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Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems SARUMS Prepared for UMS workshop Porto, Portugal May 2014 Magnus Örnfelt FMV.

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Presentation on theme: "Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems SARUMS Prepared for UMS workshop Porto, Portugal May 2014 Magnus Örnfelt FMV."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems SARUMS Prepared for UMS workshop Porto, Portugal May 2014 Magnus Örnfelt FMV SWEDEN Chairman SARUMS work group SAFETY AND REGULATIONS FOR UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS

2 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems SARUMS  Under the umbrella of the UMS (Unmanned Maritime Systems) Research program (EDA Cat. A project)  Objectives  To organise and document information on technology, safety, rules and regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems  Establish useful guidance for design and operations through a best practice safety framework for Unmanned Maritime Systems that recognises their operational usage and the needs of Navies SARUMS: Safety and Regulations for European Unmanned Maritime Systems The SARUMS group has members from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and Sweden.

3 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Undefined interactions with maritime environment  Lack of defined responsibility at many levels  Lack of certification of system components makes discharge of duty of care impractical  Lack of industry agreed approach to safety and operations does not provide national authorities with any confidence regarding operations in their waters  UMS not recognised in international conventions thus probably breaking current conventions such as COLREGS & UNCLOS  Salvage Convention would not provide any protection  Claims would not have protection of LLMC, thus unlimited liability  Any incident would make owner and operator open to legal challenge  Assessment, decision and Situational awareness making technology not considered adequate for autonomous operations in foreseeable future  Maintaining communication link of particular importance for UMS reporting and for radio watch Unmanned Maritime Systems – Safety Problem space

4 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems  Discussed study scope ( )  Produced first outline Guidance Document:  EDA MUSV study  Established SARUMS as part of UMS program  Formal start with kick-off meeting June 2011  Support from EU Political and Security Committee:  Conducted UMS Risk analysis September 2011  Held well attended 1:st workshop April 2012  Extended group through SARUMS wider network  Developed COLREG amendment proposal  Developed Sense & Avoid study specification *)  Developed UMS liability study proposal  Initiated Sense & Avoid study *)  Held well attended 2:nd workshop March 2014 SARUMS Group - Achievements to date ‘Best practice guide for UMS handling, operations, design and regulations.´ Action 26 Civil Military Synergy *) EDA OB funded Best Practice Guide for Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design and Regulations

5 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV) Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) USV Description; An unmanned, self propelled and self powered marine vehicle which is capable of working autonomous or being controlled and commanded remotely, without the use of a physical link. It operates with continuous or near continuous contact with the water surface and, when at rest, displaces water and is buoyant. USV Description; An unmanned, self propelled and self powered marine vehicle which is capable of working autonomous or being controlled and commanded remotely, without the use of a physical link. It operates with continuous or near continuous contact with the water surface and, when at rest, displaces water and is buoyant. Basic UMS definitions UUV Description; An unmanned, self propelled and self powered submersible marine vehicle which is capable of working autonomous or being controlled and commanded remotely. It is capable of movement, with a horizontal component, relative to the surrounding water mass. UUV Description; An unmanned, self propelled and self powered submersible marine vehicle which is capable of working autonomous or being controlled and commanded remotely. It is capable of movement, with a horizontal component, relative to the surrounding water mass. Unmanned Maritime Systems (UMS) UMS Description: An electro-mechanical system, with no human operator aboard, that is able to exert its power to perform designed missions and may be mobile or stationary. UMS includes categories of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) and unmanned surface vehicles (USV). UMS Description: An electro-mechanical system, with no human operator aboard, that is able to exert its power to perform designed missions and may be mobile or stationary. UMS includes categories of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) and unmanned surface vehicles (USV). CategoryLength [m] Small Medium Large>24 CategoryDistance [Nm] Low end< 100 High end>100 CategorySpeed [knots] Low end< 30 High end>30 CategoryWeight [Kg] Man Portable< 45 (<100 lbs), Light Weight< 200 (~500 lbs), Heavy Weight< 1000 (~3000 lbs) Large< (~20,000 lbs) CategoryEnergy [1/2mv 2 ] I0-100 II III IV> 10001

6 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems UMS System breakdown Platform Seagoing part (or parts) of the system. Equipment needed for remote control and monitoring of one or several Platforms. Maintenance equipment, Documentation, Spares, LARS and other logistics. Personnel that are mainly involved with activities within Base Station System and Support System. Base station Support system Personnel PLATFORM (s) Vehicle Mission Equipment Communication BASE STATION Vehicle control Mission Equipment control Communication SUPPORT SYSTEM Launch and recovery equipment Maintenance equipment Logistics PERSONNEL Owner Authorised control entities Operators

7 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems UMS Naval military applications in EU Naval tasks are: 1 Early warning 2 Securing the maritime flank 3 Provision of Strategic Sealift 4 Provision of a sea-base UMS will have its main contribution within mission (1-2) above.  European Defence governed by European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)  Mission identified within: Treaty on European Union ( TEU) European Security Strategy ( ESS)

8 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems UMS contribution to EU Maritime Dimension Sanctions/Embargo/Blockade Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) by USV Secure sea lines of communication Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW) by USV Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) by USV Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) by UUV Mine Countermeasures (MCM) by USV Mine Countermeasures (MCM) by UUV Conduct Littoral Operations Riverine Operations by USV Establishment of a Recognised Maritime Picture Maritime Security Operations (MSO) by USV Electronic Warfare (EW) by USV Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) by UUV Inspection / Identification (ID) by UUV Oceanography by UUV Communications/Navigation Network Node by UUV Contribute to Ordnance Disposal Mine Countermeasures (MCM) by USV Mine Countermeasures (MCM) by UUV Project Maritime Power Ashore Special Operations Forces (SOF) by USV Time Critical Strike (TCS) by UUV ESDP main Naval task; Securing the maritime flank ESDP main Naval task; Early warning

9 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Rolls Royce design of unmanned cargo ships Drone ships considered safer cheaper and less polluting for the $375 billion shipping industry that carries 90 percent of world trade Unmanned – not just military interest: Rolls Royce

10 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Unmanned – not just military interest: MUNIN Maritime Unmanned Navigation though Intelligence in Networks goal develop and verify a concept of unmanned, autonomous merchant vessels

11 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems

12 UMS Method of Control Remote control (All control by human operator) Permissive (UMV asks for permission) Declarational (UMV declares intention) Reportive (UMV reports action) Autonomous (UMV does not report) 1 Human operated 2 Human directed 3 Human delegated 4 Human monitored 5 Autonomous Operator UMV Control levelDescription Turn to new course I would like to turn to new course I will now turn to new course I have now turned to new course Go ahead / No go / No go /

13 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Example of Maritime Regulations  International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS) Relevant maritime regulation. Application “all vessels upon the high seas and in all waters connected therewith navigable by seagoing vessels” Responsibility: Precautions – monitoring – responding etc.  UNCLOS – United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea Rights and responsibilities of all ships  LLMC - Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims Fixed liability for loss of life or personal injury. Provided UMS classed as ships and that the LLMC convention does apply  MARPOL – International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships IMO Convention that would apply but in real doesn´t have significant impact to UMS.  Naval Ship Code (NATO ANEP 77) Applicable to large extent  Salvage Convention Task: Approach IMO and make them aware of the fact that Unmanned systems should be included in their rules.

14 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems New concepts in vessel status: what is a vessel and what does it matter? Presented by the Maritime and Transport Law Committee It has been said and repeated that, ‘there is no watertight definition, even of a ship’. It is perhaps intuitive to associate the concept of a ‘ship’ with a large manned vessel consisting of a traditional single hull lying horizontally in the water, which is capable of navigation under sail or its own power and is used to move goods or passengers between ports. However, it is less Clear to what extent non-traditional ships and other floating structures and objects qualify as ships. The topic of what a ship is, is of current interest because of developing technologies, such as unmanned maritime systems and floating wind turbines, various types of mobile drilling platforms and other floating structures used in the off-shore oil and gas industry and pleasure crafts, such as jet-skis and floating casinos. Whether or not these or other non-traditional floating structures and objects qualify as ships is important for a wide range of legal matters within the areas of maritime, shipping and other law and the provisions of various statutes, regulations, international conventions and case law, including: Liability, including civil liability for collisions and pollution Jurisdiction, time limits and enforcement Contract law Criminal law Ownership, title, security, arrest Salvage Corporate law, competition law and labour law Safety, crewing, training and cabotage Taxes, dues and subsidies Accounting, finance and insurance The session will involve an interactive, comparative analysis of the extent and legal purposes under which certain selected non-traditional floating structures qualify as ‘ships’ in certain selected jurisdictions, as well as under international maritime law and conventions. IBA conference : Maritime and Transport Law Committee

15 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Best Practice Guide for Design and Operations Program management principles and guidance that will help ensure that safety is adequately addressed throughout the lifecycle process. Safety precept directed specifically at system operation. Operational rules that must be adhered to during system operation. General design guidance intended to facilitate safety of the system and minimize hazards. Safety design precepts are intended to influence, but not dictate, specific design solutions.  Organised IAW Goal based approach Claims – Argument ´Achieve a safe design if guidance is observed´  Built around three levels of safety precepts Programmatic Operational Design Best Practice Guide for Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design and Regulations

16 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Programmatic safety precepts Safety management System safety analysis Hazards and Risks Environmental management Operational safety precepts Natural environment considerations o Above water aspects o Under water aspects Operational environment considerations o General o Operational envelop o Mission oriented considerations o Weapons considerations o Support system o Responsibilities o Planning o Personnel Design safety precepts General Performance Hazardous situation management Platform considerations UUV specific platform aspects Support system considerations Base Station Platform Control System Communications Link Mission equipment considerations Weapons system considerations Best Practice Guide for Design and Operations Best Practice Guide for Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design and Regulations

17 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems  Collision  Third party tampering or theft  Change in weather conditions  Loss of UMS  Maritime wildlife disturbance  Socio-political incidents  Maritime pollution  Damage at sea  Failure at sea  Failure of equipment  Failure of navigation  Redundancy  Operator Error  Personnel Injury While Boarding  Dangerous payload release  Mission Equipment Hazards  Electromagnetic/Magnetic Fields  Unintended usage  Out-Of-Control Operation  Loss of platform  Data processing error  Control confusion  Remotely Activated Operation  Communication loss  Communication error  Communication validity error  Communication resonance error  Communication information error  Launch and recovery  Maintenance Hazards and risks Best Practice Guide for Design and Operations Best Practice Guide for Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design and Regulations

18 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems  integration in existing sea traffic control (if applicable),  secure and reliable communication including communication loss procedures,  adequate situational awareness,  collision avoidance and manoeuvring ability,  Base station platform control functions:  ability for an operator to safely perform critical tasks  safety critical aspects of the control system  Operational limits in terms of environment UMS verification Significant for UMS verification is to demonstrate: Best Practice Guide for Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design and Regulations

19 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems  selected control measures to mitigate hazards  ability to achieve safe state for identified emergency situations,  safe performance and conduct for human interaction,  safe performance and conduct to replenishment at sea,  safe performance and conduct of launch and recovery,  safe performance and conduct to handle multiple platforms,  the system ability of reliable performance as regards to all other, not above mentioned, autonomous and automatic functions. Significant for UMS verification (cont´d) Significant for UMS verification is to demonstrate:

20 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems General qualification precepts UMS operators should preferably have a base qualification attained under an international maritime qualification system equivalent to that undertaken by crew or command of comparable civil or military vehicle/ship operating in similar operating envelope. Training and qualification of UMS operators Major training focus areas: 1)Type specific UMV knowledge. 2) Navigation. 3) Manoeuvring. 4) Emergency procedures. 5) Situational awareness. (Sense and Avoid) 6) Control hand over. 7) Launch and recovery procedure. 8) Maintenance procedures. 9) Mission set up and planning and other Base station functions. Best Practice Guide for Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design and Regulations

21 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Maritime Sense and Avoid Systems and Technologies Many questions! What is available? Does it achieve ”proper lookout” clause? For which type of UMS control ? For which type of UMS vehicle? For what purpose ?

22 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems 1) SA system technology stock taking M arket survey of available SA system technology. Organised in accordance with logical scheme, taking into account type of technology, sensor type, UMS type, size, mission, Policy and Control etc 2) Draft SA Policy Draft sense and avoid policy to define requirements of SA system against UMS method(s) of control and operational envelop. 3) Standard SA system specifications Outline standard specifications of SA systems 4) Demonstration Final study activity to demonstration of one or more SA systems. Will include real sea trial. Study deliverables Maritime Sense and Avoid Systems and Technologies Study partners:

23 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Final words

24 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Find information, organise and document:  UMS terminology and definitions  Maritime regulations  Autonomy and control  Sense and avoid  Risk and hazards  Control measures  Verification, training  Certification SARUMS scope of work in summary SARUMS group will:  Finalise and deliver best practice guidelines for safe UMS design and operations Current page count: 130 Best Practice Guide for Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design and Regulations

25 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems SARUMS network - contributing organisations Belgian Navy Belgium Bundeswehr Germany Law Faculty - University Trier Germany Fraunhofer-Institut Germany Germanischer Lloyd Germany Finnish Navy Finland DGA France SIREHNA France DCNS France Italian navy Italy DMO Netherlands Porto University Portugal FMV Sweden TKMS Sweden Saab Sweden ASV UK BMT UK National Oceanography Centre UK QINETIQ UK Frazier-Nash Consultancy UK Seaspeed UK Blue Bear UK US Coastguard USA US Navy USA Bluefin Robotics USA Liquid Robotics USA NATO Seaway Mobility team International Bar Association Maritime and Transport Law Committee EDA OCCAR

26 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems Anyone who would like to:  contribute to the work  receive information  attend meetings  be a part of the network  join the SARUMS group should inform their interest by sending an to: SARUMS network

27 Safety and Regulations for Unmanned Maritime Systems UMS - AS SAFE AS MANNED


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