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Figure, 21-23 Head group attachment 1.Backbone Glycerol, sphingosine (serine) 2. Fatty acid ( Phosphatidic acid, DAG) 3. Hydrophilic head 4. Exchange head.

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Presentation on theme: "Figure, 21-23 Head group attachment 1.Backbone Glycerol, sphingosine (serine) 2. Fatty acid ( Phosphatidic acid, DAG) 3. Hydrophilic head 4. Exchange head."— Presentation transcript:

1 Figure, Head group attachment 1.Backbone Glycerol, sphingosine (serine) 2. Fatty acid ( Phosphatidic acid, DAG) 3. Hydrophilic head 4. Exchange head group Membrane phospholipids: Glycerophospholipids sphingolipids Smooth ER Mitochondria inner membrane

2 Figure, Two strategies for forming phosphodiester bond

3 p.82 6 FIGURE 21–25 Origin of the polar head groups of phospholipids in E. coli.

4 p.82 6

5 Kinase-- Signal transduction Figure, Polar head in eukaryotes Mitochondria inner membrane Help enzymes for energy metabolism --complex IV and V, apoptosis (cytochrome C release)

6 Figure, Yeast (Eukaryotic cells –major source of PE and PC) p.82 8 PS PE

7 p.82 8 Figure, S-adenosylmethionine ( SAM) S-adenosylhomocysteine PC

8 Fig a head group exchange (only in mammals—ER)

9 Figure, b Phosphatidylcholine in mammals PE (the same strategy) Salvage pathway Choline reused (strategy 2)

10 p.82 9 Figure, summary of the pathways for synthesis of major phospholipid Mutation in ethanolamine kinase (easily shocked) Eliminate phosphatidylethanolamine Synthesis: less in membrane Transient paralysis: electrical stimulation In mammals (no CDP-diacylglycerol and serine to PS) In liver only

11 Figure, Ether lipid, Plasmalogen platelet-activating factor Half of the heart phospholipid

12

13

14

15 Head group

16 peroxisome

17 Figure, Sphingolipids 2nd big group Lung surfactant

18 Step 1 18 C amine O-O-

19 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 (SER) Glycolipid Glycosidic linkage

20 Golgi

21 Figure, Not required in diet Cell membrane Steroid hormone Bile acids

22 Figure, Cholesterol biosynthesis In liver 6C 5C 30C condensation polymerization cyclization

23 Figure, Synthesis of mevalonate cytosol Rate-limiting step Release 3CoA (membrane of the SER)

24 Figure, Mevalonate to activated isoprene Use 3 ATP Release 1 CO 2

25 Figure, Squalene 10C 15C 30C

26 (rose oil)

27

28 Figure, Ring closure 20 steps Methyl group migration and removal Mixed function oxidase plants

29 Figure, Cholesteryl esters Stored or in lipoprotein particles

30 Figure Plasma Lipoproteins- Lipid transport (LDL)

31 Figure 21-39B

32 TABLE 21-1 p.83 6

33 TABLE 21-2 p.83 7

34 Figure21-40 Lipoprotein and Lipid transport apoE apoCII--lipase apoB100 apoA-I

35 Figure Uptake of cholesterol by receptor-mediated endocytosis

36 Figure21-40 Lipoprotein and Lipid transport apoA-I SR-BI ABC1

37 Figure Surface of nascent HDL Chylomicron and VLDL remnants

38 Figure, Regulation of cholesterol dp p Inhibit transcription

39 Figure, SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein) activation SCAP: SREBP cleavage-activating protein— binds to cholesterol and other sterols HMG CoA reductase LDLR

40 Figure, Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase Cholestyramine-resin binds to bile acids -prevent reabsorption Competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase statin

41 Figure, isoprenoid Prenylation Proetins are anchored to cellular membrane

42 Figure, Steroid hormones from cholesterol Increase gluconeogenesis And TAG cycle

43 Figure, Side chain cleavage Adrenal cortex mitochondria Hydroxylation and cleavage

44 Fatty liver: TAG formation and export imbalance Extensive accumulation of TAG—cirrhosis 1.Free fatty acids increase in plasma, then to liver accumulation 2.Block production of plasma lipoproteins a. apolipoprotein synthesis b. lipoprotein c. phospholipid d. secretory pathway Ethanol—fatty liver Ethanol is converted to be acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and NADH is produced Excess NADH inhibit CAC and increase lipogenesis (cholesterol)

45

46 Homework: How insulin regulates lipid metabolism?


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