Game -- who has the best memory? Split up into groups of 3 people -- introduce yourselves, and be ready to make a 1-2 min. intro to the class, hitting the highlights. Introductions