Presentation on theme: "Prepared for UMS workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prepared for UMS workshop SARUMSPrepared for UMS workshopPorto, PortugalMay 2014SAFETY AND REGULATIONS FOR UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMSMagnus ÖrnfeltFMVSWEDENChairman SARUMS work group
2 Under the umbrella of the UMS (Unmanned Maritime Systems) SARUMS: Safety and Regulations for European Unmanned Maritime SystemsSARUMSUnder the umbrella of the UMS (Unmanned Maritime Systems)Research program (EDA Cat. A project)ObjectivesTo organise and document information on technology, safety,rules and regulations for Unmanned Maritime SystemsEstablish useful guidance for design and operations througha best practice safety framework for Unmanned MaritimeSystems that recognises their operational usage and the needsof NaviesThe SARUMS group has members from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and Sweden.
3 Unmanned Maritime Systems – Safety Problem space Undefined interactions with maritime environmentLack of defined responsibility at many levelsLack of certification of system components makes discharge of duty of care impracticalLack of industry agreed approach to safety and operations does not providenational authorities with any confidence regarding operations in their watersUMS not recognised in international conventions thus probably breakingcurrent conventions such as COLREGS & UNCLOSSalvage Convention would not provide any protectionClaims would not have protection of LLMC, thus unlimited liabilityAny incident would make owner and operator open to legal challengeAssessment, decision and Situational awareness making technology not considered adequate for autonomous operations in foreseeable futureMaintaining communication link of particular importance for UMS reporting and for radio watch
4 Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design SARUMS Group - Achievements to dateDiscussed study scope ( )Produced first outline Guidance Document:EDA MUSV studyEstablished SARUMS as part of UMS programFormal start with kick-off meeting June 2011Support from EU Political and Security Committee:Conducted UMS Risk analysis September 2011Held well attended 1:st workshop April 2012Extended group through SARUMS wider networkDeveloped COLREG amendment proposalDeveloped Sense & Avoid study specification *)Developed UMS liability study proposalInitiated Sense & Avoid study *)Held well attended 2:nd workshop March 2014Best Practice GuideUnmanned Maritime SystemsforHandling, Operations, Designand Regulations‘Best practice guide for UMS handling, operations, design and regulations.´Action 26 Civil Military Synergy*) EDA OB funded
5 Basic UMS definitions Unmanned Maritime Systems (UMS) Category UMS Description:An electro-mechanical system, with no human operator aboard,that is able to exert its power to perform designed missions andmay be mobile or stationary. UMS includes categories of unmannedunderwater vehicles (UUV) and unmanned surface vehicles (USV).Unmanned Maritime Systems(UMS)Unmanned Surface Vehicles(USV)Unmanned Underwater Vehicles(UUV)USV Description;An unmanned, self propelled and self powered marine vehicle whichis capable of working autonomous or being controlled and commandedremotely, without the use of a physical link. It operates with continuousor near continuous contact with the water surface and, when at rest,displaces water and is buoyant.UUV Description;An unmanned, self propelled and self powered submersiblemarine vehicle which is capable of working autonomous orbeing controlled and commanded remotely. It is capable ofmovement, with a horizontal component, relative to thesurrounding water mass.CategoryWeight [Kg]Man Portable< 45 (<100 lbs),Light Weight< (~500 lbs),Heavy Weight< 1000 (~3000 lbs)Large< (~20,000 lbs)CategoryLength [m]SmallMediumLarge>24CategoryDistance [Nm]Low end< 100High end>100CategorySpeed [knots]Low end< 30High end>30CategoryEnergy [1/2mv2]I0-100IIIIIIV> 10001
6 UMS System breakdown PLATFORM (s) Vehicle Mission Equipment CommunicationPlatformSeagoing part (or parts) of the system.BASE STATIONVehicle controlMission Equipment controlCommunicationBase stationEquipment needed for remote control andmonitoring of one or several Platforms.SUPPORT SYSTEMLaunch and recovery equipmentMaintenance equipmentLogisticsSupport systemMaintenance equipment, Documentation,Spares, LARS and other logistics.PersonnelPERSONNELOwnerAuthorised control entitiesOperatorsPersonnel that are mainly involved with activitieswithin Base Station System and Support System.
7 UMS Naval military applications in EU European Defence governed byEuropean Security and DefencePolicy (ESDP)Mission identified within:Treaty on European Union (TEU)European Security Strategy (ESS)Naval tasks are:1 Early warning2 Securing the maritime flank3 Provision of Strategic Sealift4 Provision of a sea-baseUMS will have its main contribution withinmission (1-2) above.
8 UMS contribution to EU Maritime Dimension ESDP main Naval task; Securing the maritime flankSanctions/Embargo/BlockadeMaritime Interdiction Operations (MIO) by USVSecure sea lines of communicationAnti-Surface Warfare (ASUW) by USVAnti Submarine Warfare (ASW) by USVAnti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) by UUVMine Countermeasures (MCM) by USVMine Countermeasures (MCM) by UUVConduct Littoral OperationsRiverine Operations by USVContribute to Ordnance DisposalMine Countermeasures (MCM) by USVMine Countermeasures (MCM) by UUVProject Maritime Power AshoreSpecial Operations Forces (SOF) by USVTime Critical Strike (TCS) by UUVESDP main Naval task; Early warningEstablishment of a Recognised Maritime PictureMaritime Security Operations (MSO) by USVElectronic Warfare (EW) by USVIntelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) by UUVInspection / Identification (ID) by UUVOceanography by UUVCommunications/Navigation Network Node by UUV
9 Unmanned – not just military interest: Rolls Royce Rolls Royce design of unmanned cargo shipsDrone ships considered safer cheaper and less polluting for the $375 billionshipping industry that carries 90 percent of world trade
10 Unmanned – not just military interest: MUNIN Maritime Unmanned Navigation though Intelligence in Networksgoal develop and verifya concept of unmanned,autonomous merchant vessels
12 UMS Method of Control Control level Description Operator UMV Turn to new course1 Human operated2 Human directed3 Human delegated4 Human monitored5 AutonomousRemote control (All control by human operator)Permissive (UMV asks for permission)Declarational (UMV declares intention)Reportive (UMV reports action)Autonomous (UMV does not report)Go ahead / No go / <silent>I would like to turn to new courseNo go / <silent>I will now turn to new courseI have now turned to new course
13 Example of Maritime Regulations International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS)Relevant maritime regulation. Application “all vessels upon the high seas and in allwaters connected therewith navigable by seagoing vessels”Responsibility: Precautions – monitoring – responding etc.UNCLOS – United Nations Convention on Law of the SeaRights and responsibilities of all shipsLLMC - Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime ClaimsFixed liability for loss of life or personal injury. Provided UMS classed as ships andthat the LLMC convention does applyMARPOL – International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ShipsIMO Convention that would apply but in real doesn´t have significant impact to UMS.Naval Ship Code (NATO ANEP 77)Applicable to large extentSalvage ConventionTask: Approach IMO and make them aware of the fact thatUnmanned systems should be included in their rules.
14 IBA conference : Maritime and Transport Law Committee New concepts in vessel status: what is a vessel and what does it matter?Presented by the Maritime and Transport Law CommitteeIt has been said and repeated that, ‘there is no watertight definition, even of a ship’. It is perhaps intuitive to associate theconcept of a ‘ship’ with a large manned vessel consisting of a traditional single hull lying horizontally in the water, which iscapable of navigation under sail or its own power and is used to move goods or passengers between ports. However, it is lessClear to what extent non-traditional ships and other floating structures and objects qualify as ships. The topic of what a ship is,is of current interest because of developing technologies, such as unmanned maritime systems and floating wind turbines,various types of mobile drilling platforms and other floating structures used in the off-shore oil and gas industry and pleasurecrafts, such as jet-skis and floating casinos. Whether or not these or other non-traditional floating structures and objects qualifyas ships is important for a wide range of legal matters within the areas of maritime, shipping and other law and the provisionsof various statutes, regulations, international conventions and case law, including:• Liability, including civil liability for collisions and pollution• Jurisdiction, time limits and enforcement• Contract law• Criminal law• Ownership, title, security, arrest• Salvage• Corporate law, competition law and labour law• Safety, crewing, training and cabotage• Taxes, dues and subsidies• Accounting, finance and insuranceThe session will involve an interactive, comparative analysis of the extent and legal purposes under which certain selected non-traditionalfloating structures qualify as ‘ships’ in certain selected jurisdictions, as well as under international maritime law and conventions.
15 Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design Best Practice GuideUnmanned Maritime SystemsforHandling, Operations, Designand RegulationsBest Practice Guide for Design and OperationsOrganised IAW Goal based approachClaims – Argument´Achieve a safe design if guidance is observed´Built around three levels of safety preceptsProgrammaticOperationalDesignProgram management principles and guidance thatwill help ensure that safety is adequately addressedthroughout the lifecycle process.Safety precept directed specifically at system operation.Operational rules that must be adhered to during systemoperation.General design guidance intended to facilitate safety ofthe system and minimize hazards. Safety design preceptsare intended to influence, but not dictate, specific designsolutions.
16 Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design Best Practice GuideUnmanned Maritime SystemsforHandling, Operations, Designand RegulationsBest Practice Guide for Design and OperationsProgrammatic safety preceptsSafety managementSystem safety analysisHazards and RisksEnvironmental managementOperational safety preceptsNatural environment considerationsAbove water aspectsUnder water aspectsOperational environment considerationsGeneralOperational envelopMission oriented considerationsWeapons considerationsSupport systemResponsibilitiesPlanningPersonnelDesign safety preceptsGeneral PerformanceHazardous situation managementPlatform considerationsUUV specific platform aspectsSupport system considerationsBase StationPlatform Control SystemCommunications LinkMission equipment considerationsWeapons system considerations
17 Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design Best Practice GuideUnmanned Maritime SystemsforHandling, Operations, Designand RegulationsBest Practice Guide for Design and OperationsHazards and risksCollisionThird party tampering or theftChange in weather conditionsLoss of UMSMaritime wildlife disturbanceSocio-political incidentsMaritime pollutionDamage at seaFailure at seaFailure of equipmentFailure of navigationRedundancyOperator ErrorPersonnel Injury While BoardingDangerous payload releaseMission Equipment HazardsElectromagnetic/Magnetic FieldsUnintended usageOut-Of-Control OperationLoss of platformData processing errorControl confusionRemotely Activated OperationCommunication lossCommunication errorCommunication validity errorCommunication resonance errorCommunication information errorLaunch and recoveryMaintenance
18 Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design UMS verificationBest Practice GuideUnmanned Maritime SystemsforHandling, Operations, Designand RegulationsSignificant for UMS verification is to demonstrate:integration in existing sea traffic control (if applicable),secure and reliable communication including communication lossprocedures,adequate situational awareness,collision avoidance and manoeuvring ability,Base station platform control functions:ability for an operator to safely perform critical taskssafety critical aspects of the control systemOperational limits in terms of environment
19 Significant for UMS verification (cont´d) Significant for UMS verification is to demonstrate:selected control measures to mitigate hazardsability to achieve safe state for identified emergency situations,safe performance and conduct for human interaction,safe performance and conduct to replenishment at sea,safe performance and conduct of launch and recovery,safe performance and conduct to handle multiple platforms,the system ability of reliable performance as regards to all other,not above mentioned, autonomous and automatic functions.
20 Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design Best Practice GuideUnmanned Maritime SystemsforHandling, Operations, Designand RegulationsTraining and qualification of UMS operatorsGeneral qualification preceptsUMS operators should preferably have a base qualification attainedunder an international maritime qualification system equivalentto that undertaken by crew or command of comparable civil ormilitary vehicle/ship operating in similar operating envelope.Major training focus areas:Type specific UMV knowledge.2) Navigation.3) Manoeuvring.4) Emergency procedures.5) Situational awareness. (Sense and Avoid)6) Control hand over.7) Launch and recovery procedure.8) Maintenance procedures.9) Mission set up and planning and other Base station functions.
21 Maritime Sense and Avoid Systems and Technologies Many questions!What is available?For what purpose ?For which type of UMS vehicle?For which type of UMS control ?Does it achieve ”proper lookout”clause?
22 Maritime Sense and Avoid Systems and Technologies Study deliverablesSA system technology stock takingMarket survey of available SA system technology. Organised in accordancewith logical scheme, taking into account type of technology, sensor type,UMS type, size, mission, Policy and Control etc2) Draft SA PolicyDraft sense and avoid policy to define requirements of SA system againstUMS method(s) of control and operational envelop.3) Standard SA system specificationsOutline standard specifications of SA systems4) DemonstrationFinal study activity to demonstration of one or more SA systems.Will include real sea trial.Study partners:
24 Unmanned Maritime Systems Handling, Operations, Design SARUMS scope of work in summaryFind information, organise and document:UMS terminology and definitionsMaritime regulationsAutonomy and controlSense and avoidRisk and hazardsControl measuresVerification, trainingCertificationBest Practice GuideUnmanned Maritime SystemsforHandling, Operations, Designand RegulationsCurrent page count: 130SARUMS group will:Finalise and deliver best practice guidelines for safe UMSdesign and operations
25 SARUMS network - contributing organisations Belgian Navy BelgiumBundeswehr GermanyLaw Faculty - University Trier GermanyFraunhofer-Institut GermanyGermanischer Lloyd GermanyFinnish Navy FinlandDGA FranceSIREHNA FranceDCNS FranceItalian navy ItalyDMO NetherlandsPorto University PortugalFMV SwedenTKMS SwedenSaab SwedenASV UKBMT UKNational Oceanography Centre UKQINETIQ UKFrazier-Nash Consultancy UKSeaspeed UKBlue Bear UKUS Coastguard USAUS Navy USABluefin Robotics USALiquid Robotics USANATO Seaway Mobility teamInternational Bar Association Maritimeand Transport Law CommitteeEDAOCCAR
26 SARUMS network Anyone who would like to: contribute to the work receive informationattend meetingsbe a part of the networkjoin the SARUMS groupshould inform their interest by sending an to: