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Timber Prescriptions. Recommendations  After measuring trees, determining volumes, grades, and values  What is the future goal of this site?  Based.

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Presentation on theme: "Timber Prescriptions. Recommendations  After measuring trees, determining volumes, grades, and values  What is the future goal of this site?  Based."— Presentation transcript:

1 Timber Prescriptions

2 Recommendations  After measuring trees, determining volumes, grades, and values  What is the future goal of this site?  Based on what is here and what you want to be here in the future, how do you proceed?  More in Silviculture class

3 Prescriptions  No Action – reserved habitat, scenic or old growth  Regeneration Harvest  Even Aged or Two-Aged  Clear Cut  Harvest, Salvage or Sanitation  Seed Tree  Shelterwood  Uneven Aged  Group Selection  Single Tree Selection  Intermediate Harvest – enhance Composition, Growth, or Quality  Thinning, Salvage or Sanitation  Understory Management – release treatments (thin or Herbicide)

4 Clearcutting  Most economical harvest method  Mimics natural disasters  Most potential to damage site  Using BMPs helps reduce damage  Better for genetics than high grading  Unsightly  Politically unpopular  Not well suited to highly complex, multi- tiered ecosystems like the rain forest

5 Clearcutting Types  Complete – includes removal of non-commercial stems  Patch – small tracts within a large forested area harvested creating a mosaic of different even-aged stands  Strip – trees removed in row perpendicular to prevailing wind direction to reduce windthrow  Cut with reserves – leaving certain trees such as snags for wildlife

6 Patch Clearcuts

7 Clearcutting - Then

8 Clearcutting - Now

9 Seed Tree Cut  Best for trees with wind-borne seeds (pines, ash, etc.)  Requires 2 harvest operations thus less economical but saves planting costs if successful (pines again)  Seed trees susceptible to damage (wind, lightning, etc.)  Less ugly and controversial

10 Seed Tree Cut


12 Shelterwood Cut  Helps regenerate more shade tolerant species  Provides protective cover for developing stand  Similar to seed tree but with 3 treatments  1. Remove about 50% of the overstory (~50 leave trees/acre)  2. Remove about half of the remaining overstory  3. Remove the rest of the overstory  Must take care to not damage regeneration during successive treatments  More visually appealing

13 Shelterwood Types  Strip – reduces damage to residual stand  Uniform – spacing of residual trees  Group – residual trees in small groups  Irregular – residual trees left longer than normal  Natural – let the stand dictate the process

14 Shade Tolerance Shade tolerant Abies balsameaAbies balsamea, Balsam Fir Acer negundoAcer negundo, Boxelder Acer saccharumAcer saccharum, Sugar Maple Aesculus spp.Aesculus spp., Buckeyes Carpinus carolinianaCarpinus caroliniana, American Hornbeam Chamaecyparis thyoidesChamaecyparis thyoides, Atlantic White Cypress or Atlantic Whitecedar Cornus floridaCornus florida, Flowering Dogwood Diospyros spp.Diospyros spp., Persimmon Fagus grandifoliaFagus grandifolia, American Beech Ilex opacaIlex opaca, American Holly Magnolia grandifloraMagnolia grandiflora, Southern Magnolia Morus rubraMorus rubra, Red Mulberry Nyssa spp.Nyssa spp., Tupelos Ostrya virginianaOstrya virginiana, Eastern Hophornbeam Picea glaucaPicea glauca, White Spruce Picea marianaPicea mariana, Black Spruce Picea rubensPicea rubens, Red Spruce Tilia americanaTilia americana, Basswood Thuja occidentalisThuja occidentalis, Northern White Cedar Tsuga canadensisTsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock Intermediate shade tolerant Acer rubrumAcer rubrum, Red Maple Acer saccharinumAcer saccharinum, Silver Maple Betula alleghaniensisBetula alleghaniensis, Yellow Birch Betula lentaBetula lenta, Sweet Birch Carya spp.Carya spp., Hickories Castanea dentataCastanea dentata, American Chestnut Celtis occidentalisCeltis occidentalis, Hackberry Fraxinus americanaFraxinus americana, White Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanicaFraxinus pennsylvanica, Green Ash Fraxinus nigraFraxinus nigra, Black Ash Magnolia spp.Magnolia spp., Magnolias Pinus elliottiiPinus elliottii, Slash Pine Pinus strobusPinus strobus, Eastern White Pine Quercus albaQuercus alba, White Oak Quercus macrocarpaQuercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak Quercus nigraQuercus nigra, Black Oak Quercus rubraQuercus rubra, Northern Red Oak Taxodium distichumTaxodium distichum, Bald Cypress Ulmus americanaUlmus americana, American Elm Ulmus thomasiiUlmus thomasii, Rock Elm Shade intolerant Betula papyriferaBetula papyrifera, Paper Birch Betula populifoliaBetula populifolia, Gray Birch Catalpa spp.Catalpa spp., Catalpas Carya illinoinensisCarya illinoinensis, Pecan Gymnocladus dioicusGymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffeetree Juglans cinereaJuglans cinerea, Butternut Juglans nigraJuglans nigra, Black Walnut Juniperus virginianaJuniperus virginiana, Eastern Red Cedar Larix laricinaLarix laricina, Tamarack Liriodendron tulipiferaLiriodendron tulipifera, Yellow poplar Maclura pomiferaMaclura pomifera, Osage Orange Pinus banksianaPinus banksiana, Jack Pine Pinus echinataPinus echinata, Shortleaf Pine Pinus palustrisPinus palustris, Longleaf Pine Pinus resinosaPinus resinosa, Red Pine Pinus rigidaPinus rigida, Pitch Pine Pinus taedaPinus taeda, Loblolly pine Pinus virginianaPinus virginiana, Virginia Pine Platanus occidentalisPlatanus occidentalis, Sycamore Populus deltoidesPopulus deltoides, Eastern Cottonwood Populus grandidentataPopulus grandidentata, Big-Tooth Aspen Populus tremuloidesPopulus tremuloides, Quaking Aspen Prunus pensylvanicaPrunus pensylvanica, Pin Cherry Prunus serotinaPrunus serotina, Black Cherry Robinia pseudoacaciaRobinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust Salix spp.Salix spp., Willows Sassafras spp.Sassafras spp., Sassafras

15 Selection Cut  Removes trees (either singles or groups) leaving an uneven aged stand (generally 3 aged).  More difficult to implement.  Provides more economic returns than other systems.  Protects site better than other systems.  Best for Shade Tolerant species.  Best for sensitive wildlife

16 USFS Regulation Classes  I = Even-aged Management  Clearcutting with or without thinning  Shelterwood with or without thinning  II = Special Conditions  Non-timber objectives = Longer rotations than optimum for timber  III = Marginal Timber Yield  Single tree/tree groups for sanitation, salvage or hazard reduction  Stand maintenance (SMZ or highways)  Regeneration encouragement  Single tree/Group selection

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