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1 DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABLE BREEDING OF LOCAL CHICKEN FOR IMPROVED PRODUCTIVITY UNDER LOCAL ALTERNATIVE FEED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND HEALTH CONTROL: A SUCCESS STORY Christian Keambou Tiambo 1*, Raquel Juliano Soares 2 and Frederico Lisita 2 1 University of Buea- Cameroon, 2 Embrapa Pantanal- Brasil *PO Box 63 Buea – Cameroon, E-mail: 1

2 Plan Introduction Objectives Progress Achieved Results and products delivered Sustainability Growth Potential Innovation Conclusion 2

3 Introduction For small farmers in developing countries, local chicken is a unique opportunity for savings, investment and guard against risk. It represents 75-85% of the total poultry production in Cameroon (Keambou et al. 2007). They are technically and financially easy to breed, this explain it presence in more than 85% of poor rural households. 3

4 Local chicken: a high quality protein source for the family a living capital quickly mobilized in case of financial crisis, But low productivity as compared to its commercial counterpart. 4

5 Upgrading local chicken = great positive effect on socio- economical and dietary status of the most deprived, Conditions: control reproduction, health, diet, management systems etc. Past initiatives were focused on genetic improvement by introducing exotic genes, arguing that upgraded nutrition would have no effect on native poultry low genetic potential. 5

6 The potential of native breeds and their role in converting locally available feed resources in sustainable production now recognized. Our intention: to provide farmers with actual technics, hands-on tools, scientific and farm managerial skills to use the potential of local chicken to mend rural livelihood. 6

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8 Objectives 1. Detection and selection of local chicken with useful QTL for production and disease resistance. Development of SSR related African (or tropical) local chicken for improved quality and quantity of egg layed and resistance to Newcastle, Marek and Gumboro diseases. 8

9 2. Train rural farmers on the nutritional, health management through good husbandry practices to ensure food security in their area, and on farming and utilization of alternative feed resources (moringa, maggot, earthworm, snails, cassava...). 3. Develop and promote various balance rations and feed supplement pellets from locally alternative feed resources. 9

10 4. Protect the existing flock against major prevalent diseases through appropriate vaccination planning (thermostable vaccines) and veterinary cares (local pharmacopeia). 5. Design and implement small cost effective solar/non electricity-dependent incubators. 10

11 Progress Achieved The project team : a dynamic youth in line with the development of local chickens’ farmers in the Western and Southwest regions of Cameroon. 11

12 Meeting with local communities: -CIG leaders in their various communities, -explain the main articulations of the project and the role to be played by each other, -be aware of their expectations and for us to agree of a common basis for the success of the project. 12

13 Training of farmers on alternative crops production: -Moringa, corn and soya bean seed, cassava and sweet potato cuttings distributed to CIG. -Assistance in planting process on their community plots. -Advantage of handworkers (farmers themselves) and opportunity of in situ capacity building of the farmers. 13

14 -Breeding of parental stocks -Feed milling mixing unit, -pellet machine -Small hatching unit Implementation of the Pilot poultry farm: 14

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16 Training of communities’ vaccinators and poultry health care agents: -A minimum of two (02) vaccinators and chicken health care agents trained for each community. -Health care agents also trained on blood sampling for disease testing. 16

17 Vaccination in villages: -Participatory vaccinations in CIGs’ communities, -Take advantage of the support from livestock extension service agents and trained community vaccinators. 17

18 Production of leaflets on Local chicken improved technics: -4 bilingual (English and French) leaflets on local chicken improved technics produced and distributed to farmers. -Soft copies available, open wright to propagate. 18

19 In situ training of farmers on improved rearing technics using locally available materials: -The essence: to mobilize locally available materials for poultry production. -Activities using exclusively a participatory approach: no standard model, base on material available and willingness and preferences of farmers. 19

20 Distribution of chicks to farmers: -a minimum of 200 chicks are produced each month, -chicks started, vaccinated before being transferred to farmers. -Part of the production used for various tests. 20

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22 Results and products delivered -61 CIG sensitized up to date, -CIGs have been represented in general meetings by 2-3 members. -95% of the CIGs have received at least on training session on alternative crop production. -Not all the groups adopted the different crop proposed by the project, but accepted the principle that locally available crop could enter the chicken rations. 22

23 -1/3 of the CIGs have already received chicks that they are rearing under the monitoring of the project. -44 community vaccinators and poultry health care agents were trained for the two regions. -296 direct rural households have participated to the project, -2274 local chickens kept by farmers before the chicks’ distributions were vaccinated. 23

24 -1600 bilingual (French-English) produced and distributed during the practical on-field training sessions. -More than 500 rural dwellers, benefited from our trainings. 24

25 Agricultural led growth usually has strong multiplier effects in local and regional economies (Asian case), stimulating substantial economic development through increased local employment and increased rural spending power (Delgado et al., 1998). Developing an enterprise that produces a tradable product such as local poultry, which draws on under-utilized resources such as labour (i.e. husbandry practices and local manufacture of inputs such as cages), has the potential to stimulate economic growth 25

26 Sustainability ?? The growth effect (which is expected firstly in project’s farmers, as demonstrated by Ekue et al., 2008) will be “multiplied” if further production and employment result from the initial increase in household incomes; where the multiplier is defined as the ratio of change in “local” income to the change in autonomous expenditure that brought it about (Lipsey, 1989). 26

27 -Rapid genetic gain for eggs and growth potential in local chicken, -Technical assistance of farmers during the project -Their capacity building -training of trainers and health care agents within each community Will insure high level of production and distribution of chicks, enhance and strengthen the sustainability of the project initiative indefinitely. 27

28 -The feed and pellets producing unit will continue running. -We envisage each farmers’ group able of self-funding it “pilot” farms and ensure sustainable production of fertile eggs and chicks after the project period. -The components and result are highly replicable and the multiplier effect of local networking will boost spreading of technics and distribution high performing chickens all over the country. -Adoption of heat tolerant vaccines will allow usage where there is no electricity supply. 28

29 Growth Potential The initial impetus to growth comes from relieving supply constraints (Delgado et al., 1998). This usually involves technological change that cuts unit costs of production for tradables, but could be any factor that shifts the supply curve for tradables to the right (Delgado, 1996). Backward growth linkages are maximized when farmers and their labour spend their income (earned from the sale of poultry) on goods and services that are locally produced, non-agricultural, labour- intensive and non-tradable in nature (Mellor, 1976). 29

30 The main constraints in local poultry production (diseases, sub-optimal feeding and management practices) are targeted by the project. By combining feed supplementation, and vaccination, we expect a good return on investment that will permanently still be increased by improved management practices. 30

31 The low cost of feed supplement made from locally available materials will encourage farmers to supplement their chickens. Use of thermo-stable vaccines will salvage the 80% killed by disease outbreak each year, Cost effective solar incubator will allow rapid spreading of good genotypes even in remote areas. 31

32 Innovation The originality of the project stands on: -Development of high yielding and disease resistant chickens, -Management training of smallholder farmers, -Balanced creep feeding and proper feed supplementation, -Pelleted feed supplement, -vaccination strategy adapted to local requirement based on proper diagnosis, -Thermo-stable vaccine for remote areas, -Region specific training. 32

33 AGR-SAD: provide adequate basic poultry services, extension and business development services. Excite business endeavours, develop links among stakeholders, promote use of novelties in local chicken business so as to break the low capacity, extensive poverty and lack of drive to engage and invest in local chicken breeding. 33

34 This involves: -mobilization of farmers for entrepreneurship, -self-organization, -joint selling facility via networks or groups. This aims at supporting capacity building for a system of commercial rural native fowl initiatives. 34

35 AGR-SAD will surely and indirectly develop local private sector supply systems for chicken feeds and veterinary services. students to support poultry farmers as part of their internship ♯ quality and timely extension and advisory services. The cost effective incubators to cover the need of hatchery industry for indigenous chicks. 35

36 36 The programme is progressively displaying its potential development impact that will be evaluated: -full time employment opportunities for rural dwellers, -increased cash income per family, -additional animal protein in each family breeding local chicken, -increase women’s and youth control of resources, -Possibility of re-investment of funds generated into other agricultural, trade or social sectors. Conclusion

37 37 We expect the innovative aspect of the project to be spread out to other communities and countries.

38 Lookouts -funds raising to reinforce the production capacity of the central experimental and demonstration farm and extend the initiative to other regions and countries of the sub region -Create the federation of family poultry producer in the nearest future -Explore possibilities and create local genetic resources conservation centers 38

39 Sustainable choice? 39


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