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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Cash Flow and Financial Planning
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-2 Objectives Understand tax depreciation procedures and the effect of depreciation on the firm ’ s cash flows Discuss the firm ’ s statement of cash flows, operating cash flow, and free cash flow. Understand the financial planning process, including long-term (strategic) financial plans and short-term (operating) financial plans.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-3 Analyzing the Firm’s Cash Flow Cash flow (as opposed to accounting “ profits ” ) is the primary ingredient in any financial valuation model. From an accounting perspective, cash flow is summarized in a firm ’ s statement of cash flows. From a financial perspective, firms often focus on both operating cash flow, which is used in managerial decision-making, and free cash flow, which is closely monitored by participants in the capital market.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-4 Depreciation Depreciation is the portion of the costs of fixed assets charged against annual revenues over time. Depreciation for tax purposes is determined by using the modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS). On the other hand, a variety of other depreciation methods are often used for reporting purposes.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-5 Depreciation: An Example Baker Corporation acquired a new machine at a cost of $38,000, with installation costs of $2,000. When the machine is retired from service, Baker expects that it will sell it for scrap metal and receive $1,000. What is the depreciable value of the machine? –Regardless of its expected salvage value, the depreciable value of the machine is $40,000: $38,000 cost + $2,000 installation cost.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-6 Depreciation: Depreciable Value and Depreciable Life Under the basic MACRS procedures, the depreciable value of an asset is its full cost, including outlays for installation. No adjustment is required for expected salvage value. For tax purposes, the depreciable life of an asset is determined by its MACRS recovery predetermined period. MACRS property classes and rates are shown in Table 4.1 and Table 4.2 on the following slides.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-7 Table 4.1 First Four Property Classes under MACRS
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-8 Table 4.2 Rounded Depreciation Percentages by Recovery Year Using MACRS for First Four Property Classes
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 4-9 Depreciation: An Example Baker Corporation acquired, for an installed cost of $40,000, a machine having a recovery period of 5 years. Using the applicable MACRS rates, the depreciation expense each year is as follows:
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Developing the Statement of Cash Flows The statement of cash flows summarizes the firm ’ s cash flow over a given period of time. Firm ’ s cash flows fall into three categories: –Operating flows: cash flows directly related to sale and production of the firm ’ s products and services. –Investment flows: cash flows associated with purchase and sale of both fixed assets and equity investments in other firms. –Financing flows: cash flows that result from debt and equity financing transactions; include incurrence and repayment of debt, cash inflow from the sale of stock, and cash outflows to repurchase stock or pay cash dividends.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Table 4.4 Baker Corporation 2012 Income Statement ($000)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Table 4.5a Baker Corporation Balance Sheets ($000)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Table 4.5b Baker Corporation Balance Sheets ($000)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Baker Corporation Statement of Cash Flows ($000) for the Year Ended December 31, 2012
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Interpreting Statement of Cash Flows The statement of cash flows ties the balance sheet at the beginning of the period with the balance sheet at the end of the period after considering the performance of the firm during the period through the income statement. The net increase (or decrease) in cash and marketable securities should be equivalent to the difference between the cash and marketable securities on the balance sheet at the beginning of the year and the end of the year.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Operating Cash Flow A firm ’ s operating Cash Flow (OCF) is the cash flow a firm generates from normal operations — from the production and sale of its goods and services. OCF may be calculated as follows: NOPAT = EBIT (1 – T) OCF = NOPAT + Depreciation OCF = [EBIT (1 – T)] + Depreciation
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Operating Cash Flow (cont.) Substituting for Baker Corporation, we get: Thus, we can conclude that Baker ’ s operations are generating positive operating cash flows. OCF = [$370 (1 –.40)] + $100 = $322
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Free Cash Flow Free cash flow (FCF) is the amount of cash flow available to investors (creditors and owners) after the firm has met all operating needs and paid for investments in net fixed assets (NFAI) and net current assets (NCAI). Where: FCF = OCF – NFAI – NCAI NFAI = Change in net fixed assets + Depreciation NCAI = Change in CA – Change in (A/P + Accruals)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Free Cash Flow (cont.) Using Baker Corporation we get: Thus, the firm generated adequate cash flow to cover all of its operating costs and investments and had free cash flow available to pay investors. FCF = $322 – $300 – $0 = $22 NFAI = [($1,200 – $1,000) + $100] = $300 NCAI = [($2,000 – $1,900) + ($800 - $700)] = $0
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Financial Planning Process The financial planning process begins with long-term, or strategic, financial plans that in turn guide the formulation of short-term, or operating, plans and budgets. Two key aspects of financial planning are cash planning and profit planning. –Cash planning involves the preparation of the firm ’ s cash budget. –Profit planning involves preparation of pro forma statements.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Financial Planning Process: Long-Term (Strategic) Financial Plans Long-term (strategic) financial plans lay out a company ’ s planned financial actions and the anticipated impact of those actions over periods ranging from 2 to 10 years. Firms that are subject to high degrees of operating uncertainty, relatively short production cycles, or both, tend to use shorter planning horizons. These plans are one component of a company ’ s integrated strategic plan (along with production and marketing plans) that guide a company toward achievement of its goals.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Financial Planning Process: Long-Term (Strategic) Financial Plans Long-term financial plans consider a number of financial activities including: –Proposed fixed asset investments –Research and development activities –Marketing and product development –Capital structure –Sources of financing These plans are generally supported by a series of annual budgets and profit plans.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Financial Planning Process: Short-Term (Operating) Financial Plans Short-term (operating) financial plans specify short- term financial actions and the anticipated impact of those actions. Key inputs include the sales forecast and other operating and financial data. Key outputs include operating budgets, the cash budget, and pro forma financial statements. This process is described graphically on the following slide.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Short-Term Financial Planning
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The Financial Planning Process: Short-Term (Operating) Financial Plans As indicated in the previous exhibit, short-term financial planning begins with a sales forecast. From this sales forecast, production plans are developed that consider lead times and raw material requirements. From the production plans, direct labor, factory overhead, and operating expense estimates are developed. From this information, the pro forma income statement and cash budget are prepared — ultimately leading to the development of the pro forma balance sheet.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Cash Planning: Cash Budgets The cash budget or cash forecast is a statement of the firm ’ s planned inflows and outflows of cash that is used to estimate its short-term cash requirements. Typically, the cash budget is designed to cover a 1-year period, divided into smaller time intervals. The more seasonal and uncertain a firm ’ s cash flows, the greater the number of intervals.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Cash Planning: Cash Budgets (cont.) A sales forecast is a prediction of the sales activity during a given period, based on external and/or internal data. The sales forecast is then used as a basis for estimating the monthly cash flows that will result from projected sales and from outlays related to production, inventory, and sales. The sales forecast may be based on an analysis of external data, internal data, or a combination of the two. –An external forecast is a sales forecast based on the relationships observed between the firm ’ s sales and certain key external economic indicators. –An internal forecast is a sales forecast based on a buildup, or consensus, of sales forecasts through the firm ’ s own sales channels.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Cash Planning: Cash Budgets An Example: Coulson Industries Coulson Industries, a defense contractor, is developing a cash budget for October, November, and December. Coulson ’ s sales in August and September were $100,000 and $200,000 respectively. Sales of $400,000, $300,000 and $200,000 have been forecast for October, November, and December. Historically, 20% of the firm ’ s sales have been for cash, 50% have been collected after 1 month, and the remaining 30% after 2 months. In December, Coulson will receive a $30,000 dividend from stock in a subsidiary.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Schedule of Projected Cash Receipts for Coulson Industries ($000)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Cash Planning: Cash Budgets An Example: Coulson Industries (cont.) Coulson has also gathered the relevant information for the development of a cash disbursement schedule. Purchases will represent 70% of sales — 10% will be paid immediately in cash, 70% is paid the month following the purchase, and the remaining 20% is paid two months following the purchase. The firm will also expend cash on rent, wages and salaries, taxes, capital assets, interest, dividends, and a portion of the principal on its loans. The resulting disbursement schedule thus follows.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Table 4.9 A Schedule of Projected Cash Disbursements for Coulson Industries ($000)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Cash Planning: Cash Budgets An Example: Coulson Industries (cont.) The Cash Budget for Coulson Industries can be derived by combining the receipts budget with the disbursements budget. At the end of September, Coulson ’ s cash balance was $50,000, notes payable was $0, and marketable securities balance was $0. Coulson also wishes to maintain a minimum cash balance of $25,000. As a result, it will have excess cash in October, and a deficit of cash in November and December. The resulting cash budget follows.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved A Cash Budget for Coulson Industries ($000)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Evaluating the Cash Budget Cash budgets indicate the extent to which cash shortages or surpluses are expected in the months covered by the forecast. The excess cash of $22,000 in October should be invested in marketable securities. The deficits in November and December need to be financed.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Profit Planning: Pro Forma Statements Pro forma financial statements are projected, or forecast, income statements and balance sheets. The inputs required to develop pro forma statements using the most common approaches include: –Financial statements from the preceding year –The sales forecast for the coming year –Key assumptions about a number of factors
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Evaluation of Pro Forma Statements (cont.) Analysts must understand how to use them to make financial decisions. –Financial managers and lenders can use pro forma statements to analyze the firm ’ s inflows and outflows of cash, as well as its liquidity, activity, debt, profitability, and market value. –Various ratios can be calculated from the pro forma income statement and balance sheet to evaluate performance. –Cash inflows and outflows can be evaluated by preparing a pro forma statement of cash flows. –After analyzing the pro forma statements, the financial manager can take steps to adjust planned operations to achieve short-term financial goals.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Summary Depreciation is a factor affecting a firm ’ s cash flow. An asset ’ s depreciable value and depreciable life are determined by using the MACRS standards in the federal tax code. The statement of cash flows is divided into operating, investment, and financing flows. It reconciles changes in the firm ’ s cash flows with changes in cash and marketable securities for the period. From a strict financial point of view, a firm ’ s operating cash flow is defined to exclude interest. Of greater importance is a firm ’ s free cash flow, which is the amount of cash flow available to creditors and owners. The two key aspects of the financial planning process are cash planning and profit planning. Long-term (strategic) financial plans act as a guide for preparing short-term (operating) financial plans. Long-term plans tend to cover periods ranging from 2 to 10 years; short-term plans most often cover a 1- to 2-year period. Cash-planning process uses the cash budget, based on a sales forecast, to estimate short- term cash surpluses and shortages. The cash budget nets cash receipts and disbursements for a period to calculate net cash flow. Ending cash is estimated by adding beginning cash to the net cash flow. By subtracting the desired minimum cash balance from the ending cash, the firm can determine required total financing or the excess cash balance. Pro forma statements are commonly used to forecast and analyze the firm ’ s level of profitability and overall financial performance so that adjustments can be made to planned operations to achieve short-term financial goals.
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